Ambrym is a volcanic island in Malampa Province in the archipelago of Vanuatu. Volcanic activity on the island includes lava lakes in two craters near the summit.

Ambrym
Vanuatu - Ambrym.PNG
Map of Ambrym
Geography
LocationPacific Ocean
Coordinates16°15′S 168°7′E / 16.250°S 168.117°E / -16.250; 168.117Coordinates: 16°15′S 168°7′E / 16.250°S 168.117°E / -16.250; 168.117
ArchipelagoNew Hebrides
Area677.7 km2 (261.7 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,334 m (4,377 ft)
Administration
Vanuatu
ProvinceMalampa
Demographics
Population7,275 (2009)
Ethnic groupsNi-Vanuatu
Ambrym
Marum sept 2009.jpg
Lava lake in Marum crater, Ambrym, in a photo taken 24 September 2009
Highest point
Elevation1,334 m (4,377 ft) [1]
Listing
Geography
LocationVanuatu
Geology
Mountain typePyroclastic shield[1]
Volcanic arcNew Hebrides arc[1]
Last eruption2009 to 2018 (Ongoing)[2]

EtymologyEdit

Ambrym (aka Ambrin,[3] "ham rim" in the Ranon language)[4] was allegedly named by Captain Cook, who is said to have anchored off there in 1774. In fact, his expedition never touched Ambrym.[citation needed]

GeographyEdit

Located near the center of the long Vanuatuan archipelago, Ambrym is roughly triangular in shape, about 50 km (31 mi) wide.[5] With 677.7 square kilometres (261.7 sq mi) of surface area, it is the fifth largest island in the country.

The summit at the center of the island is dominated by a desert-like caldera, which covers an area of 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi).[1]

With the exception of human settlements, the rest of the island is covered by thick jungle.[5]

VolcanologyEdit

Ambrym is a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, and one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides volcanic arc.

 
Ash plume from Ambrym Volcano, October 4, 2004

The caldera is the result of a huge Plinian eruption, which took place around 50 AD. Its explosive force is rated 6, the third highest in the Smithsonian Institution's Volcanic Explosivity Index ranks of the largest volcanic explosions in recent geological history.[6]

While at higher elevations cinder cones predominate, the western tip of the island is characterized by a series of basaltic tuff rings, of which the largest is about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) in diameter. These were produced by phreatic eruptions when magma contacted the water table and water-saturated sediments along the coast.[7]

The massive, 1900-year-old, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) × 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) caldera is the site of two active volcanic cones, Benbow and Marum (also spelled Maroum).[1]

Mount Benbow was named by Captain Cook after English Admiral John Benbow (1653–1702), whom Cook admired.

Several times a century, Ambrym volcano has destructive eruptions. Mount Benbow last erupted in 1913, causing the evacuation of the population to Mele, near Port Vila on Efate.

Volcanic gas emissions from this volcano are measured by a Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System, which detects pre-eruptive degassing of rising magmas, improving prediction of volcanic activity.[8]

In March 2017, Google added the Marum crater with its lava lakes to Google Streetview.[9]

Since the last fissure eruption on 16 Dec 2018, the lake of molten Lava, for which Mount Marum and Mount Benbow have been famous, has disappeared. The volcanoes are inactive by now (Global Volcanism Program).[10]

DemographicsEdit

With the neighbor island of Malakula and a few smaller islands, Ambrym forms Malampa Province. The population of 7,275 inhabitants [11] lives mainly off coconut plantations in the three corners of the island.

 
An Ambrym woodcarver, circa 1925

LanguagesEdit

Like many islands in Vanuatu, Ambrym has its own Austronesian languages. In the north is the North Ambrym language, in the southeast is the Southeast Ambrym language, in the south Daakaka language, in the west Lonwolwol language, and in the southwest Port Vato language. These are all spoken by a few hundred to a few thousand speakers each.

Towns and villagesEdit

SouthwestEdit

SoutheastEdit

  • Maat, Paamal, Toak, Uléi, Utas, Tavéak, Asé, Pawé, Saméo, Endu, Pahakol and Benebo

NorthEdit

TourismEdit

Tourists are attracted by Ambrym's active volcanoes, tropical vegetation, and the customs of the local villagers. They stay in traditional bungalows, as there are no hotels on the island.[4]

TransportationEdit

The island is served by two airports, Ulei Airport in the southeast and Craig Cove Airport in the southwest.

Popular CultureEdit

Ambrym is featured in the 2016 Werner Herzog documentary, Into the Inferno.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Ambrym". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  2. ^ "Ambrym volcano". 19 Feb 2018.
  3. ^ "Ambrim: Vanuatu, name, geographic coordinates and map". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  4. ^ a b "Ambrim". Destination Vanuatu, South Pacific. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  5. ^ a b "Ambrym Volcano, Vanuatu". John Seach. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  6. ^ "Large Volcano Explocivity Index". geographic.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  7. ^ "Ambrym Volcano, Vanuatu". Countries of the World. geographic.org. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  8. ^ "Real-Time Multi-GAS sensing of volcanic gas composition: experiences from the permanent Etna and Stromboli networks, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 11, EGU2009-5839" (PDF).
  9. ^ "Journey under the Earth's surface in Street View". Google Streetview. Google. March 15, 2017.
  10. ^ https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=257040
  11. ^ 2009 National Census of Population and Housing, Vanuatu National Statistics Office

External linksEdit