2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony
The opening ceremony of the 2014 Winter Olympics took place at the Fisht Olympic Stadium in Sochi, Russia, on 7 February 2014. It began at 20:14 MSK (UTC+4) and finished at 23:02 MSK (UTC+4). It was filmed and produced by OBS and Russian host broadcaster VGTRK. This was the first Winter Olympics and first Olympic Games opening ceremony under the IOC presidency of Thomas Bach. This was also the second consecutive Winter Olympic opening ceremony to be held in an indoor stadium.
|Date||7 February 2014|
|Time||20:14 – 23:02 MSK (UTC+4)|
|Also known as||Power to the People|
|Filmed by||Channel One, VGTRK and OBS|
The site of the opening ceremony, Fisht Olympic Stadium was built specifically for the games. Fisht Stadium seats 40,000. No Olympic or Paralympic competitions were held there; it was only used for the opening and closing ceremonies during the respective Games. Television producer Konstantin Ernst was the main Creative Head in charge of the opening ceremonies. Andrei Nasonovsky was the Executive Producer of record; and Andrei Boltenko was the writer and director of the ceremony. A different team was in charge of the Closing Ceremony as well as the Paralympic ceremonies.
Dreams of Russia
|В||Sikorsky's helicopter||Вертолёт Сикорского|
|Г||Gagarin, Gzhel||Гагарин, Гжель|
|Е||Catherine II||Екатерина II|
|Ё||Hedgehog in the Fog||Ёжик в тумане|
|З||Corn mowing machine||Зерноуборочная машина|
|О||Space Station||Орбитальная станция|
|П||Periodic table||Периодическая таблица|
|Р||Russian ballet||Русский балет|
|Т||Tolstoy, Television||Толстой, Телевидение|
|Ф||Fisht (Pun: Fisht)||Фишт|
The ceremony, opened with an on-screen video showing 11-year-old Liza Temnikova playing a character named Lyubov (Russian for 'love') reciting the Russian alphabet. Each letter is associated with images of a famous Russian person or landmark. Many of the letters features some of Russia's most famous writers such as Dostoyevsky, Nabokov, Tolstoy, Chekhov, and countless others that have impacted Russian history, culture, literature, and philosophy.
Lyubov then flew into the air as she dreamed of grabbing the tail of a kite and being lifted far off the stage. Nine different floats, carrying Russian landscapes, passed beneath her as she slept.
Five large snowflakes descended into the stadium which expanded and joined to form the Olympic rings. However, a technical error caused the fifth ring not to expand, and pyrotechnics did not go off from the rings. The mishap was later self-mocked by the organizers at the closing ceremony where one of the roundrelay dance groups symbolizing the Olympic rings "failed" to expand.
The Sretensky Monastery men's choir sang the Russian National Anthem, while 240 volunteers stood in formation wearing glowing suits of white, red, and blue to represent the Russian flag. The Russian flag bearers were a detachment of cosmonauts — Fyodor Yurchikhin (who returned from space with the torch), Roman Romanenko, Svetlana Savitskaya and Yelena Serova – and the flag was raised by Sergei Krikalev. The volunteers moved up and down to create a waving flag motion.
Parade of Nations
The Parade of Nations was led, according to custom due to hosting the original ancient Olympics, by the Greek team, followed by other competing countries in alphabetical order based on their names in the Russian language, with the host country, Russia, culminating the march. Athletes were then seated in the lower level of the stadium's stands. A projected rendering of the Earth showing each competing country (along with their names in English, French and Russian, respectively) was displayed on the stadium floor as they entered. The parade was accompanied with a soundtrack by Russian electronic dance music producer Leonid Rudenko, which featured remixes of popular Russian music.
After the Parade of Nations entered, the three mascots of the Games come out and walk on an ice-based shaping rink LED of the stadium. The hare is an alpine skier, the leopard and the polar bear are the skiers using skating rink shoes. The mascots bow quickly then head off for the next segment.
The opening ceremony focused heavily on classical music and large scale productions. Performances journeyed through Russian history through the eyes of a little girl called Lyubov ("Love"), played by Liza Temnikova, touching on Russia's art, music, and ballet. The Russian history presentation was ushered in by a brightly-lit troika of three horses followed by a red sun. Performances included the building of St Basil's Cathedral, represented by colourful inflatable sculptures, and 17th century czar Peter the Great building an army as Russia transitioned from medieval times to the 20th century. Czar Peter's marching cadets (160 male dancers) moved from a map of the St Petersburg projected on the stadium floor to an imperial ball inspired by Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, and featuring ballet dancers including Danila Korsuntsev, Ivan Vasiliev, and Svetlana Zakharova. The ball included music by Aleksander Sergeyevich Zatsepin and ended with the fifth movement (Rondo) of Alfred Schnittke's Concerto Grosso No. 1.
