Biatorellaceae is a family of lichen-forming fungi in the subclass Lecanoromycetidae. The family is monotypic, and contains the single genus Biatorella,[1] which contains eight species. Species in the genus are found in northern temperate regions, especially in Europe.[2]

Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Lecanoromycetes
Family: Biatorellaceae
M.Choisy ex Hafellner & Casares (1992)
Type genus
De Not. (1846)
Type species
Biatorella rousselii
(Durieu & Mont.) De Not. (1846)


The family is classified as incertae sedis with respect to ordinal placement in the Lecanoromycetidae, as there is no reliable molecular data available to establish phylogenetic relationships with similar taxa.[3]

Genus Biatorella was circumscribed by Italian botanist Giuseppe De Notaris in 1846, with Biatorella rousselii assigned as the type species.[4] The family Biatorellaceae was originally proposed by French lichenologist Maurice Choisy in 1949,[5] but he did not publish the name validly.[6] Josef Hafellner and Manuel Casares published the name validly in 1992.[7]


Biatorellaceae species are crustose lichens with a chlorococcoid photobiont partner (i.e., green algae of the genus Chlorococcum). The lichens have ascomata in the form of biatorine apothecia, which often have a reduced margin around the edge. Ascospores are ellipsoid to roughly spherical in shape, hyaline, and non-amyloid. Biatorella lichens grow on soil or bark.[8]


As of November 2021, Species Fungorum accepts eight species of Biatorella:[9]


  1. ^ Wijayawardene, Nalin; Hyde, Kevin; Al-Ani, Laith Khalil Tawfeeq; Somayeh, Dolatabadi; Stadler, Marc; Haelewaters, Danny; et al. (2020). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa". Mycosphere. 11: 1060–1456. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8.
  2. ^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford: CABI. p. 36. ISBN 0-85199-827-5.
  3. ^ Kraichak, Ekaphan; Huang, Jen-Pan; Nelsen, Matthew; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten (2018). "A revised classification of orders and families in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) based on a temporal approach". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 188 (3): 233–249. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/boy060/5091569.
  4. ^ De Notaris, G. (1846). "Frammenti lichenografici di un lavoro inedito". Giornale Botanico Italiano (in Italian). 2 (1): 192.
  5. ^ Choisy, M. (1949). "Catalogue des lichens de la region Lyonnaise. Fasc. 2". Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon (in French). 18: 137–152.
  6. ^ "Record Details: Biatorellaceae M. Choisy, Bull. mens. Soc. linn. Soc. Bot. Lyon 18: 140 (1949)". Index Fungorum. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  7. ^ Hafellner, J.; Casares-Porcel, M. (1992). "Untersuchungen an den Typusarten der lichenisierten Ascomycetengattungen Acarospora und Biatorella und die daraus entstehenden Konsequenzen". Nova Hedwigia (in German). 55: 316.
  8. ^ Jaklitsch, Walter; Baral, Hans-Otto; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten (2016). Frey, Wolfgang (ed.). Syllabus of Plant Families: Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Vol. 1/2 (13 ed.). Berlin Stuttgart: Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Borntraeger Science Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 978-3-443-01089-8. OCLC 429208213.
  9. ^ Source dataset. Species Fungorum Plus: Species Fungorum for CoL+. "Biatorella". Catalogue of Life Version 2021-10-18. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  10. ^ Räsänen, V. (1949). "Lichenes Novi V". Archivum Societatis Botanicae Zoologicae Fennicae "Vanamo" (in Latin). 3: 178–188.
  11. ^ Anzi, M. (1860). Catalogus lichenum quos in provincia sondriensi et circa Novum-Comum collegit et in ordinem systematicum digessit (in Latin). Ex officina C. Franchi. p. 78.
  12. ^ Aptroot, A.; Sipman, H.J.M. (2001). "New Hong Kong lichens, ascomycetes and lichenicolous fungi". Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 91: 321.