Baenidae is an extinct family of paracryptodiran turtles known from the Early Cretaceous to Eocene of North America.[1][2] While during the Early Cretaceous they are found across North America, during the Late Cretaceous they are only found in Laramidia, having disappeared from Appalachia. The majority of lineages survived the K-Pg Extinction, but the family was extinct by the latest Eocene. The name of the type genus, Baena, appears to be of Native American origin. They are primarily found in freshwater deposits, and are considered to be aquatic, with a largely generalist habit.[3]

Temporal range: (Valanginian to Eocene, 139.4–40 Ma
Chisternon, AMNH
Shellof Baena arenosa (AMNH 1112)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Pantestudines
Clade: Testudinata
Clade: Paracryptodira
Superfamily: Baenoidea
Family: Baenidae
Cope, 1882





The following cladogram shows the taxonomy and phylogeny of baenids according to Joyce & Lyson (2015).[3]


Arundelemys dardeni Lipka et al., 2006

Trinitichelys hiatti Gaffney, 1972


Neurankylus lithographicus Larson et al., 2013

Neurankylus baueri Gilmore, 1916

Neurankylus eximius Lambe, 1902

Neurankylus sp.

Lambe, 1902

Protobaena wyomingensis (Gilmore, 1920)

Hayemys latifrons (Hay, 1908)

Hay, 1908

Arvinachelys goldeni

Scabremys ornata (Gilmore, 1935)


Baena arenosa Leidy, 1870

Stygiochelys estesi Gaffney & Hiatt, 1971

Chisternon undatum (Leidy, 1871)

"Baena" affinis Leidy, 1871

"Baena" escavada Hay, 1908

"Baena" hayi (Gilmore, 1916)

Eubaena hatcheri (Hay, 1901)

Eubaena cephalica (Hay, 1904)

Denazinemys nodosa (Gilmore, 1916)


Boremys grandis Gilmore, 1935

Boremys pulchra (Lambe, 1906)

Lambe, 1906
Gaffney, 1972

Plesiobaena antiqua (Lambe, 1902)

Gamerabaena sonsalla Lyson & Joyce, 2010


Cedrobaena brinkman (Lyson & Joyce, 2009)

Cedrobaena putorius (Gaffney, 1972)

Lyson & Joyce, 2009

Goleremys mckennai Hutchison, 2004


Palatobaena cohen Lyson & Joyce, 2009

Palatobaena bairdi Gaffney, 1972

Palatobaena gaffneyi Archibald & Hutchison, 1979

Gaffney, 1972
Gaffney, 1972
Brinkman, 2003
Cope, 1873


  1. ^ Gaffney, Eugene S. (1972). "The systematics of the North American family Baenidae (Reptilia, Cryptodira)". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 147 (5): 241–320. hdl:2246/1098.
  2. ^ Joyce, Walter G.; Anquetin, Jérémy (October 2019). "A Review of the Fossil Record of Nonbaenid Turtles of the Clade Paracryptodira". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 60 (2): 129–155. doi:10.3374/014.060.0204. ISSN 0079-032X. S2CID 203780510.
  3. ^ a b Joyce, W.G.; Lyson, T.R. (2015). "A review of the fossil record of turtles of the clade Baenidae" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 56 (2): 147–183. doi:10.3374/014.056.0203. S2CID 4654828.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Baenidae". Fossilworks. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  5. ^ Adrian, B.; Smith, H. F.; Kelley, K.; Wolfe, D. G. (2022). "A new baenid, Edowa zuniensis gen. et sp. nov., and other fossil turtles from the Upper Cretaceous Moreno Hill Formation (Turonian), New Mexico, USA". Cretaceous Research. 105422. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105422. S2CID 253905727.
  6. ^ Adrian, B.; Smith, H.; Noto, C. (2023). "A revision of "Trinitichelys" maini (Testudinata: Baenidae) and additional material of its new genus from the Lewisville Formation (Woodbine Group, Cenomanian), Texas, USA". Palaeontologia Electronica. 26 (2): a28. doi:10.26879/1266.
  7. ^ Joyce, Walter G.; Rollot, Yann; Cifelli, Richard L. (2020-02-12). "A new species of baenid turtle from the Early Cretaceous Lakota Formation of South Dakota". Fossil Record. 23 (1): 1–13. Bibcode:2020FossR..23....1J. doi:10.5194/fr-23-1-2020. ISSN 2193-0066.
  8. ^ Spicher, G.E.; Sertich, J.J.; Girard, L.C.; Joyce, W.G.; Lyson, T.R.; Rollot, Y. (2023). "A description of a Denazinemys nodosa specimen (Testudinata, Baenidae) from the Late Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah". Fossil Record. 26 (2): 151–170. Bibcode:2023FossR..26..151S. doi:10.3897/fr.26.102520.
  9. ^ "Saxochelys gilberti, A New Baenid Turtle from the Uppermost Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Hell Creek Formation: Sexual Dimorphism and Spatial Niche Partitioning within the Most Speciose Group of Late Cretaceous Turtles".
  10. ^ Spicher, G.E.; Lyson, T.R.; Evers, S. W. (2024). "Updated cranial and mandibular description of the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) baenid turtle Saxochelys gilberti based on micro-computed tomography scans and new information on the holotype-shell association". Swiss Journal of Paleontology. 143 (1): 1–28. doi:10.1186/s13358-023-00301-6. PMC 10805913. PMID 38274637.
  11. ^ "Stygiochelys Gaffney and Hiatt 1971". Fossilworks. Gateway to the Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 18 October 2019.