Fourteen columns rose from the floor, then disappeared, replaced first by scenes of the Russian Revolution and Soviet industrialization, followed by a giant moving reproduction of the famous statue Worker and Kolkhoz Woman made by Vera Mukhina in 1937, with hammer and sickle flying over the arena, symbolising the period of great industrialisation following the Bolshevik Revolution. Dozens of men carried rockets and the name of Yuri Gagarin appeared on the floor, followed up skyscrapers emerging against a background of modern typography.
Putin declared the games open, followed by a performance of Swan Lake in which the Swans, holding strands of blue LED lights, transformed into the Dove of Peace, a traditional Olympic symbol. Prima ballerina Diana Vishneva was among those who performed.
Many performers wore white to symbolise peace. More than 3,000 performers and 2,000 volunteers took part in the show. 10,000 people in all helped organise and execute the ceremonies. 120 projectors and 2.6 million lumens turned the stadium floor into a 3D, moving landscape.
Oath and torch lighting
The Olympic flag was brought into the stadium with eight flag bearers: Chulpan Khamatova, Lidiya Skoblikova, Anastasia Popova, Valentina Tereshkova, Viacheslav Fetisov, Valery Gergiev, Alan Enileev and Nikita Mikhalkov. During the flag raising, opera singer Anna Netrebko later sang the Olympic Anthem in Russian.
For the finale, tennis player Maria Sharapova brought the Olympic Torch (the torch that had gone to the International Space Station in November) into the stadium. She handed it off to pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva who, in turn, passed it to wrestler Aleksandr Karelin. Karelin then passed the torch to gymnast Alina Kabaeva. Figure skater Irina Rodnina took the torch and was met by former ice hockey goalkeeper Vladislav Tretiak, handing the torch to him. Tretiak jogged out of the stadium alongside Rodnina. The pair then jointly lit the Olympic cauldron installed at the Sochi Medals Plaza in Sochi Olympic Park to the music of the "Firebird Suite" by Igor Stravinsky. Gas jets led the Olympic flame to the top of the Olympic Cauldron. This was followed by a fireworks display across the area around Fisht Olympic Stadium, including the other sporting venues. Twenty-two tonnes of fireworks were lit as Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker score played. In total, the show lasted just under three hours.
The music for the winning bid was composed by Eric Babak with the Russian State Symphony Cinema Orchestra with the State Academic Choral Chapel of Russia.
- Pre-show concert before broadcasting
- Voices of Russia (Russian Alphabet melody) by Alexander Knyazev
- Opening section
- Alexander Borodin's "Fly away on the wings of the wind" (Polovtsian Dances)
- "Glory to the beautiful Sun" from Alexander Borodin's Prince Igor
- State Anthem of the Russian Federation
- Parade of Nations (remixes by DJ Leonid Rudenko)
- Greece-Andorra, Estonia-Japan – "No coward plays hockey" (with a voice)
- Argentina-Great Britain – "Somewhere Far Away" (Song about distant Motherland) (only melody)
- Hungary-Israel – "Summer Will End" (only melody)
- Iran-Liechtenstein – "My Rock 'n Roll" (with Bi-2's and Yulia Chicherina's voices)
- Luxembourg-Nepal – Yablochko (folk melody, a chastushka and sailors dance) remix by DJ Leonid Rudenko
- Netherlands-San Marino – "Do You Want?" (with Zemfira's voice)
- Serbia-Thailand – Cry, Dance, Run from me by Gosti iz budushchego (with Eva Polna's voice)
- Chinese Taipei-France – "There's just a blink..." (only melody)
- Croatia-Sweden – Blood Type (with Viktor Tsoi's voice)
- Russia – "Nas Ne Dogonyat" and "We Will Rock You" remix by DJ Leonid Rudenko
- Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring
- Ivan Kupala's "Kostroma"
- Erik Eriksson's Petersburger Marsch (Marsch aus Petersburg)
- The Red Tent waltz (from The Red Tent) – Natasha Rostova's First Ball
- "My Affectionate and Tender Beast" waltz (from A Hunting Accident) – Natasha Rostova's First Ball
- Alfred Schnittke's Concerto Grosso No. 1. V. Rondo
- Georgy Sviridov's Time, Forward! suite [ru] (from Time, Forward!)
