Blackbirding involves the coercion of people through trickery and kidnapping to work as labourers. Generally, persons of European ancestry, or others being paid by them, coerced persons of non-European ancestry to work as labourers throughout the Southeast Pacific region. Blackbirders sought labourers for several major industries or plantations.
From the 1860s, blackbirding ships in the Pacific sought workers to mine the guano deposits on the Chincha Islands in Peru. In the 1870s the blackbirding trade focused on supplying labourers to plantations, particularly those producing sugar-cane in Queensland, Australia, and Fiji. In the early days of the pearling industry in Western Australia at Nickol Bay and Broome, local Aborigines were blackbirded from the surrounding areas.
The practice of blackbirding has continued to the present day, in certain developing countries. One example is the kidnapping and coercion, often at gunpoint, of indigenous peoples in Central America to work as plantation labourers in the region. They are subjected to poor living conditions, are exposed to heavy pesticide loads, and do hard labour for very little pay.
The term may have been formed directly as a contraction of "blackbird catching"; "blackbird" was a slang term for the local indigenous people.
In Polynesia in the 1860sEdit
For several months between 1862–63, crews on Peruvian ships, as well as Chilean ships sailing under the Peruvian flag, combed the smaller islands of Polynesia, from Easter Island in the eastern Pacific to the Ellice Islands (now Tuvalu) and the southern atolls of the Gilbert Islands (now Kiribati), seeking workers to fill an extreme labour shortage in Peru.
In 1862 J. C. Byrne, an Irish speculator, persuaded countrymen to financially back a scheme to bring "colonists" from the New Hebrides to Peru, as indentured agricultural workers. The first ship, Adelante, was fitted out, and on 15 June 1862 set forth across the Pacific. Calling in at Tongareva (Penrhyn) in the northern Cook Islands, Byrne found the one island in the Pacific where the population was willing to leave because of a severe coconut famine. From this one island alone he took 253 recruits, and by September they were working in Peru as plantation field labourers and domestic household servants.
Almost immediately other speculators and ship owners fitted out ageing ships, all destined for Polynesia to transport "willing colonists". From September 1862 to April 1863 no less than 30 ships set out. As profit was the main motive, many ship captains resorted to dishonest tactics and kidnapping to fill their ships.
In June 1863 about 350 people were living on 'Ata, an atoll in Tonga, in a village called Kolomaile. Captain Thomas James McGrath of the Tasmanian whaler Grecian, having decided that the new slave trade was more profitable than whaling, went to the atoll and invited the islanders on board for trading. However, once almost half of the population was on board, he ordered the ship's compartments locked, and the ship departed. A total of 144 persons would never return to their homes. McGrath subsequently captured 30 people from Niuafouʻou, and attempted similar actions on ʻUiha. However, the islanders ambushed the ship and he was unsuccessful. The Grecian also tried to take slaves from the Lau group, situated within the Fijian archipelago, but was unsuccessful.
The Grecian never reached Peru. Probably near Pukapuka (Cook Islands), McGrath met another slave vessel, the General Prim, which had left Callao in March. Its captain was willing to take charge of the 174 Tongans to quickly return to port, where it arrived on 19 July. Meanwhile, the Peruvian government, under pressure from foreign powers, and shocked that its labour plan had turned into a slave trade, had on 28 April 1863 cancelled all licenses. The islanders on board General Prim, and other ships, were not allowed to land. They were subsequently transferred to additional ships chartered by the Peruvian government and returned to their homeland.
By the time the Adelante (on which the Tongans were put) finally sailed on 2 October 1863, many of the Tongans had died or were dying from a variety of contagious diseases. Captain Escurra of the Adelante (formerly a successful slaver), pocketed his fee of $30/head, but dumped the Tongans on uninhabited Cocos Island. He later claimed that the 426 kanakas were affected with smallpox and a danger to his crew. When the whaler Active visited the island on 21 October, its crew found some 200 Tongans still alive. A month later the Peruvian warship Tumbes went to rescue the remaining 38 survivors and took them to Paita, where they were apparently absorbed into the local population.
