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The Boon wurrung, commonly written as Bunurong, are Indigenous Australians of the Kulin nation, who occupy South-Central Victoria, Australia. Before British settlement, they lived as all people of the Kulin nation lived, sustainably on the land, for tens of thousands of years. They were referred to by Europeans as the Western Port or Port Philip tribe and were in alliance with other tribes in the Kulin nation, having particularly strong ties to the Wurundjeri people.
|Pre contact 300-500.|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Boon wurrung, English|
|Australian Aboriginal mythology, Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Dja Dja Wurrung, Taungurong, Wathaurong, Wurundjeri|
see List of Indigenous Australian group names
Boon wurrung was a dialect of Wuy-wurrung, a Kulin language of the Pama-Nyungan language family. The ethnonym occasionally used in early writings to refer to the Bunwurrung, namely Bunwurru, is derived from the word bu:n, meaning "no" and wur:u, signifying either "lip" or "speech".
The Boon wurrung are predominantly saltwater people whose lands, waters, and cosmos encompassed some 3,000 square miles (7,800 km2) of territory around Western Port Bay and the Mornington Peninsula. Its western boundary was set at Werribee. To the southeast, it extended from Mordialloc through to Anderson Inlet, as far as Wilson's Promontory. Inland its borders reached the Dandenong Ranges, and ran eastwards as far as the vicinity of Warragul.
Structure, borders, and land useEdit
Communities consisted of six or more (depending on the extent of the territory) land-owning groups called clans that spoke a related language and were connected through cultural and mutual interests, totems, trading initiatives, and marriage ties. Access to land and resources, such as the Birrarung, by other clans, was sometimes restricted depending on the state of the resource in question. For example; if a river or creek had been fished regularly throughout the fishing season and fish supplies were down, fishing was limited or stopped entirely by the clan who owned that resource until fish were given a chance to recover. During this time, other resources were utilized for food. This ensured the sustained use of the resources available to them. As with most other Kulin territories, penalties such as spearings were enforced upon trespassers. Today, traditional clan locations, language groups, and borders are no longer in use and descendants of Wurundjeri people live within modern-day society.
- Yalukit-willam: East of Werribee River to St Kilda
- Mayone-bulluk: Carrum Carrum Swamp
- Ngaruk-Willam: Brighton, Mordialloc, Dandenong, and the area from Mount Martha to Mount Eliza.
- Yallock-Bullock: Bass River and Tooradin.
- Burinyung-Ballak: Point Nepean to Cape Schank.
- Yowenjerre: Tarwin River.
The Boon wurrung clans would have been aware of the Europeans, as people of the coast who watched the explorers ships sail past, then enter Port Phillip and Western Port. Initial contact was made in February 1801, when Lieutenant Murray and his crew from the Lady Nelson came ashore for fresh water near present-day Sorrento. A wary exchange of spears and stone axes for shirts, mirrors and a steel axe, ended when the British panicked, resulting in spears flying, musket shots and the use of the ship's cannon, wounding several fleeing Boon wurrung people.
Just before and overlapping the period of British exploration and settlement, the Boon wurrung were involved in a long-running dispute with the Gunai/Kurnai people from Gippsland. According to William Barak, the last traditional elder of the Wurundjeri people, the conflict was a dispute over resources, which resulted in heavy casualties being suffered by the Boon wurrung. Many Gunnai raids occurred to abduct Boon wurrung women. The Yowengerra had almost been completely annihilated by 1836, largely as a result of attacks from the Gunai. During 1833-1834 around 60-70 Boon wurrung people, if a report has been correctly interpreted, may have been killed in a raid by Gunai when they were camped to the north of Carrum Carrum Swamp.
The first British settlement occurred at Sullivan Bay in October 1803, near modern-day Sorrento, Victoria, under the command of Lieutenant David Collins. William Buckley, a convict, escaped from this abortive settlement and lived for more than 30 years with the Wathaurong people before approaching John Batman's party in 1835.
The Boon wurrung people, living primarily along the Port Phillip and Western Port coast, may have had their livelihoods affected by European seal hunters. The sealers' abduction of Tasmanian native women may have caused inter-tribal conflicts, and by analogy, this may also apply to the Boon wurrung, whose coastlands were visited by sealers. A report by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1830 attributed the absence of Boon wurrung on Phillip Island, which was a camp for sealers, as due to the latter's behavior. As late as 1833, nine Woiwurrung and Boon wurrung women, and a boy, Yonki Yonka, were kidnapped and ferried across to the sealers' Bass Strait island bases. Contact with sealers would have exposed the coastal tribes to European diseases, and this would have exercised a heavy impact on demographics, and the economic and social ties binding the Wurundjeri and Boon wurrung peoples, as would the possible effects of infectious diseases contracted from these sealers.
