Booker T. Washington "Bukka" White (November 12, 1906 – February 26, 1977) was an American Delta blues guitarist and singer. Bukka is a phonetic spelling of White's first name; he was named after the African-American educator and civil rights activist Booker T. Washington.
|Birth name||Booker T. Washington White|
|Born||November 12, 1906 |
Between Aberdeen and Houston, Mississippi, U.S.
|Died||February 26, 1977 (aged 70)|
|Years active||Late 1920s–1977|
He played National resonator guitars, typically with a slide, in an open tuning. He was one of the few, along with Skip James, to use a crossnote tuning in E minor, which he may have learned, as James did, from Henry Stuckey. He also played piano, but less adeptly.
White started his career playing the fiddle at square dances. He claimed to have met Charlie Patton soon after, but some have doubted this recollection. Nonetheless, Patton was a strong influence on White. "I wants to come to be a great man like Charlie Patton", White told his friends.
He first recorded for Victor Records in 1930. His recordings for Victor, like those of many other bluesmen, included country blues and gospel music. Victor published his photograph in 1930. His gospel songs were done in the style of Blind Willie Johnson, with a female singer accentuating the last phrase of each line. From fourteen recordings, Victor released two records under the name Washington White, two gospel songs with Memphis Minnie on backing vocals and two country blues.
Nine years later, while serving time for assault, he recorded for the folklorist John Lomax. The few songs he recorded around this time became his most well known: "Shake 'Em On Down" and "Po' Boy". His 1937 version of the oft-recorded song "Shake 'Em on Down" is considered definitive; it became a hit while White was serving time in Mississippi State Penitentiary, commonly known as Parchman Farm. He wrote about his experience there in "Parchman Farm Blues", which was released in 1940.
He served in the US Navy from 1942 to 1944, after which he settled in Memphis, Tennessee, and worked outside music. Bob Dylan covered his song "Fixin' to Die Blues", which aided a "rediscovery" of White in 1963 by guitarist John Fahey and Ed Denson, which propelled him into the folk music revival of the 1960s. White had recorded the song simply because his other songs had not particularly impressed the Victor record producer. It was a studio composition of which White had thought little until it re-emerged thirty years later.
Fahey and Denson found White easily enough: Fahey wrote a letter to White and addressed it to "Bukka White (Old Blues Singer), c/o General Delivery, Aberdeen, Mississippi"—presuming, given White's song "Aberdeen, Mississippi", that White still lived there or nearby. The postcard was forwarded to Memphis, where White worked in a tank factory. Fahey and Denson soon traveled there to meet him, and White and Fahey remained friends for the rest of White's life. He recorded a new album for Denson and Fahey's Takoma Records, and Denson became his manager. White was at one time also managed by Arne Brogger, an experienced manager of blues musicians.
Later in his life, White was friends with musician Furry Lewis. The two were recorded (mostly in Lewis's Memphis apartment) by Bob West for an album, Furry Lewis, Bukka White & Friends: Party! At Home, released on the Arcola label.
White died of cancer in February 1977, at the age of 67 or 70, in Memphis, Tennessee.
In 1990 he was posthumously inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame (along with Blind Blake and Lonnie Johnson). On November 21, 2011, the Recording Academy announced the addition of "Fixin' to Die Blues" to its 2012 list of Grammy Hall of Fame Award recipients.
The Led Zeppelin song "Hats Off to (Roy) Harper", on the band's 1970 album Led Zeppelin III, was based in large part on White's "Shake 'Em on Down". "Custard Pie", a song on their 1975 album Physical Graffiti, also references "Shake 'Em on Down."
White's 1963 recordings of "Shake 'Em on Down" and spoken-word piece "Remembrance of Charlie Patton" were both sampled by electronic artist Recoil (mostly a one-man effort by Alan Wilder of Depeche Mode) for the track "Electro Blues for Bukka White" on the 1992 album Bloodline. The song was reworked and re-released on the 2000 EP Jezebel.
In 1995, White's "Aberdeen, Mississippi" was covered as "Aberdeen" by guitarist Kenny Wayne Shepherd on his debut album, Ledbetter Heights. It reached number 23 on the Billboard (North America) Mainstream Rock Tracks in 1996.
