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Testudinata is the group of all tetrapods with a true turtle shell. It includes both modern turtles (Testudines) and many of their extinct, shelled relatives (stem-turtles). Though it was first coined as the group containing turtles by Klein in 1760, it was first defined in the modern sense by Joyce and colleagues in 2004. Testudinata does not include the primitive stem-turtle Odontochelys, which only had the bottom half of a shell.[2] A recent phylogenetic tree of Testudinata included Angolachelonia and Testudines as sister-taxa and subgroups of Testudinata [3].

Testudinata
Temporal range: Late Triassic - Holocene, 210–0 Ma
Possible Early and Middle Triassic records in the form of fossil tracks[1]
Proganochelys Quenstedti.jpg
Skeleton of Proganochelys quenstedti, American Museum of Natural History
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Pantestudines
Clade: Testudinata
Klein, 1760
Subgroups

Angolachelonia and Testudines

ClassificationEdit

The cladogram below follows an analysis by Jérémy Anquetin in 2012.[2]

Odontochelys

 Testudinata 

Proterochersis

Proganochelys

Palaeochersis

Australochelys

Kayentachelys

Indochelys

Sichuanchelys

Chengyuchelys

Chuannanchelys

Eileanchelys

Heckerochelys

Condorchelys

Naomichelys

Otwayemys

Mongolochelys

 Meiolaniidae 

Niolamia

Ninjemys

Meiolania

Kallokibotion

Testudines (modern turtles)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Asher J. Lichtig; Spencer G. Lucas; Hendrik Klein; David M. Lovelace (2018). "Triassic turtle tracks and the origin of turtles". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 30 (8): 1112–1122. doi:10.1080/08912963.2017.1339037.
  2. ^ a b Anquetin, J. R. M. (2012). "Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10: 3–45. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.558928.
  3. ^ Evers, S. W., & Benson, R. B. (2019). A new phylogenetic hypothesis of turtles with implications for the timing and number of evolutionary transitions to marine lifestyles in the group. Palaeontology, 62(1), 93-134.