James Fleming, one of the party of surveyor Charles Grimes in HMS Cumberland who explored the Maribyrnong River and the Yarra River as far as Dights Falls in February 1803, reported smallpox scars on several aboriginal people he met, suggesting that a smallpox epidemic might have swept through the tribes around Port Philip before 1803, reducing the population. Broome puts forward that two epidemics of smallpox decimated the population of the Kulin tribes by perhaps killing half each time in the 1790s and again around 1830.[a] This theory has been challenged, however, by modern historical diagnosticians, who argue that the observed symptoms in the early ethnographical literature are compatible with impetigo and ringworm.
One particularly notable person at the time of European settlement in Victoria was Derrimut, a Boon wurrung Elder, who informed early European settlers in October 1835 of an impending attack by clans from the Woiwurrung group. The colonists armed themselves, and the attack was averted. Benbow and Billibellary, from the Wurundjeri, also acted to protect the colonists as part of their duty of hospitality. Derrimut later became very disillusioned and died in the Benevolent Asylum at the age of about 54 years in 1864. A few colonists erected a tombstone to Derrimut in Melbourne General Cemetery in his honour.
By 1839, the Boon wurrung had been reduced to 83 people, with only 4 of 19 children under four years old, from a probable pre-contact population of greater than 300 people. By 1850 Protector William Thomas estimated just 28 Boon wurrung people.
In 1852, the Boon wurrung were allocated 340 hectares at Mordialloc Creek while the Woiworrung gained 782 hectares along the Yarra at Warrandyte. These reserves were never staffed by whites and were not permanent camps, but acted as distribution depots where rations and blankets were distributed, with the intention being to keep the tribes away from the growing settlement of Melbourne. The Aboriginal Protection Board revoked these two reserves in 1862-1863, considering them now too close to Melbourne.
In March 1863 after three years of upheaval, the surviving Kulin leaders, among them Simon Wonga and William Barak, led forty Wurundjeri, Taungurong (Goulburn River) and Bunurong people over the Black Spur and squatted on a traditional camping site on Badger Creek near Healesville and requested ownership of the site. This became Coranderrk Station, named after the Woiwurrung word for the Victorian Christmas bush. Coranderrk was closed in 1924 and its occupants were moved to Lake Tyers in Gippsland.
In Boon wurrung thought, their territory was carved out by the creator Lohan as he moved from Yarra Flats down to his final resting place at Wa-mung and, as custodians of this marine-bek country, they required outsiders to observe certain ritual prohibitions and to learn their language if the newcomers were to enter their land without harm.
Law and warEdit
Great enmity existed in particular between the Boon wurrung and the eastern Gunai, who were later deemed responsible for playing a role in the drastic reduction of the tribe's population.
Injury or death to a tribal member usually resulted in a conference to assess the facts, and, where thought unlawful, revenge was taken. In 1839, after one or two Boon wurrung/Woiwurrung were killed, a party of 15 men left for Geelong in order to retaliate against the malefactors, the Wathaurong. In 1840, the Boon wurrung became convinced that a man from a tribe in Echuca had used sorcery to ordain the death of one of their warriors, whose name had been sung while a possum bone discarded after a Boon wurrung meal, and encased in a kangaroo's legbone, was roasted. Shortly afterwards the named Boon wurrung man died, and the tribe revenged itself on the first Echuca tribesman who then came to visit their territory. It was arranged by word of mouth, passing from Echuca through the Nirababaluk and Wurundjeri, for a meeting to have justice done at Merri Creek. 9 or 10 of the killed Echuca tribesman's kinsmen threw spears and boomerangs at the Boon wurrung warrior, armed with a shield, until he was wounded in the flank by a reed-speer. An elder of another, observing tribe, the Barapa Barapa, called it a day, the ordeal ended, and all celebrated a grand corroboree.
Notable Boon wurrung peopleEdit
- Jack Charles (1943– ), actor.
- Derrimut (c.1810 – 28 May 1864), Arweet – headman of the Boonwurrung, associated with the Wurundjeri.
- Linda Lovett, barrister
- Bruce Pascoe (1947– ), writer.
- Louisa Briggs -Matron of Correnderrk Aboriginal Reserve at the time of European occupation. She was the "daughter of John Strugnell, a sealer, and Mary (Polly) Munro...Polly was probably the daughter of James Munro, another sealer, and Doog-by-er-um-bor-oke (Margery Munro), a Woirorung woman kidnapped from Port Phillip," and was described by a contemporary newspaper as 'matron of the establishment, on a salary of 10s. a week, and manages the affairs of the children and young people "in school" with the utmost vigilance and much success.
- Bunurong, Bunwurrung, Boonwerung, Boon Wurrung, Boonoorong and Bururong
- Putnaroo, Putmaroo
- Thurung (an eastern tribal exonym for the Bunjurong, meaning tiger snakes, a metaphor indicating the sneaky way they set up ambushes against the eastern tribes.)
- Toturin (a Gunai term for 'black snake, used for several western Boon wurrung tribes.)