On January 26, 2010, Eric Bibb released Booker's Guitar (TEL 31756 02) through Telarc International Corporation after becoming inspired by the hidden stories Bibb felt by holding White's famous guitar.
White's song "Parchman Farm Blues" was recorded by Jeff Buckley, and was released posthumously on the bonus disc of Buckley's album Grace: Legacy Edition.
- Mississippi Blues (Takoma, 1964)
- Sky Songs (Vol. 1 & 2) (Arhoolie Records, 1965)
- Memphis Hot Shots (Blue Horizon, 1968)
- Big Daddy (Biograph Records, 1974)
- Country Blues (Sparkasse in Concert, 1975)
- Parchman Farm 1937–1940 (Columbia, 1969)
- Baton Rouge Mosby Street (Blues Beacon, 1982)
- Aberdeen Mississippi Blues 1937–1940 (Travelin' Man, 1985)
- Parchman Farm Blues (Orbis Records, 1992)
- Shake' Em on Down (New Rose, 1993)
- The Complete Bukka White 1937–1940 (Columbia, 1994)
- 1963 Isn't 1962 (Adelphi, 1994)
- Good Gin Blues (Drive, 1995)
- Shake 'Em on Down (Catfish, 1998)
- The Panama Limited (ABM, 2000)
- Revisited (Fuel, 2003)
- Aberdeen Mississippi Blues: The Vintage Recordings 1930–1940 (Document, 2003)
- Mississippi Blues Giant (EPM, 2003)
- Fixin' to Die (Snapper, 2004)
- Parchman Farm Blues (Roots, 2004)
- There are conflicting dates for Washington's birth: 1906 (Pearson, Barry Lee (1996). "Bukka White". In Erlewine, Michael (ed.). All Music Guide to the Blues. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books. p. 277. ISBN 0-87930-424-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link), Bukka White at AllMusic ) and 1909 (Herzhaft, Gerard (1992). "Bukka White". Encyclopedia of the Blues. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 375. ISBN 1-55728-252-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link), Shadwick, Keith (2007). "Bukka White". The Encyclopedia of Jazz & Blues. London: Quantum Publishing. p. 429. ISBN 978-0-681-08644-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link))
- "Bukka White". Mississippi Blues Trail. Mississippi Blues Commission. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Kostelanetz, Richard; Reiswig, Jesse, eds. (2005). The B. B. King Reader: 6 Decades of Commentary (2nd ed.). Milwaukee, WIsconsin: Hal Leonard. p. 4. ISBN 0-634-09927-2.
- Stephen Calt, in his biography of Skip James, I'd Rather Be the Devil, suggested that White claimed to know Patton merely because John Fahey was a fan of the long-dead bluesman.
- Robert Palmer. Deep Blues. Penguin Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-14-006223-6.
- Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books. p. 12. ISBN 1-85868-255-X.
- In the liner notes for American Primitive, Vol. 1, which features White's "I Am in the Heavenly Way," Fahey stated that White "... had no particular interest in religion. Victor went and hired the woman from a local Baptist church for this recording. Trying to imitate Blind Willie Johnson."
- Giles Oakley (1997). The Devil's Music. Da Capo Press. p. 195/6. ISBN 978-0-306-80743-5.
- Furry Lewis, Mississippi Fred McDowell, Wade Walton, and R. L. Burnside, among others, have recorded a version of "Shake 'Em on Down".
- Harris, Sheldon (1991). Blues Who's Who: A Biographical Dictionary of Blues Singers. Da Capo. pp. 552–554.
- Calt, Stephen (2008). I'd Rather Be the Devil: Skip James and the Blues. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-1556527463.
- In his collection of autobiographical sketches, How Bluegrass Music Ruined My Life, Fahey reminisced about his and White's time catching catfish together. He also remarked that White had, by the time of his rediscovery, largely forgotten how to play guitar, but had become a more adept lyricist.
- "Arcola Records, music cds, Traditional Jazz Blues, Furry Lewis and Friends". Arcolarecords.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "The Recording Academy Announces 2012 Grammy Hall of Fame Inductees". Grammy.org. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- Lewis, Dave (1994). The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-3528-9.
- "Aberdeen". Billboard.com. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- "About Us – Bukka White Blues Festival". bukkawhitebluesfestival.com.