Bihać (Cyrillic: Бихаћ) is a city and the administrative center of Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated on the banks of river Una in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Bosanska Krajina region. As of 2013, it has a population of 56,261 inhabitants.

Bihać

Бихаћ
Grad Bihać
City of Bihać
Bihać (collage image).jpg
Coat of arms of Bihać
Coat of arms
Location of Bihać within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Location of Bihać within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bihać is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bihać
Bihać
Location in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 44°49′N 15°52′E / 44.817°N 15.867°E / 44.817; 15.867
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
EntityFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
CantonUna-Sana Canton
Government
 • MayorŠuhret Fazlić (Ind.)
Area
 • City900 km2 (300 sq mi)
 • Urban
163 km2 (63 sq mi)
Elevation
230 m (750 ft)
Population
 (2013 census)[1][better source needed]
 • City43,007
 • Density62.51/km2 (161.9/sq mi)
 • Urban
56,261
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ZIP code
77000
Area code(s)+387 37
Websitewww.bihac.org

SettlementsEdit

HistoryEdit

According to documents and historical sources, the first medieval urban settlements and towns around the Una river, were starting to appear in the middle of the 13th century. Bihać, as the center of Pounje, was first mentioned in the charter of the Hungarian King Bela IV on 26 February 1260, and was described as a town built on the river Island of St. Ladislav, and owned by the Benedictine abbey of Topusko. Just two years later, in 1262, Bela proclaimed Bihać a royal free city and placed it under the direct authority of the Hungarian throne, with all rights and privileges pertaining thereto, which ensured its development completely independent from political powers of local lords. The following mention in charter from 1271 confirms that Bihać at that time enjoyed the status of a free city municipality. At the head of the municipality was the town's elder or major villae, who was often called a judge, and whose decision could only be changed by the king. Bihać also had a curia or magistrate, which was an assembly of local citizens who took the oath of office for this duty, and notaries who kept court and other civil records.[2][3][4][5]

In 1530 Austrian committee provided a troops to defend seven key strongholds in Croatia, one of them was Bihać and Ripač (near Bihać).[6] The Turks occupied Bihać in 1592 after 10 day siege and from that time Bihać was the site of the most important fort in Bosnia until the 19th century.[7] Ottoman rule was briefly interrupted by Auguste Marmont, general-governor of Illyrian Provinces in 5 May 1810.[8] He sought to prevent Ottomans from raiding French Croatia and finish Ottoman occupation of Cetin. After fulfilling these goals, he withdrew from Bihac. Ottoman rule in Bihac ended de facto after Congress of Berlin.

During World War II, the town was occupied by Axis troops and was included into the Pavelić's Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The fascist Ustashe regime committed the Genocide of the Serbs and the Holocaust. From July to September 1941, some 15,000 Serbs were massacred along with some Jews and Roma victims at the Garavice, an extermination location near Bihać. The town was the capital of a short-lived territory, the Bihać Republic, for two months in late 1942 and early 1943, until it was recaptured by German forces. Bihać returned to Bosnian territory on March 28, 1945.[9]

Bihać was besieged for three years from 1992–95 during the Bosnian War.[10]

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2013 census, the city of Bihać has a population of 56,261 inhabitants.

Ethnic groupsEdit

The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population
2013[11]
Bosniaks 49,550
Croats 3,265
Serbs 910
Yugoslavs -
Others/Unspecified 2,536
Total 56,261