- Andrey Pavlovich Petrov's Walking the Streets of Moscow
- Muslim Magomayev's "The Best City on Earth"
- "Sabre Dance" with Russian "Nas Ne Dogonyat" and English "Not Gonna Get Us"
- Operation Y and Shurik's Other Adventures theme
- Olimpiada-1980 hymn ("The golden Olympic flame")
- Vasily Solovyov-Sedoi and Mikhail Matusovsky's "Moscow Nights"
- "Lubeh"'s "Guys from our neighborhood"
- Eduard Khil's vocalise I Am Glad, 'Cause I'm Finally Returning Back Home [ru]
- Arkady Ostrovsky and Lev OshaninMay's May There Always Be Sunshine
- Eduard Artemyev's composition Campaign or Death of the hero (Siberiade theme)
- Doves of Peace section
- The Olympic flag
- Olympic Hymn
- Final section remixes
- Lighting of the Cauldron
- The Firebird Suite by Igor Stravinsky. Final hymn.
The malfunction of the fifth Olympic snowflake ring was not seen during the telecast of the ceremony in Russia, where both Channel One and VGTRK quickly cut to footage of the scene from a dress rehearsal, where the sequence worked correctly.
In the United States, NBC's broadcasts of the opening ceremony were delayed until evening hours. The broadcast attracted 31.7 million American viewers, compared to 32.6 million for the live telecast of the 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony.
In Australia, Network 10 broadcast the ceremony at 3 am AEDT.
The Independent's Simon Rice found some portions of the ceremony to be "confusing" and other "spectacular", while describing the cauldron lighting as "an unimaginative domino of flames". The New York Times review described the proceedings as "sheer pageantry and national pride". Katherine Monk of Canada's Postmedia News described the athletes' clothing as "a lot sexier than the old Communist-era cardboard garb". Kathy Lally and Will Englund of The Washington Post commented that "The scale bordered on the colossal" and called the ceremony "poetry – in motion".
Despite Russia's stance on LGBT people (including its 2013 law banning the distribution of LGBT "propaganda" to minors, which had been a major concern leading up to the Olympics), the Huffington Post noted that the opening ceremony, ironically, featured tributes to "some of history's most widely acclaimed and definitely gay Russians", including composer Peter Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), ballet dancer Vaslav Nijinsky (1889–1950), and patron of arts, and founder of Ballets Russes, Sergei Diaghilev. Russian organizers denied any connection, stating that these figures were selected because of their cultural significance. On the same topic, critics also noted the Russian pop duo t.A.T.u were invited to perform during the opening ceremony; although they are not actually lesbian, the all-female duo were well known for incorporating themes of lesbianism in their music and on-stage personas (live appearances often featured the singers kissing each other), its name is a corruption of a shortened Russian phrase meaning "this girl loves that girl", and the duo made a statement in support of LGBT rights in the wake of Yuri Luzhkov's objection to the 2007 Moscow Pride parade. Organizers noted that t.A.T.u were chosen because they were well known to an international audience, denying any relation to LGBT rights.
Dignitaries in attendance
Aside from athletes and members of the IOC, 5 multilateral leaders and representatives from more than 80 countries (included at least 60 heads of state and government) attended the opening ceremony.
- IOC President Thomas Bach and predecessor Jacques Rogge
- United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon
- CIS Secretary General Sergei Lebedev
- Council of Europe President Thorbjorn Jagland
- SCO President Vladimir Norov
- African Union Former President Jean Ping
- Abkhazia President Alexander Ankvab
- Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai
- Andorra Prime Minister Antoni Marti
- Albania Prime Minister Sali Berisha
- Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev
- Armenia President Serzh Sargsyan
- Austria Chancellor Werner Faymann
- Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko
- Belgium Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo
- Bolivia President Evo Morales
- Bosnia-Herzegovina President Bakir Izetbegovic
- Brazil Vice President Michel Temer
- Bulgaria President Rosen Plevneliev and Prime Minister Plamen Oresharski
- Canada State Councillor Tim Stevenson
- China President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang
- Croatia President Ivo Josipovic
- Cyprus President Nicos Anastasiades
- Czech Republic President Miloš Zeman
- Denmark Crown Prince Frederik
- Estonia Prime Minister Andrus Ansip
- Finland President Sauli Niinistö and Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen
- France Deputy Prime Minister Laurent Fabius
- Gabon President Ali Bongo Ondimba
- Greece President Karolos Papoulias
- Georgia President Mikheil Saakashvili
