Big Four Bridge
The Big Four Bridge is a six-span former railroad truss bridge that crosses the Ohio River, connecting Louisville, Kentucky, and Jeffersonville, Indiana. It was completed in 1895, and updated in 1929. The largest single span is 547 feet (167 m), with the entire bridge spanning 2,525 feet (770 m). It took its name from the defunct Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, which was nicknamed the "Big Four Railroad". It is now a converted pedestrian and bicycle bridge from Louisville into Jeffersonville, Indiana.
Big Four Bridge
The Big Four Bridge from various angles in May 2013
|Carries||Pedestrians and cyclists|
|Locale||Louisville, Kentucky, and Jeffersonville, Indiana, United States|
|Total length||2,525 ft (770 m)|
|Longest span||547 ft (167 m)|
|Clearance above||53 ft (16 m)|
|Construction cost||$3.5 million|
|Closed||End of railroad use 1969|
Access to the Big Four Bridge is limited to pedestrian and bicycle use. A pedestrian ramp on the Kentucky side was opened on February 7, 2013. The original approaches that carried rail traffic onto the main spans were first removed in 1969, earning the Big Four Bridge the nickname "Bridge That Goes Nowhere". The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge downstream, which carries U.S. 31 across the river, was previously the only bridge allowing bicyclists and pedestrians to travel between Louisville and the neighboring Indiana cities of New Albany, Clarksville, and Jeffersonville.
In February 2011, Kentucky and Indiana announced that the two states, along with the City of Jeffersonville, would allocate $22 million in funding to complete the Big Four Bridge project, creating a pedestrian and bicycle path to link Louisville and Jeffersonville. Indiana would spend up to $8 million and the City of Jeffersonville would provide $2 million in matching dollars to pay for construction of a ramp to the Big Four Bridge. Kentucky pledged $12 million to replace the deck on the bridge and connect it to the spiral ramp that was completed in Waterfront Park.
The Big Four Bridge is a six-span bridge, totaling 2,525 ft (770 m) long, with a clearance of 53 ft (16 m). The northernmost span is a riveted, 8-panel Parker through truss. The next three spans are 547 ft (167 m) long, and are riveted, 16-panel Pennsylvania through trusses. The two southern spans are riveted, 10-panel Parker through trusses. It carried a single track of railway.
The Big Four Bridge was first conceived in Jeffersonville in 1885 by various city interests. The Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was formed in 1887 to construct the Big Four Bridge, after a charter by the state of Indiana; Kentucky also chartered the company in 1888. The riverboat industry, a big economic factor in Jeffersonville, had requested that the bridge be built further upstream from the Falls of the Ohio, but the United States Army Corps of Engineers approved the building site, even after the vocal protestations.
Construction began on October 10, 1888. The Big Four Bridge would be the only Louisville bridge with serious accidents during its building; thirty-seven individuals died during its construction. The first twelve died while working on a pier foundation when a caisson that was supposed to hold back the river water flooded, drowning the workers. Another four men died a few months after that when a wooden beam broke while working on a different pier caisson.
The Big Four Bridge had one of the biggest bridge disasters in the United States, occurring on December 15, 1893 when a construction crane was dislodged by a severe wind, causing the falsework support of a truss to be damaged and the truss—with forty-one workers on it—to fall into the Ohio River. Twenty of the workers survived, but twenty-one died. The accident almost cost more lives, as a ferry crossing the Ohio River just barely missed being hit by the truss. Hours later, a span next to the damaged span also fell into the river, but was unoccupied at the time, causing no injuries. As a result, falsework was longitudely reinforced to prevent further occurrences, and also to prevent strong winds from causing similar damage by using special bracing on the bottom frame of the truss. Also, a new rule was enforced: "never trust a bolted joint any longer than is necessary to put a riveted one in place".
The Big Four Bridge was finally completed in September 1895. Due to the various accidents, the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge Company was financially strapped after building the bridge, and later in 1895 sold it to the Indianapolis-based Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, also known as the Big Four Railroad. This gave the railway its first entry into the Louisville market, although the railroad would have likely used the bridge even if they had not bought it, as they desired access to Louisville.