The Rev. A. W. Murray, the earliest European missionary in Tuvalu, described the practices of blackbirders in the Ellice Islands. He said they promised islanders that they would be taught about God while working in coconut oil production, but the slavers' intended destination was the Chincha Islands in Peru. Rev. Murray reported that in 1863, about 180 people were taken from Funafuti and about 200 were taken from Nukulaelae, leaving fewer than 100 of the 300 recorded in 1861 as living on Nukulaelae.
Bully Hayes, an American ship-captain who achieved notoriety for his activities in the Pacific from the 1850s to the 1870s, is described[by whom?] as arriving in Papeete, Tahiti in December 1868 on his ship Rona with 150 men from Niue. Hayes offered them for sale as indentured labourers.
The expansion of plantations in Fiji and in Samoa, as well as sugar plantations in Australia, also created market destinations for blackbirders. Ships also called at the islands of Melanesia and Micronesia, taking off their workers for other places. In 1871 the first Anglican Bishop of Melanesia, John Patteson, was killed on Nukapu island (one of the Solomon Islands) by indigenous people five days after blackbirders had killed one man and abducted five others there.
So many ships entered the blackbirding trade (with adverse effects on islanders) that the British Navy sent ships from Australia Station into the Pacific to suppress the trade. (By 1808 both Great Britain and the United States had prohibited the African slave trade.) However, the ships of the Australian Squadron (HMS Basilisk, HMS Beagle, HMS Conflict, HMS Renard, HMS Sandfly and HMS Rosario) did not succeed in suppressing the blackbirding trade.
The first shipload of 65 Melanesian labourers arrived in Boyd Town on 16 April 1847 on board the Velocity, a vessel under the command of Captain Kirsopp and chartered by Benjamin Boyd. Boyd was a Scottish colonist who wanted cheap labourers to work at his large pastoral leaseholds in the colony of New South Wales. He financed two more procurements of South Sea Islanders, 70 of which arrived in Sydney in September 1847, and another 57 in October of that same year. Many of these Islanders soon absconded from their workplaces and were observed starving and destitute on the streets of Sydney. Reports of violence, kidnap and murder used during the recruitment of these labourers surfaced in 1848 with a closed-door enquiry choosing not to take any action against Boyd or Kirsopp. The experiment of exploiting Melanesian labour was discontinued in Australia until Robert Towns recommenced the practice in the early 1860s.
In 1863, Robert Towns wanted to profit from the world-wide cotton shortage due to the American Civil War. He bought a property he named Townsvale on the Logan River and planted 400 acres of cotton. Towns also wanted cheap labour to harvest and prepare the cotton and decided to import Melanesian labour from the Loyalty Islands and the New Hebrides. Captain Grueber together with labour recruiter Ross Lewin aboard the Don Juan, brought 73 South Sea Islanders to the port of Brisbane in August 1863. Towns specifically wanted adolescent males recruited and kidnapping was reportedly employed in obtaining these boys. Over the following two years, Towns imported around 400 more Melanesians to Townsvale on one to three year terms of labour. They came on the vessels Uncle Tom (Captain Archer Smith) and Black Dog (Captain Linklater). In 1865, Towns obtained large land leases in Far North Queensland and funded the establishment of the port of Townsville. He organised the first importation of South Sea Islander labour to that port in 1866. They came aboard Blue Bell under Captain Edwards. Apart from a small amount of Melanesian labour imported for the beche-de-mer trade around Bowen, Robert Towns was the primary exploiter of blackbirded labour up til 1867.
From 1867, the high demand for very cheap labour in the sugar and pastoral industries of Queensland, resulted in a massive increase in blackbirding in the region. Over a nearly forty year period, traders "recruited" Melanesian or Kanaka labourers for the sugar cane fields of Queensland, from the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and the Loyalty Islands of New Caledonia as well as Niue. The Queensland government tried to regulate the trade, requiring every ship engaged in recruiting labourers from the Pacific islands to carry a government representative, on board to ensure that they were willingly recruited and not kidnapped. Although, such government observers were often corrupted by bonuses paid for labourers 'recruited,' or blinded by alcohol, and did little or nothing to prevent sea-captains from tricking islanders on-board or otherwise engaging in kidnapping with violence. Joe Melvin, an investigative journalist who, undercover, in 1892 joined the crew of Queensland blackbirding ship Helena, found no instances of intimidation or misrepresentation and concluded that the Islanders recruited did so "willingly and cannily".
