Banca, Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Banca (French pronunciation: ​[bɑ̃ka]; Basque: Banka) is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre.[2]

Banca
Banka
A general view of Banca
A general view of Banca
Location of Banca
Banca is located in France
Banca
Banca
Banca is located in Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Banca
Banca
Coordinates: 43°07′39″N 1°22′23″W / 43.1275°N 1.3731°W / 43.1275; -1.3731Coordinates: 43°07′39″N 1°22′23″W / 43.1275°N 1.3731°W / 43.1275; -1.3731
CountryFrance
RegionNouvelle-Aquitaine
DepartmentPyrénées-Atlantiques
ArrondissementBayonne
CantonMontagne Basque
IntercommunalityCA Pays Basque
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Michel Oçafrain
Area
1
49.60 km2 (19.15 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018)[1]
347
 • Density7.0/km2 (18/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
64092 /64430
Elevation231–1,275 m (758–4,183 ft)
(avg. 522 m or 1,713 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Banca is part of Pays Quint (Kintoa in Basque or Quinto Real in Spanish),[3] an area of pasture area which belongs to Spain but is cultivated by French farmers.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bankars.[4][5]

GeographyEdit

Banca is located in the Aldudes valley on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes some 15 km south-west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. The western and eastern borders of the commune are the national frontier between France and Spain. Access to the commune is by the D948 road from Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry in the north which passes through the commune and the village and continues south-west to Aldudes. There are no crossing points in the commune to Spain. The commune is mainly rugged alpine pastures.[6]

HydrographyEdit

The Nive des Aldudes flows from Aldudes in the south-west, gathering tributaries such as the Antchignoko Erreka, the Ruisseau d'Hayra, the Latcharrako Erreka, and the Belechiko Erreka on the northern border, and continues north-east to join the Nive south of Saint-Martin-d'Arrossa. The Ruisseau d'Hayra rises in the south of the commune and flows north gathering tributaries such as the Lehaltzarteko Erreka, the Caminarteko Erreka, and the Legarzuko Erreka to join the Nive des Aldudes near the village.[6]