- Germany Former Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder
- Hungary President János Áder and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán
- Hong Kong President Donald Tsang
- Iceland President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson
- India Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
- Ireland Deputy Premier Leo Varadkar
- Italy Prime Minister Enrico Letta
- Jordan King Abdullah II and Prince Feisal bin Al Hussein
- Japan Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and predecessor Yoshiro Mori
- Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev
- Kosovo Vice President Hashim Thaci
- Kyrgyzstan President Almazbek Atambayev
- Latvia President Andris Bērziņš
- Lebanon Prime Minister Najib Mikati
- Liechtenstein Prime Minister Adrian Hasler
- Lithuania Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevičius
- Luxembourg Monarch Grand Duke Henri
- Macedonia President Gjorge Ivanov
- Moldova Prime Minister Iurie Leanca
- Mongolia President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
- Montenegro President Filip Vujanovic
- Monaco Prince Albert and Princess Charlene
- Morocco Prime Minister Abdelilah Benkirane
- Netherlands King Willem-Alexander, Queen Máxima and Prime Minister Mark Rutte
- Norway Crown Prince Haakon
- North Korea President Kim Yong Nam
- Palestine Prime Minister Salam Fayyad
- Poland President Bronislaw Komorowski and former President Lech Walesa
- Portugal Prime Minister Antonio Costa
- Qatar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
- Romania Prime Minister Victor Ponta
- Russia President Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
- Rwanda President Paul Kagame
- Saudi Arabia Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman
- Serbia President Tomislav Nikolic
- South Africa Vice President Cyril Ramaphosa
- South Ossetia President Leonid Tibilov
- South Korea President Park Geun-hye and Prime Minister Jung Hong-won
- Soviet Union Former President Mikhail Gorbachev
- Switzerland President Didier Burkhalter
- Spain Crown Prince Felipe VI, Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy
- Slovakia President Ivan Gasparovic
- Slovenia President Borut Pahor
- Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia
- Tajikistan President Emomali Rahmon
- Turkey Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
- Turkmenistan President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
- United Kingdom Princess Royal Anne
- United States Deputy Secretary of State William J. Burns
- Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych
- Uzbekistan President Islam Karimov
- Vanuatu Prime Minister Ham Lini
Politicians declining to attend the ceremonies
- Andorra / France: François Hollande, who declined to cite a reason.
- Canada: Stephen Harper, citing the fact that Canadian prime ministers do not typically attend the Winter Games outside of Canada.
- Germany: Joachim Gauck, who did not cite a reason; however the national human rights commissioner Markus Loening said that it was a "wonderful gesture".
- Lithuania: Dalia Grybauskaitė, citing Russia's economic sanctions against Lithuania and its "attitude" toward Eastern partners.
- United Kingdom: David Cameron, citing a scheduling conflict and the fact that no British prime minister has attended the Winter Games.
- United States: Barack Obama, citing a desire to not distract from competitions.
- Torre, Inez (31 October 2013). "Sochi 2014: Winter Olympic venues". CNN. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Fitzpatrick, Alex (6 February 2014). "Everything You Need to Know About The Sochi Olympics Opening Ceremony". Time. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Russian city prepares for Olympic opening ceremony". BBC Sport. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Lucas, Dan (7 February 2014). "Sochi opening ceremony: live". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Dassanayake, Dion (7 February 2014). "Winter Olympics: Opening ceremony for Sochi 2014 kicks off with a bang". Daily Express. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Owen Gibson (7 February 2014). "Sochi 2014 opening ceremony: Ernst delivers disco-led paean to the past". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Faith Karimi; Michael Martinez (7 February 2014). "Sochi 2014 begins with teams, classical music and a flying girl". CNN. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Spoiler Alert: Watch a Russian Police Choir Sing 'Daft Punk' in Sochi | National Review Online". Nationalreview.com. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Gibson, Megan (7 February 2014). "t.A.T.u. To Perform at Sochi Winter Olympics Opening Ceremony | TIME.com". Entertainment.time.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Jess Denham (7 February 2014). "Russian 'lesbian' duo t.A.T.u to perform at Sochi Olympics?". The Independent (London).