These people were referred to as Kanakas (the French equivalent Canaques is still used to refer to the ethnic Melanesians in New Caledonia) and came from the Western Pacific islands: from Melanesia, mainly the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides, with a small number from the Polynesian and Micronesian islands such as Tonga (mainly 'Ata), Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Loyalty Islands. Many of the workers were effectively slaves, but they were officially called "indentured labourers" or the like. Some Australian Aboriginal people, especially from Cape York Peninsula, were also kidnapped and transported south to work on the farms.
The methods of blackbirding were varied. Some labourers were willing to be taken to Australia to work, while others were tricked or forced. In some cases blackbirding ships (which made huge profits) would entice entire villages by luring them on board for trade or a religious service, and then setting sail. Many died during the voyage due to unsanitary conditions, and in the fields due to the hard manual labour.
The question of how many Islanders were kidnapped or "blackbirded" is unknown and remains controversial. Official documents and accounts from the period often conflict with the oral tradition passed down by the descendants of workers. Stories of blatantly violent kidnapping tended to relate to the first 10–15 years of the trade.
The majority of the 10,000 Pacific Islanders remaining in Australia in 1901 were compulsorily repatriated from 1906–08 under the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901. Those who were married to an Australian were exempt from compulsory repatriation. Today, the descendants of those who remained are officially referred to as South Sea Islanders. A 1992 census of South Sea Islanders reported around 10,000 descendants living in Queensland. Fewer than 3,500 were reported in the 2001 Australian census.
The blackbirding era began in Fiji in 1865 when the first New Hebridean and Solomon Island labourers were transported there to work on cotton plantations. The American Civil War had cut off the supply of cotton to the international market when the Union blockaded southern ports. Cotton cultivation was potentially an extremely profitable business. Thousands of European planters flocked to Fiji to establish plantations but found the natives unwilling to adapt to their plans. They sought labour from the Melanesian islands. On 5 July 1865 Ben Pease received the first licence to provide 40 labourers from the New Hebrides to Fiji.
The British and Queensland governments tried to regulate this recruiting and transport of labour. Melanesian labourers were to be recruited for a term of three years, paid three pounds per year, issued with basic clothing and given access to the company store for supplies. Most Melanesians were recruited by deceit, usually being enticed aboard ships with gifts, and then locked up. The living and working conditions for them in Fiji were worse than those suffered by the later Indian indentured labourers. In 1875, the chief medical officer in Fiji, Sir William MacGregor, listed a mortality rate of 540 out of every 1000 labourers. After the expiry of the three-year contract, the government required captains to transport the labourers back to their villages, but most ship captains dropped them off at the first island they sighted off the Fiji waters. The British sent warships to enforce the law (Pacific Islanders' Protection Act of 1872) but only a small proportion of the culprits were prosecuted.
A notorious incident of the blackbirding trade was the 1871 voyage of the brig Carl, organised by Dr James Patrick Murray, to recruit labourers to work in the plantations of Fiji. Murray had his men reverse their collars and carry black books, so to appear to be church missionaries. When islanders were enticed to a religious service, Murray and his men would produce guns and force the islanders onto boats. During the voyage Murray shot about 60 islanders. He was never brought to trial for his actions, as he was given immunity in return for giving evidence against his crew members. The captain of the Carl, Joseph Armstrong, was later sentenced to death.
Beginning in 1879, British planters arranged for the transport of Indian indentured labourers in Fiji. The number of Melanesian labourers declined, but they were still being recruited and employed in such places as sugar mills and ports, until the start of the First World War. In addition, as recounted by writer Jack London, the British and Queensland ships often used black crews, sometimes recruited among the islanders. Most of the Melanesians recruited were males. After the recruitment ended, those who chose to stay in Fiji took Fijian wives and settled in areas around Suva. Their multi-cultural descendants identify as a distinct community but, to outsiders, their language and culture cannot be distinguished from native Fijians.
Descendants of Solomon Islanders have filed land claims to assert their right to traditional settlements in Fiji: a group living at Tamavua-i-Wai in Fiji received a High Court verdict in their favour on 1 February 2007. The court refused a claim by the Seventh-day Adventist Church to force the islanders to vacate the land on which they had been living for seventy years.