One effect of the opening of the Big Four Bridge was increased transportation of freight by rail, significantly decreasing the number of packet boats that at one time crossed the Ohio River by the dozens.
On February 19, 1904, a Baltimore and Ohio train accidentally crossed the Big Four Bridge, due to engineer Dick Foreman falling asleep and going the wrong way at Otisco, Indiana. The fireman kept shoveling coal and did not pay attention. It was the conductor that finally noticed the error midway across the Big Four Bridge. The wayward train had to back up all the way back to Otisco.
Due to the increasing weight of the rail traffic, contracts were finalized in June 1928 to build a bigger Big Four Bridge, which opened on June 25, 1929. The new Big Four Bridge was built on the piers of the old bridge, a "novel building process", as it sped up the time necessary to build the new bridge; the old one served to reinforce the new one as it was being built. The old piers would still be used, but the falsework was entirely removed. During construction, the Big Four Bridge's usual rail traffic was routed over the Kentucky & Indiana Terminal Bridge. The interurbans that used the Big Four Bridge would instead disembark at Sellersburg, Indiana and have the passengers board buses into Louisville for the duration of the Big Four's reconstruction.
Adjacent Highway BridgeEdit
In 1961 the John F Kennedy Bridge was built to carry I-65 over the Ohio River. Because of the location of the Big Four Bridge and the growth of the Kennedy Interchange, the interchange had to avoid the columns that were on the approach to the bridge, causing the interchange to have several two-lane ramps rather than a single stretch of highway, and helped earn the nickname Spaghetti Junction.
In 1988 Oscar Arias, President of Costa Rica, contacted Louisville mayor Jerry Abramson to inquire about buying the bridge to dismantle it and reassemble in Costa Rica, as he believed it would be cheaper to import the bridge than build a new one. At the time the city did not actually own the bridge, and the plan never went through.
The Big Four Bridge fell into disuse after the Big Four Railroad's parent company, the New York Central Railroad, was merged into the Penn Central in 1968. The Big Four Bridge's former traffic was then routed over Louisville's Fourteenth Street Bridge. By 1969 both approach spans had been removed and sold for scrap. As a result, the Big Four Bridge became the first Louisville bridge to fall out of use, and gained the nickname "Bridge That Goes Nowhere".
During the 1970s and 1980s, local radio station WLRS-102 FM lit up the Big Four Bridge as part of their "Bridge the Gap" Christmas promotion, which was used as a fund raiser for needy local families. Some of the lights spelled out "LRS 102".
After unsuccessful litigation to stop the project, the Big Four Bridge was converted into a pedestrian and bicycle bridge as part of Louisville Waterfront Park and the ongoing revitalization of the Louisville riverfront. This conversion had been proposed and planned since the 1990s. The Indiana Department of Transportation pledged $1 million for the project to build a ramp to the Big Four Bridge on the Indiana side, on Riverside Drive, and Jeffersonville pledged $200,000; early estimates were that the Indiana ramp would cost $2.8 million, but was likely to increase. The Kentucky ramp was expected to cost $4 million; the ramp foundation is already done. Fixing the Big Four Bridge was expected to cost $3 million and take 18 months. The only other facility still standing that was owned by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway is the Spring Street Freight House. However, the mayor of Jeffersonville, Tom Galligan, called for a redesign of the entrance ramp to the bridge on the Indiana side, stressing that the proposed ramp would be unattractive and that the building of the column on a flood plain would probably not be possible. Galligan pointed out that neither the United States Coast Guard nor the Army Corps of Engineers had approved of the planned rampway. Galligan said he would rather have a ramp that reached over the floodwall and ended on Mulberry Street, causing a less severe incline on and off the bridge. Previous plans to access the Big Four Bridge included building an elevator.