- Kathy Lally; Will Englund (7 February 2014). "Olympics open in Sochi with extravagant pageant". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Lucas, Dan (18 April 2011). "Sochi opening ceremony: live". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Sochi Winter Olympics Launch with Space-Flown Torch, Cosmonaut Flag-Bearers". Space.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Sam Sheringham (7 February 2014). "Sochi 2014: Winter Olympics opens with glittering ceremony". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "The XXII Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014 has opened with a grand show thrilling spectators". sochi2014.com. Sochi Organizing Committee. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- The New Yorker (7 February 2014). "Slide Show: Sochi Opening Ceremony". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Nick Miller (8 February 2014). "A cheat sheet for the Winter Olympics opening ceremony". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Sochi Opening Ceremony – Gallery Presented by US Airways". Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Gary Sheftick; Tim Hipps (9 February 2014). "Soldiers see Russian history at Sochi Opening Ceremony". Army News Service. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (7 February 2014). "Olympics Opening Ceremony Offers Fanfare for a Reinvented Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- "Sochi 2014 in five pictures". beranger.org. 7 February 2014. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- Le Segretain, Pascal (7 February 2014). "Sochi Olympics opening ceremony". CBC.ca. CBC. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
Image 18/24. Olympic flag bearers Chulpan Khamatova, Lidiya Skoblikova, Anastasia Popova, Valentina Tereshkova, Vyacheslav Fetisov, Valeriy Gergiev, Alan Enileev and Nikita Mikhalkov carry the Olympic flag during the Opening Ceremony. The special guests at the opening ceremony were His Excellency Wise Ahmad Nikmal, Mr.Hamid Karzai and Mr.Abdul Rahman Hanif. (Pascal Le Segretain/Getty Images)
- "love"-–-lights-opening-ceremony "NBC Olympics". Nbcolympics.com. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Nothing to see here: Russian TV alters video after Olympic ceremony glitch". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Russian TV shows doctored video of Olympic rings". The New Zealand Herald. 8 February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Bauder, David (8 February 2014). "Olympic Viewing: NBC's Opening Ceremony Editing". Associated Press/ABC. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- O'Connell, Michael (8 February 2014). "TV Ratings: Sochi's Opening Ceremony Falls Just Shy of Vancouver Olympics". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony draws in 2.47 million". Metro. 8 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Zelkovich, Chris (12 February 2014). "The Great Canadian Ratings Report: Sochi audiences on CBC strong – maybe". Yahoo/BBM. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Rice, Simon (7 February 2014). "Winter Olympics 2014 opening ceremony review: Sochi ceremony confusing and spectacular in equal measure". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Monk, Katherine (7 February 2014). "Sochi opening ceremony review: Communism is dead, you can tell by the clothes". Postmedia News. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Lally, Kathy (7 February 2014). "Olympics open in Sochi with extravagant pageant". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Nobody Tell Russia, But Look How Super Gay Their Olympics Opening Ceremony Was". Huffington Post. AOL. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "22 Russians Who We Won't Let Vladimir Putin Forget Were LGBT". The Advocate. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Russian pop duo tATu support Moscow Pride". Pink News. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Sochi: Fake Lesbian Russian Pop Duo t.A.T.u. to Perform at Olympics' Opening Ceremony". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Leaders Attending Sochi Olympics Opening Ceremony". ABC News. AP. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Sochi organizer says 65 leaders coming to Olympics, a record for Winter Games". foxnews.com. Associated Press. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- курс, The Baltic Course-Балтийский. "Latvian and Russian presidents meet for first time in Sochi". The Baltic Course | Baltic States news & analytics. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "Latvian Olympic Team Goes to Sochi". [Latvia.eu]. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- "Putin shakes hands with Latvian Premier in Sochi". www.baltictimes.com. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- THS the Prince and Princess at the opening ceremony for the Winter Olympics in Sochi Archived 5 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Palais.mc. Retrieved 7 February 2014
- "Koning Willem-Alexander vijf dagen in Sotsji" (in Dutch). Nusport.nl. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "At opening ceremony of Sochi Olympics Azerbaijani President was seated next to presidents of Abkhazia and South Ossetia". Panorama. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "French President Francois Hollande to shun Sochi games". BBC. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Prime Minister Stephen Harper announces he won't attend Russia's Winter Olympics in Sochi | National Post". News.nationalpost.com. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "German President Gauck will not attend Sochi Games". Reuters. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Sochi Olympics: Lithuanian president to skip Russia Games". TwinCities.com. Associated Press. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Cameron won't attend Russia's Sochi Winter Olympics". Reuters. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Obama explains Sochi absence in interview with NBC's Bob Costas". Politico. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony.|
- Official website
- ,SearchTerms:'Sochi%202014%20Olympic%20Games%20Opening%20ceremony%20media%20guide',SortField:!n,SortOrder:0,TemplateParams:(Scenario:,Scope:Default,Size:!n,Source:,Support:),UseSpellChecking:!n))) Sochi 2014 Olympic Games Opening Ceremony Media Guide (as found on the Olympic Library)
- CrowdAlbum.com Fan photos
- Complete video of Sochi 2014 Opening Ceremony