C-type lectin domain family 7 member A or Dectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC7A gene.[5] CLEC7A is a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. The encoded glycoprotein is a small type II membrane receptor with an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain fold and a cytoplasmic domain with a partial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of β-1,3-linked and β-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, and in this way plays a role in innate immune response. Expression is found on myeloid dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and B cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region.[5]

CLEC7A
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesCLEC7A, BGR, CANDF4, CLECSF12, DECTIN1, CD369, SCARE2, C-type lectin domain family 7 member A, C-type lectin domain containing 7A
External IDsOMIM: 606264 MGI: 1861431 HomoloGene: 49606 GeneCards: CLEC7A
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 12 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 12 (human)[1]
Chromosome 12 (human)
Genomic location for CLEC7A
Genomic location for CLEC7A
Band12p13.2Start10,116,777 bp[1]
End10,130,258 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CLEC7A 221698 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_020008
NM_001309637

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001296566
NP_064392

Location (UCSC)Chr 12: 10.12 – 10.13 MbChr 6: 129.46 – 129.47 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

StructureEdit

Dectin-1 is a transmembrane protein containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation (ITAM)-like motif in its intracellular tail (which is involved in cellular activation) and one C-type lectin-like domain (carbohydrate-recognition domain, CRD) in the extracellular region (which recognizes β-glucans and endogenous ligands on T cells). The CRD is separated from the membrane by a stalk region. CLEC7A contains putative N-linked sites of glycosylation in the stalk region.[6][7]

CLEC7A is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells.[8] Expression has also been studied on other immune cells including eosinophils and B cells.[9]

FunctionEdit

The C-type lectin receptors are class of signalling pattern recognition receptors which are involved in antifungal immunity, but also play important roles in immune responses to other pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and nematodes.[6] As a member of this receptor family, dectin-1 recognizes β-glucans and carbohydrates found in fungal cell walls, some bacteria and plants, but may also recognize other unidentified molecules (endogenous ligand on T-cells and ligand on mycobacteria).[6] Ligand binding induces intracellular signalling via the ITAM-like motif. CLEC7A can induce both Syk dependent or Syk independent pathways. Dimerization of dectin-1 upon ligand binding leads to tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases and recruitment of Syk. Syk activates transcription factor NFκB. This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory cytokines[9] and chemokines such as TNF, IL-23, IL-6, IL-2. Other responses include: respiratory burst, production of arachidonic acid metabolites, dendritic cell maturation, and phagocytosis of the ligand.[10]

Antifungal immunityEdit

CLEC7A has been shown to recognize species of several fungal genera, including Saccharomyces, Candida, Pneumocystis, Coccidioides, Penicillium and others. Recognition of these organisms triggers many protective pathways, such as fungal uptake by phagocytosis and killing via hypochlorite generation. Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines (TNF, CXCL2, IL-1b, IL-1a, CCL3, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-6) and the development of Th17.[10]

Histoplasma capsulatum can evade recognition of β-glucan via CLEC7A on phagocytic cells by secreting an enzyme that removes exposed β-glucans or by masking the β-glucan with α-glucan.[11]

Co-stimulatory moleculeEdit

Also operating as a co-stimulatory molecule via recognition of an endogenous ligand on T-cells, which leads to cellular activation and proliferation, CLEC7A can bind both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172243 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000079293 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CLEC7A C-type lectin domain family 7, member A".
  6. ^ a b c Drummond RA, Brown GD (August 2011). "The role of Dectin-1 in the host defence against fungal infections". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 14 (4): 392–9. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.001. PMID 21803640.
  7. ^ Brown J, O'Callaghan CA, Marshall AS, Gilbert RJ, Siebold C, Gordon S, et al. (June 2007). "Structure of the fungal beta-glucan-binding immune receptor dectin-1: implications for function". Protein Science. 16 (6): 1042–52. doi:10.1110/ps.072791207. PMC 2206667. PMID 17473009.
  8. ^ Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY (October 2002). "The beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, is predominantly expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil lineages". Journal of Immunology. 169 (7): 3876–82. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.169.7.3876. PMID 12244185.
  9. ^ a b Saijo S, Iwakura Y (August 2011). "Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 in innate immunity against fungi". International Immunology. 23 (8): 467–72. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxr046. PMID 21677049.
  10. ^ a b c Huysamen C, Brown GD (January 2009). "The fungal pattern recognition receptor, Dectin-1, and the associated cluster of C-type lectin-like receptors". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 290 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01418.x. PMC 2704933. PMID 19025564.
  11. ^ Ray SC, Rappleye CA (May 2019). "Flying under the radar: Histoplasma capsulatum avoidance of innate immune recognition". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 89: 91–98. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2018.03.009. PMC 6150853. PMID 29551572.

External linksEdit

Further readingEdit