The plans for bicycling included a suspension ramp that would allow bicyclists to leave the Big Four Bridge without dismounting their bikes. Due to the length of time any new downtown bridge would take to be built, and needing an alternative for cyclists and pedestrians to get across the Ohio River when the George Rogers Clark Bridge is closed, which happens yearly during Thunder Over Louisville, bicyclists preferred the idea of converting the Big Four rather than relying on a new downtown bridge or the Clark Bridge. By mid-July 2009, work had begun to convert the bridge to a pedestrian walkway. With the approach ramps, the bridge upon completion of work was to span about 1 mile. In February 2013, pedestrians were allowed to access the completed bridge from the ramp on the Kentucky side with construction still continuing on the Indiana ramp. The Indiana ramp opened on May 20, 2014. Lighting along the bridge is required for safety and had been redesigned to please nearby residents. Originally, the lighting was to be similar to those on the Kentucky side, which has computer-controlled lights that can show various colors. The Indiana construction also had to be cautious of historic properties.
During Thunder Over Louisville, the Big Four Bridge sets the limit on how close private boats can get to the fireworks, which are centered three bridges away on the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge.
The Waterfront Development Corporation spent $500,000 in upgrades to the Louisville Waterfront Park near the bridge, which took place from late 2015 to early 2016. Improvements included additional landscaping, a new path west from the ramp, and a plaza underneath the bridge.
Between its closing as a rail bridge and its reopening as a pedestrian span, the bridge has seen occasional fires; two in the 1970s, one in 1987 and one in 2008. In 1987 Christmas lights posted on the bridge to promote a toy drive started the fire; both the Jeffersonville and Louisville Fire Departments fought six to eight hours to put out the blaze.
On May 7, 2008 the bridge caught fire a quarter-mile (400 m) north of the Louisville end, shortly after noon, 70 to 80 ft (21 to 24 m) above the Ohio River; suspected to have started from an electrical problem. This fire was more troublesome due to the age and condition of the bridge; the wood trusses on the bridge were unsafe for firefighters to scale, due to the fire on the bridge ten years before. Louisville Fire & Rescue chief Greg Frederick decided that firefighters were not to be sent onto the bridge; a boat from the Harrods Creek Fire Department was used to put out the fire, as Louisville's fire boat did not have a hose that could reach the blaze on the bridge.
It took two and a half hours to control the fire. Navigation lights used for the heavy barge traffic were being changed at the time of the report. The Coast Guard shut down river traffic for about a mile around the bridge due to falling debris. An official determination on the cause of the fire was expected in June 2008.[needs update]
- "Bridgehunter.com - Big Four Bridge". Bridgehunter.com.
- Staff (February 7, 2013). "Big Four bridge opens in Louisville". Business First of Louisville. American City Business Journals. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
"Finally: Big Four Bridge opens to fanfare in Jeffersonville – After months of delays, Mayor Mike Moore officially opens the long-awaited pedestrian and bicycle bridge", News and Tribune, Jeffersonville, IN, May 20, 2014,
That all changed at 2 p.m. today with a ceremonial opening of the Jeffersonville side by Mayor Mike Moore, who was joined by Louisville Mayor Greg Fischer at the top of Jeffersonville's ramp.
- Longest, David E. (2005). Railroad Depots of Southern Indiana. Arcadia. ISBN 0-7385-3958-9.
- "Bridgehunter - Big Four Railroad Bridge - Facts". BridgeHunter.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
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- Schrage, Robert. (2006). Along the Ohio River:Cincinnati to Louisville. Arcadia Publishing. p. 52. ISBN 0-7385-4308-X.
- "ASLEEP AT THE THROTTLE.; Train Takes Wrong Route While Engineer Naps for an Hour" (PDF). The New York Times. February 20, 1904. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Gerald O. Haffner (1985). "An Informal History of Clark County, Indiana". Whipporwill Publications: 111. Cite journal requires
- Heim, Michael (2007). Exploring Indiana Highways: Trip Trivia. Wabasha, Minn.: T.O.N.E. Pub. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-9744358-3-1.