Places and HamletsEdit

  • Achistoy
  • Agnesto
  • Amosta
  • Antcharteko Borda
  • Antcheigno
  • Antcholako Etchola
  • Antonénéa
  • Apialépoa
  • Ardaza
  • Argaray
  • Argaray (wood)
  • Arrabit
  • Array
  • Artéko Borda
  • Asundreykoborda
  • Atchaurra
  • Ausquiénéa
  • Barberaénéa
  • Barnetchia
  • Basoritz
  • Beguibelcha
  • Behostemetaka
  • Berginanto
  • Berhain (pass)
  • Betripeillonénéa
  • Betrizina
  • Bichar
  • Bidabéheréa
  • Bihurrieta
  • Bordacharréa
  • Bustanénéa
  • Cardinalia
  • Carminatéko Borda
  • Chabukody Lépoa
  • Champagne
  • Chanchoénéa
  • Changala[7]
  • Chaochako Kaskoa
  • Chasperro
  • Chinta
  • Chiriatéguia
  • Chuhy
  • Churritcheguy
  • Cocagaïchto
  • Colomio
  • Curutcheko Kaskoa
  • Curutchetako Borda
  • Dartépé
  • Dominé
  • Ehuntzaroy (pass, 971m)[8]
  • Elhorrieta (pass, 831m)[8]
  • Elichaldia
  • Erdizako Borda
  • Erreguéréa
  • Errekaénéa
  • Erremerreka
  • Errolako Ithurria
  • Esculeguy
  • Etcheberria
  • Eyhérazaïna
  • Eyhérazaïnako Borda>
  • Fagaldénéa
  • Galant
  • Gathuly Béhéréa[8]
  • Gathulyko Ithurria[8]
  • Gnafarénéa
  • Gnimigno
  • Golko
  • Golomio Ithurria
  • Goroldi
  • Gorria[9]
  • Gosnaisto
  • Guichonaenea[10]
  • Guildeizar
  • Guzmuztiko Borda
  • Halzéta
  • Harguintoa
  • Harrigaitzeko Kaskoa
  • Harrigorri
  • Harzia
  • Hauzay
  • Hayra
  • Hayra (forest)[8]
  • Hayra Sar
  • Hortz Zorrotz (rocks)
  • Ilharragorria
  • Ilharragorrikomalda
  • Indiano
  • Iramebako Borda
  • Iramehaca
  • Irausta
  • Ithurrialde Béhéréa
  • Ithurrialde Garaya
  • Jaureguibeheréa
  • Joanes Ederra
  • Jokutako Lépoa
  • Katchaenéa
  • Labaquia
  • Lechéa
  • Legarzuko Borda
  • Legaza (mill)
  • Lehaltzarte
  • Lekayoénéa
  • Lepeder
  • Lepobelcha
  • Lezetako Lépoa
  • Lindus[8][11]
  • Manechénéa
  • Maneixhandy
  • Marieyhéra
  • Maristola Ithurria
  • Maritcho
  • Marmaroa
  • Martinbelchénéa
  • Matchin Ithurria
  • Meharroztegui (pass, 738m)[8]
  • Mehatzé (pass, 1133m)
  • Menta
  • Minchendo
  • Mizpira (pass, 832m)[8]
  • Mizparachar (pass, 1139m)[8]
  • Moroinborda
  • Mutikoénéa
  • Musquet
  • Ohakoa
  • Olapideko Etchola
  • Olhaberrieta
  • Ondarlako Ithurria
  • Orkastia
  • Otsachar
  • Otsahartéa
  • Otsarrapeguy
  • Otsartéa
  • Oyhançaro
  • Pago Zelhay (pass, 888m)
  • Peilloénéa
  • Peilloeneko Borda
  • Petanénéa
  • Petechaénéa
  • Premonio
  • Tchipitcho Etchola
  • Teylary or Nahala (pass, 932m)
  • Tipitto
  • Todoria
  • Turitchia
  • Uhaillen Borda
  • Uhaldéa
  • Urbaztarréa
  • Urlabéhéréa
  • Urlagaraya
  • Urritzolahandiko Etchola
  • Uzkalépoa
  • Zaku
  • Zakuko Borda
  • Zubiarin
  • Zubiarinzahar
  • Zumazoko

[12]

 
Traditional house in the Aldudes Valley.

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Banca, Pyrénées-Atlantiques (1981–2010 averages, extremes 1949–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
29.0
(84.2)
33.0
(91.4)
35.0
(95.0)
36.5
(97.7)
41.4
(106.5)
40.9
(105.6)
42.6
(108.7)
37.5
(99.5)
35.0
(95.0)
28.0
(82.4)
24.0
(75.2)
42.6
(108.7)
Average high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
12.3
(54.1)
15.3
(59.5)
16.9
(62.4)
20.8
(69.4)
23.9
(75.0)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79.0)
23.7
(74.7)
19.4
(66.9)
14.1
(57.4)
11.5
(52.7)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
7.6
(45.7)
10.0
(50.0)
11.5
(52.7)
15.1
(59.2)
18.1
(64.6)
20.1
(68.2)
20.3
(68.5)
17.7
(63.9)
14.5
(58.1)
9.9
(49.8)
7.6
(45.7)
13.3
(55.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
3.0
(37.4)
4.7
(40.5)
6.1
(43.0)
9.3
(48.7)
12.3
(54.1)
14.3
(57.7)
14.5
(58.1)
11.8
(53.2)
9.5
(49.1)
5.7
(42.3)
3.8
(38.8)
8.2
(46.8)
Record low °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−13.0
(8.6)
−8.5
(16.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.0
(33.8)
3.0
(37.4)
6.2
(43.2)
3.5
(38.3)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.7
(18.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−13.0
(8.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 187.6
(7.39)
159.5
(6.28)
158.6
(6.24)
181.2
(7.13)
131.5
(5.18)
84.4
(3.32)
74.9
(2.95)
84.4
(3.32)
115.3
(4.54)
152.9
(6.02)
212.5
(8.37)
201.6
(7.94)
1,744.4
(68.68)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.4 11.9 12.7 14.8 13.2 9.8 8.3 9.4 10.0 12.3 13.0 13.3 142.1
Source: Meteo France[13]