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Bihać (1961–1990, extremes 1949–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
24.2
(75.6)
27.2
(81.0)
30.8
(87.4)
33.7
(92.7)
38.9
(102.0)
41.2
(106.2)
42.0
(107.6)
36.1
(97.0)
31.5
(88.7)
26.6
(79.9)
21.0
(69.8)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
6.5
(43.7)
11.2
(52.2)
16.3
(61.3)
21.0
(69.8)
24.2
(75.6)
26.7
(80.1)
26.2
(79.2)
22.6
(72.7)
16.9
(62.4)
10.6
(51.1)
5.3
(41.5)
15.9
(60.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
2.3
(36.1)
6.1
(43.0)
10.7
(51.3)
15.1
(59.2)
18.3
(64.9)
20.1
(68.2)
19.3
(66.7)
15.9
(60.6)
11.3
(52.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.7
(35.1)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) −3.7
(25.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.2
(34.2)
5.1
(41.2)
9.1
(48.4)
12.2
(54.0)
13.3
(55.9)
13.0
(55.4)
10.3
(50.5)
6.5
(43.7)
2.3
(36.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.5
(41.9)
Record low °C (°F) −24.8
(−12.6)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−5.4
(22.3)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.4
(34.5)
4.4
(39.9)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−7.0
(19.4)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−29.2
(−20.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 85.8
(3.38)
90.8
(3.57)
99.2
(3.91)
115.0
(4.53)
116.3
(4.58)
109.0
(4.29)
105.9
(4.17)
109.5
(4.31)
107.9
(4.25)
109.6
(4.31)
146.2
(5.76)
113.6
(4.47)
1,308.8
(51.53)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13.8 14.3 14.5 14.6 14.2 14.0 10.1 10.5 10.0 12.2 14.2 15.0 157.4
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 16.2 13.4 8.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 5.0 13.1 57.5
Average relative humidity (%) 79.8 76.7 70.6 66.7 68.9 70.5 69.3 73.1 76.5 77.6 78.9 80.6 74.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.3 74.0 125.4 152.1 202.1 219.7 265.6 228.2 171.6 117.4 73.2 50.3 1,737.9
Source: Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina[12][13]

EconomyEdit

 
Bihać inner city panorama

The agricultural sector is significant, due to the large and fertile soil.[14]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ [http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&des=wg&geo=-27&srt=npan&col=abcdefghinoq&msz=1500&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan World Gazetteer "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-12-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  2. ^ Mladen Ančić (1985). "Bihaćki kraj od 1262. do početka XV stoljeća". Glasnik arhiva i Društva arhivskih radnika Bosne i Hercegovine (in Serbo-Croatian). Društvo arhivskih radnika Bosne i Hercegovine. pp. 193–230. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  3. ^ Franjić, Živko (1999). Povijest Bihaća: od najstarijih vremena do 1878. godine (in Croatian). Napredak. p. 7. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  4. ^ Stanić, Damir (5 May 2020). "Bihać kao sjedište Bihaćke kapetanije i slobodni kraljevski grad" (in Croatian). University of Zagreb. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Department of History. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  5. ^ Hamdija Kreševljaković. "Stari bosanski gradovi. Vieux bourgs bosniaques" (PDF) (in Bosnian). p. 30. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  6. ^ James D. Tracy, 2016, Habsburg Croatia, Ottoman Bosnia, and Venetian Dalmatia, 1499–1617, https://books.google.hr/books?id=KHCPDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=James+D.+Tracy,+Habsburg+Croatia,+Ottoman+Bosnia,+and+Venetian+Dalmatia,+1499%E2%80%931617&hl=hr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj45ob4tKbmAhXl-ioKHQn0D5gQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=James%20D.%20Tracy%2C%20Habsburg%20Croatia%2C%20Ottoman%20Bosnia%2C%20and%20Venetian%20Dalmatia%2C%201499%E2%80%931617&f=false #page=113
  7. ^ Hamdija Kreševljaković. "Stari bosanski gradovi. Vieux bourgs bosniaques" (PDF) (in Bosnian). p. 31. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  8. ^ https://library.hungaricana.hu/hu/view/MitKuKKriegsArch_1892_Supplement/?pg=33&layout=s
  9. ^ "Grad Bihać".
  10. ^ "Weary Bihac cries with joy as siege ends". The Independent. 9 August 1995. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  11. ^ "POPIS STANOVNIŠTVA, DOMAĆINSTAVA I STANOVA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI, 2013. REZULTATI POPISA" (PDF). popis2013.ba (in Serbian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  12. ^ "Meteorlogical data for station Bihać in period 1961–1990". Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Bihać: Record mensili dal 1949" (in Italian). Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  14. ^ Arnautovic, Marija (21 September 2012), Bosnian Town Preserves Coexistence Legacy: Bihać is one of the few places where conflict failed to drive a wedge between communities, TRI Issue 757, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, retrieved 27 December 2015

ReferencesEdit

  • Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 44°49′N 15°52′E / 44.817°N 15.867°E / 44.817; 15.867