- "Sunny Side of Louisville - Landmarks". Clark-Floyd Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on June 8, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Chip Nold; Julie Segal; James Nold; Bob Bahr (1997). The Insiders' Guide to Louisville, Ky & Southern Indiana. Manteo, NC: Published and distributed by Insiders' Pub. p. 30. ISBN 1-57380-043-0.
- McDonough, Rick (June 30, 1988). "Costa Rican may want to buy Big Four Bridge, move it south". The Courier-Journal. pp. 1B.
- Shafer, Sheldon (March 5, 2007). "Bridges money may be shifted". The Courier-Journal.
- Mann, David (February 22, 2008). "Jeffersonville officials want redesigns for Big Four project". The Evening News. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Mann, David A. (May 13, 2008). "Workers will examine Big Four next month; not anticipating structural damage after fire". The Evening News. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- "With Big Four Bridge To Open Next Year, Jeffersonville Park Unveiled". Broken Sidewalk. October 23, 2012. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Jeffersonville side of Big Four Bridge to open with temporary lighting". WDRB. April 2, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Lighting issues delay opening of Ind. side of Big Four Bridge". WLKY. June 6, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Shafer, Sheldon S. (December 24, 2013). "Big Four Bridge to get computer-driven colored lights". The Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Bauer, Katie (March 21, 2014). "Indiana ramp of Big Four bridge expected to open before Derby". WAVE. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Shafer, Sheldon (June 25, 2015). "Major upgrades planned at Big Four Bridge". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
- David Mann. "Big Four Bridge fire's cause, damage not yet determined". The Evening News May 8, 2008. Archived from the original on February 23, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2008. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Halladay, Jessie (May 7, 2008). "Boat used to battle Big Four blaze". The Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- "Crew Extinguish Big Four Blaze". WLKY May 7, 2008. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- "Big Four Bridge check a month off". The Courier-Journal. May 8, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Plowden, David (1974). Bridges: The Spans of North America. New York.
- Hunley, J. H. (1929). "Bridge of Unusual Design Replaces Crossing of Big Four at Louisville". Engineering News-Record (Sept. 5).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Big Four Bridge.|
- Big Four Railroad Bridge at Bridges & Tunnels
- Jeffersonville bridge updates
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. KY-10, "Big Four Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY"
- Kentucky, Indiana pledge $22M to fund completion of Big Four Bridge -- February 2011
- New Funds Will Complete Big Four Bridge Project -- February 2011
- Video of May 7, 2008, bridge fire
- Video of May 7, 2008, bridge fire
- WHAS11NEWS Coverage of the fire
- WHAS11NEWS Slide Show of the fire
Engineering journal articlesEdit
- "The Caisson Accident at the Jeffersonville Bridge". Engineering News. 23 (3): 63. January 18, 1890. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "News of the week: Jeffersonville Bridge collapse". Engineering News. 30 (25): 485. December 21, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Diagram: Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge, Louisville, Kentucky". Engineering News. 30 (26): 514. December 28, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Editorial: Jeffersonville Bridge collapse". Engineering News. 30 (26): 515. December 28, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "The Louisville & Jeffersonville Bridge Disaster". Engineering News. 30 (26): 517–521. December 28, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Letters to the Editor: Louisville & Jeffersonville Bridge Disaster". Engineering News. 31 (7): 139, 140. February 15, 1894. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Editorial: The Louisville Bridge Disaster". Engineering Record. 29 (4): 51, 52. December 23, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Fall of the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge [with inset]". Engineering Record. 29 (4): 53, 54. December 23, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Correspondence: Fall of the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge". Engineering Record. 29 (5): 70. December 30, 1893. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Editorial: The Louisville Bridge Disaster". Engineering Record. 29 (6): 83. January 6, 1894. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Details of the Louisville and Jeffersonville Bridge". Engineering Record. 29 (7): 104–106. January 13, 1894. Retrieved April 16, 2017.