ToponymyEdit

The commune name in Basque is Banka.[5]

For John-Baptiste Orpustan, the origin of the name Banca can have two interpretations: one lent from the Spanish banco designating the bench on which money was exchanged (which gave the French word banque which gave the English bank) or two from bancs de pierre (stone benches).

The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.

Name Spelling Date Source Page Origin Description
Banca La Fonderie 1750 Cassini Village
Lafonderie 1793 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini
Banca 1832 Orpustan
Bihuntzeguiko erreka Bihuncéguy 1863 Raymond
31
Stream rising in Banca and joining the Nive at Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry
Churitcha Le Col de Churitcha 1863 Raymond
50
Mountain Pass on the Spanish border
Ehuntzaroy Le Col d’Éhunsaroy 1863 Raymond
58
Mountain Pass on the Spanish border
Elhorietta Le Col d'Elhoriéta 1863 Raymond
58
Mountain Pass on the Spanish border
Gathuly Gathuly 1863 Raymond
68
Mountain on the border with Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry
Forêt d’Hayra Hayra 1863 Raymond
76
Forest shared with Urepel
Lindus Lindux 1863 Raymond
102
Mountain (1220m) on the Spanish border
Meharroztegui Le Col de Méharoztéguy 1863 Raymond
111
Mountain pass to Aldudes
Mehatzé Le Col de Méhatcé 1863 Raymond
111
Mountain pass to Spain
Mizpira Le Col de Mizpira 1863 Raymond
114
Mountain pass to Aldudes
Mizpirachar Mizpirachar 1863 Raymond
114
Mountain on the Spanish border

Sources:

HistoryEdit

Banca owes its origin to the revival in the 18th century of the copper mines which had operated in ancient times. Banca was known as Le Fonderie (The Foundry) until the 19th century" and, under the Ancien Régime, it was a hamlet or district under the parish of Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry. It was not made a commune until 1793 under the same name, then in 1874 it was renamed "Banca". The remains of a large forge, a steel foundry started in 1828 on the site of the former copper smelter, stands at the entrance of the village on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes. The most visible element is a blast furnace in good condition.

The first armed action by Iparretarrak took place in Banca on 11 December 1973.

AdministrationEdit

List of Successive Mayors[16]

From To Name
1995 2001 Gratien Arambel
2001 2008 Dominique Etcheverry
2008 2026 Michel Oçafrain

Inter-communalityEdit

The commune is part of four inter-communal structures:

  • the Communauté d'agglomération du Pays Basque;
  • the inter-communal association for the development and management of the slaughterhouse in Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port;
  • the association to support Basque culture.
  • the joint association for the drainage basin of the Nive;

DemographyEdit

In 2017 the commune had 346 inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 803—    
1800 590−4.31%
1806 999+9.17%
1821 1,068+0.45%
1831 1,419+2.88%
1836 1,280−2.04%
1841 1,429+2.23%
1846 1,309−1.74%
1851 1,327+0.27%
1856 1,064−4.32%
1861 1,069+0.09%
1866 1,020−0.93%
1872 1,020+0.00%
1876 1,027+0.17%
1881 952−1.51%
1886 944−0.17%
1891 872−1.57%
1896 828−1.03%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 829+0.02%
1906 833+0.10%
1911 815−0.44%
1921 800−0.19%
1926 770−0.76%
1931 780+0.26%
1936 748−0.83%
1946 735−0.18%
1954 799+1.05%
1962 672−2.14%
1968 634−0.97%
1975 524−2.69%
1982 450−2.15%
1990 426−0.68%
1999 373−1.47%
2007 348−0.86%
2012 332−0.94%
2017 346+0.83%
Source: EHESS[17] and INSEE[18]

EconomyEdit

 
The Banca Mine

The copper/silver mines and the associated smelter reached their peak in the middle of the 18th century and the forge, with its blast furnace, was in operation from 1828 to 1861.