- It is attested that in some Victorian tribes, such of those found in the Loddon area the advent of the smallpox was associated with s serpent, Mindye, whose maleficence could be conjured by sorcerers to harm people. An early colonist wrote:"Any plague is supposed to be brought on by the Mindye or some of its little ones. I have no doubt that, in generations gone by, there has been an awful plague of cholera or black fever, and that the wind at the time, or some other appearance from the north-west has given rise to this strange being." (Thomas 1898, pp. 84–85,89–90)
- Gaughwin & Sullivan 1984, p. 88.
- Blainey 2013, p. 8.
- Howitt 2010, p. 338.
- Tindale 1974.
- Dixon 2002, p. xxxv.
- Clark 1995, p. v, map.
- Howitt 2010, p. 127.
- Barwick 1984, p. 117.
- Clark & Heydon 2004, p. 9.
- Gunson 1968, p. 5.
- Broome 2005, pp. 3–6.
- Barwick 1984, p. 119.
- Clark & Heydon 2004, p. 32.
- Presland 1994, p. 40.
- Gaughwin & Sullivan 1984, p. 82.
- Broome 2005, pp. 5–6.
- Shillinglaw 1879, p. 28.
- Broome 2005, pp. 7–9.
- Barwick 1984, p. 116, n.17.
- Broome 2005, pp. 106–107.
- Broome 2005, pp. 126–127.
- Clark 2015, p. 19.
- Clark 2015, p. 3.
- Barwick 1984, p. 114.
- Gaughwin & Sullivan 1984, p. 83.
- Howitt 2010, pp. 336ff..
- Clark 2015, p. 163, n.101.
- Howitt 2010, pp. 338–340.
- Munro 2014.
- Chadwick 2013.
- ABC Radio 2016.
- Barwick 2005.
- The Argus 1876, p. 7.
- Clark 1990.
- Barwick, Diane E. (1984). McBryde, Isabel (ed.). "Mapping the past: an atlas of Victorian clans 1835-1904". Aboriginal History. 8 (2): 100–131. JSTOR 24045800.
- Barwick, Laura (2005). "Briggs, Louisa (1836–1925)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press.
- Blainey, Geoffrey (2013). A History of Victoria (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-29277-2.
- Broome, Richard (2005). Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74114-569-4.
- Canning, Shaun; Thiele, Frances (February 2010). Indigenous Cultural Heritage and History within the Metropolitan Melbourne Investigation Area: A report to the Victorian Environmental Assessment Council (PDF). Australian Cultural Heritage Management. pp. 1–48.
- Chadwick, Vince (28 January 2013). "Action plan to support Victoria's indigenous barristers". The Age. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Clark, Ian D (1990). Aboriginal languages and clans: an historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800-1900. Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University. ISBN 978-0-909685-41-6.
- Clark, Ian D. (1995). Scars in the Landscape: a register of massacre sites in western Victoria, 1803–1859 (PDF). AIATSIS. pp. 135–139. ISBN 0 85575 281 5.
- Clark, Ian D. (2015). A Peep at the Blacks': A History of Tourism at Coranderrk Aboriginal Station, 1863-1924. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-110-46824-3.
- Clark, Ian D.; Heydon, Toby (2004). A Bend in the Yarra: A History of the Merri Creek Protectorate Station and Merri Creek Aboriginal School 1841-1851. Aboriginal Studies Press. ISBN 978-0-855-75469-3.
- "Conversations with Richard Fidler". ABC Radio. 1 February 2016.
- "The Coranderrk Aboriginal Station". The Argus (9, 428). Melbourne. 1 September 1876. p. 7. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Dixon, Robert M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47378-1.
- Gaughwin, Denise; Sullivan, Hilary (1984). McBryde, Isabel (ed.). "Aboriginal boundaries and movement in Western Port, Victoria" (PDF). Aboriginal History. 8 (1): 80–98. ISSN 0314-8769.
- Gunson, Niel (1968). The Good Country: Cranbourne Shire. F. W. Cheshire.
- Howitt, Alfred William (2010) [First published 1904]. The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-00632-3.
- McGaw, Janet; Pieris, Anoma (2014). Assembling the Centre: Architecture for Indigenous Cultures: Australia and Beyond. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-59894-7.
- Munro, Kate (14 August 2014). "Actor Jack Charles: the tumultuous life of a stolen child". The Guardian.
- Presland, Gary (1994) [First published 1985]. Aboriginal Melbourne. The lost land of the Kulin people. McPhee Gribble. ISBN 978-0-869-14346-9.
- Presland, Gary (1997). The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region. Harriland Press.
- Shaw, A. G. L. (2003). A History of the Port Phillip District: Victoria Before Separation. Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0-522-85064-2.
- Shillinglaw, John Joseph (1879). Historical records of Port Phillip: the first annals of the colony of Victoria (PDF). Melbourne: J. Ferres. pp. 15–30.
- Thomas, William (1898). "Letter 14. Account of the Aborigines" (PDF). In Bride, Thomas Francis (ed.). Letters from Victorian Pioneers. Melbourne: Robert S Brain Government Printer. pp. 84–100.
- Tindale, Norman Barnett (1974). "Bunurong (VIC)". Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, and Proper Names. Australian National University Press. ISBN 978-0-708-10741-6.