In the United StatesEdit
Since colonial times in the United States, the Reverse Underground Railroad existed to capture free African-Americans and fugitive slaves and sell them into slavery, being particularly prevalent in the 19th century after the Atlantic slave trade was outlawed. People of African and mixed ancestry commonly took part in these operations in order to make a living. Some worked under white employers, playing instrumental roles in deceiving fellow African-Americans and luring them into traps, while others pointed slave owners to the location of their escaped slaves to catch the bounty on the slave's head. The kidnappers were recorded to have acted against their own family members in addition to other members of their community. Their careers also tended to be long, due to African-Americans, particularly children, being more inclined to trust them than white people. Successful kidnappings mainly relied on the blackbirders developing a connection to their target by using their shared racial and cultural identities. New York City and Philadelphia were particularly prominent places for these kidnappers to work, causing fear of being kidnapped by anyone to become prevalent.
Islanders fought back and sometimes were able to resist those engaged in blackbirding. Historic events in Melanesia are being assessed in the context of blackbirding, and with the addition of new material from indigenous oral histories and interpreting to acknowledge indigenous agency. The practice of blackbirding attracted significant public attention in Great Britain after native people killed Anglican missionary John Coleridge Patteson, Bishop of Melanesia, in September 1871 on Nukapu in what is now Temotu Province, Solomon Islands. His death from the beginning was interpreted as resistance by local people to kidnapping and forced labor. Patteson is considered a martyr by the Anglican Church. A few days before his death, one of the local men had been killed by blackbirders and five others were abducted.
However, a 2010 article argues for a larger role of women in the event and a different precipitating event. When Patteson tried to persuade islanders to release their children to him to be educated in a distant Christian mission school, Niuvai, wife of the paramount chief, and other women did not want to lose their children to him. Niuvai persuaded the men to kill the bishop. An alternative theory is that Patteson had disrupted the local hierarchy, and especially threatened the patriarchal order.
At the time, Patteson's death caused outrage in England and contributed to the government's cracking down to try to control the abusive aspects of blackbirding. Great Britain annexed Fiji as a way to suppress such slavery.
Representation in popular cultureEdit
... still bore the tomahawk marks where the Malaitans at Langa Langa several months before broke in for the trove of rifles and ammunition locked therein, after bloodily slaughtering Jansen's predecessor, Captain Mackenzie. The burning of the vessel was somehow prevented by the black crew, but this was so unprecedented that the owner feared some complicity between them and the attacking party. However, it could not be proved, and we sailed with the majority of this same crew. The present skipper smilingly warned us that the same tribe still required two more heads from the Minota, to square up for deaths on the Ysabel plantation. (p 387)
In another passage from the same book, he wrote:
Three fruitless days were spent at Su'u. The Minota got no recruits from the bush and the bushmen got no heads from the Minota. (p 270)
- Emma Christopher, Cassandra Pybus and Marcus Buford Rediker (2007). Many Middle Passages: Forced Migration and the Making of the Modern World, University of California Press, pp. 188–190. ISBN 0-520-25206-3.
- H. E. Maude, Slavers in Paradise, Institute of Pacific Studies (1981)
- Willoughby, Emma. "Our Federation Journey 1901–2001" (PDF). Museum Victoria. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2006. Retrieved 14 June 2006.
- Reid Mortensen, (2009), "Slaving In Australian Courts: Blackbirding Cases, 1869–1871", Journal of South Pacific Law, 13:1, accessed 7 October 2010
- Roberts, J. Timmons; Thanos, Nikki Demetria (2003). Trouble in Paradise: Globalization and Environmental Crises in Latin America. Routledge, London and New York. p. vii.
- Murray A.W., 1876. Forty Years' Mission Work. London: Nisbet
- the figure of 171 taken from Funafuti is given by Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific and Government of Tuvalu, 1983
- the figure of 250 taken from Nukulaelae is given by Laumua Kofe, Palagi and Pastors, Tuvalu: A History, Ch. 15, U.S.P./Tuvalu (1983)
- W.F. Newton, The Early Population of the Ellice Islands, 76(2) (1967) The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 197–204.
- the figure of 250 taken from Nukulaelae is stated by Richard Bedford, Barrie Macdonald & Doug Monro, Population Estimates for Kiribati and Tuvalu (1980) 89(1) Journal of the Polynesian Society 199
- James A. Michener & A. Grove Day, "Bully Hayes, South Sea Buccaneer", in Rascals in Paradise, London: Secker & Warburg 1957.