Economic activity is now mainly agricultural. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone of Ossau-iraty.

Culture and heritageEdit

Civil heritageEdit

The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Banca Mine on D948 (19th century). [19] These remains are at the northern entrance of the village including a blast furnace. The supply canal is fed by the waters of the Nive captured upstream and turn a wheel of a blower machine which injected air at the base of the blast furnace through two nozzles. The adjacent building, still dominated by the canal, housed the forge fires and hammers to make cast iron and a splitting mill for splitting iron bars.
  • Houses and Farms (19th century) [20]
  • The Redoubt of Lindus (1813). [11] This redoubt was used during the Franco-Spanish War 1813–1814.
  • The Gorria Farmhouse (now a Stable) (18th century) [9]
  • The Gixonaenea Farmhouse (1808) [10]
  • The Xangala Farmhouse (19th century) [7]

Religious heritageEdit

 
The Parish Church of Saint Peter.
  • The Parish Church of Saint Peter (19th century)  is registered as an historical monument.[21]

Environmental heritageEdit

  • The Petechanea Gallery (0.1 hectares) is one of the locations of the regional conservatory of natural areas of the Pyrenees.
  • Mountain Peaks[12]
    • Mount Harrigorry 806 m
    • Munhogain 853 m
    • Otsamunho 901 m
    • Errola 908 m
    • Abraku 1003 m
    • Ichtauz 1024 m
    • Antchola 1119 m
    • Mehatzé 1209 m
    • Lindus 1220 m
    • Mendimotcha 1224 m
    • Aurigna 1278 m
 
The Fronton.

FacilitiesEdit

EducationEdit

The commune has a primary school.

SportsEdit

There is a Fronton traversed by a road.

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Mines and Metallurgical Establishments of Banca, dir. P. Machot, J&D, Biarritz, Izpegi, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, 1995, 306 p. (in French)
  • Pierre Machot and Gilles Parent, "Mines and Metallurgy in the Valley of Baïgorry", in The Valley of Baïgorry, Éditions Izpegi, reprinted in 2002 (in French)
  • Gilles Parent, "The handiwork of the Copper Foundry of Banca in the 18th century" in Revue d'Histoire Industrielle des Pyrénées Occidentales, No. 2, 2007, p. 143–222, Éditions Izpegi (in French)

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2018". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2020.
  2. ^ Banca on Lion1906
  3. ^ Pays Quint on French Wikipedia (in French)
  4. ^ Inhabitants of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (in French)
  5. ^ a b Euskaltzaindia - Academy of the Basque language (in Spanish)
  6. ^ a b c Banca on Google Maps
  7. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000405 Xangala Farmhouse (in French)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (in French)
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000461 Gorria Farmhouse (in French)
  10. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000460 Gixonaenea Farmhouse (in French)
  11. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000462 Redoubt of Lindus (in French)
  12. ^ a b Banca on the Géoportail from National Geographic Institute (IGN) website (in French)
  13. ^ "Banca (64)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  14. ^ Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4, p. 165 (in French)
  15. ^ la Fonderie on the 1750 Cassini Map
  16. ^ List of Mayors of France (in French)
  17. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Banca, EHESS. (in French)
  18. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA64000003 Banca Mine (in French)
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000488 Houses and Farms (in French)
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000404 Parish Church of Saint Peter (in French)