- "EXPORTS". Sydney Chronicle. 4, (370). New South Wales, Australia. 21 April 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Syfney News". The Port Phillip Patriot And Morning Advertiser. X, (1, 446). Victoria, Australia. 1 October 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Shipping intelligence". The Australian. New South Wales, Australia. 22 October 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "The South Australian Register. ADELAIDE: SATURDAY, DECEMBER 11,1847". South Australian Register. XI, (790). South Australia. 11 December 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "THE ALLEGED MURDER AT ROTUMAH". Bell's Life In Sydney And Sporting Reviewer. IV, (153). New South Wales, Australia. 1 July 1848. p. 2. Retrieved 1 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "BRISBANE". The Sydney Morning Herald. XLVIII, (7867). New South Wales, Australia. 22 August 1863. p. 6. Retrieved 12 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "THE SLAVE TRADE IN QUEENSLAND". The Courier (Brisbane). XVIII, (1724). Queensland, Australia. 22 August 1863. p. 4. Retrieved 12 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- Towns, Robert. (1863), South Sea Island immigration for cotton culture : a letter to the Hon. the Colonial Secretary of Queensland, retrieved 17 May 2019
- "CLEVELAND BAY". The Brisbane Courier. XXI, (2, 653). Queensland, Australia. 28 July 1866. p. 7. Retrieved 12 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "BOWEN". The Brisbane Courier. XXI, (2, 719). Queensland, Australia. 13 October 1866. p. 6. Retrieved 12 May 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- Peter Corris, 'Melvin, Joseph Dalgarno (1852–1909)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/melvin-joseph-dalgarno-7556/text13185, published first in hardcopy 1986, accessed online 9 January 2015.
- Tracey Flanagan, Meredith Wilkie, and Susanna Iuliano. "Australian South Sea Islanders: A Century of Race Discrimination under Australian Law", Australian Human Rights Commission.
- "Queensland Government, Australian South Sea Islander Training Package". Archived from the original on 12 October 2006. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "Documenting Democracy". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Connell, John. (2010). From Blackbirds to Guestworkers in the South Pacific. Plus ça Change…? The Economic and Labour Relations Review. 20. 111-121. 10.1177/103530461002000208
- Jane Resture. "The Story of Blackbirding in the South Seas – Part 2". Janesoceania.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- R. G. Elmslie, 'The Colonial Career of James Patrick Murray', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, (1979) 49(1):154-62
- Sydney Morning Herald, 20–23 Nov 1872, 1 March 1873
- "Solomon Islands descendants win land case". Fijitimes.com. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Bell, Richard. "Counterfeit Kin: Kidnappers of Color, the Reverse Underground Railroad, and the Origins of Practical Abolition". EBSCOHost.
- Kolshus, Thorgeir; Hovdhaugen, Even (2010). "Reassessing the death of Bishop John Coleridge Patteson". The Journal of Pacific History. 45 (3): 331–355. doi:10.1080/00223344.2010.530813.
- "The Log of the Stark". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Affeldt, Stefanie. (2014). Consuming Whiteness. Australian Racism and the 'White Sugar' Campaign. Berlin [et al.]: Lit. ISBN 978-3-643-90569-7.
- Corris, Peter. (1973). Passage, Port and Plantation: A History of the Solomon Islands Labour Migration, 1870–1914. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0-522-84050-6.
- Docker, E. W. (1981). The Blackbirders: A Brutal Story of the Kanaka Slave-Trade. London: Angus & Robertson. ISBN 0-207-14069-3
- Gravelle, Kim. (1979). A History of Fiji. Suva: Fiji Times Limited.
- Horne, Gerald. (2007). The White Pacific: US Imperialism and Black Slavery in the South Seas after the Civil War. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3147-9
- Maude, H. E. (1981). Slavers in Paradise: The Peruvian Slave Trade in Polynesia, 1862-1864 Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies. ASIN B01HC0W8FU
- Shineberg, Dorothy (1999) The People Trade: Pacific Island Labourers and New Caledonia, 1865-1930 (Pacific Islands Monographs Series) ISBN 978-0824821777