Axum or Aksum, is a town in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia with a population of 66,800 residents (as of 2015).[1] It was a popular town with international visitors until the Tigray War started in November 2020.

Axum
( pronounced: /ˈæksm/ )
Tigrinya: ኣኽሱም     Amharic: አክሱም    Ge’ez: አኵስም
City
Aksum, stele 2 (stele di roma) 03.jpg
Aksum, stele 3 detta di re ezana, l'unica mai crollata 06.jpg
Maryam Sion in Axum Nebenbau mit der Bundeslade 2010.jpg
Aksum, palazzo di dungur detto della regina di saba, 10 scalinata.jpg
Stelae, Aksum (8140296506).jpg
ET Axum asv2018-01 img35 view from hill.jpg
From top to bottom, left to right: Obelisk of Axum, King Ezana's Stele, Chapel of the Tablet at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, Ruins of Dungur, Northern Stelae Park, view of Axum
Axum ( pronounced: /ˈæksuːm/ ) is located in Ethiopia
Axum ( pronounced: /ˈæksuːm/ )
Axum
( pronounced: /ˈæksm/ )
Coordinates: 14°7′15″N 38°43′40″E / 14.12083°N 38.72778°E / 14.12083; 38.72778Coordinates: 14°7′15″N 38°43′40″E / 14.12083°N 38.72778°E / 14.12083; 38.72778
CountryEthiopia
RegionTigray
ZoneMaekelay
Elevation
2,131 m (6,991 ft)
CriteriaCultural: i, iv
Reference15
Inscription1980 (4th Session)

It is the site of the historic capital of the Aksumite Empire,[2][3][4] a naval and trading power that ruled the whole region from about 400 BCE into the 10th century. In 1980, UNESCO added Axum's archaeological sites to its list of World Heritage Sites due to their historic value.

Axum is located in the Maekelay Zone of the Tigray Region, near the base of the Adwa mountains. It has an elevation of 2,131 metres (6,991 feet) and is surrounded by La'ilay Maychew, a separately administered woreda of the Tigray region.

HistoryEdit

 
Aksumite empire's maximum extent of influence, based on p. 97 of The Times Complete History of the World

Axum was the hub of the marine trading power known as the Aksumite Empire, which predated the earliest mentions in Roman-era writings. Around 356 CE, its ruler was converted to an Abyssinian variety of Christianity by Frumentius. Later, under the reign of the Emperor Kaleb, Aksum was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Sasanian Empire which had adopted Zoroastrianism. The historical record is unclear with ancient church records being the primary contemporary sources.

It is believed the empire began a long and slow decline after the 7th century due partly to the Persians and then the Arabs contesting old Red Sea trade routes. Eventually the empire was cut off from its principal markets in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe and its share of trade captured by Arab traders of the era.

 
The Axumite Empire showing its relation to other polities in 565

The Aksumite Empire was finally destroyed in the 10th century by Empress Gudit,[5] and eventually some of the people of Axum were forced south and their old way of life declined. As the empire's power declined so did the influence of the city, which is believed to have lost population in the decline, similar to Rome and other cities thrust away from the flow of world events. The last known (nominal) emperor to reign was crowned in about the 10th century, but the empire's influence and power had ended long before that.

Its decline in population and trade then contributed to the shift of the power hub of the Ethiopian Empire south to the Agaw region as it moved further inland. In this period the city of Axum became the administrative seat of an empire spanning one million square miles. Eventually, the alternative name of Ethiopia was adopted by the central region and then by the modern state that presently exists.[6]

"Axum" (or its Greek and Latin equivalents) appears as an important centre on indigenous maps of the northern Horn of Africa in the 15th century.[7][8]

The Aksumite Empire and the Ethiopian ChurchEdit

 
The Aksumite Kingdom began to issue coins about AD 270. Silver and bronze coins for local, everyday use generally followed the design of Roman coins with a bust of the ruler in profile on at least one side. Axumite coins were the first in the ancient world to carry the cross as a symbol of the ruler's devotion to Christianity. This 6th century gold coin probably depicts the Axumite king Ousas

The Aksumite Empire had its own written language, Geʽez, and developed a distinctive architecture exemplified by giant obelisks. The oldest of these, though relatively small, dates from 5000–2000 BCE.[9] The empire was at its height under Emperor Ezana, baptized as Abreha in the 4th century (which was also when the empire officially embraced Christianity).[10]

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church claims that the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum houses the Biblical Ark of the Covenant, in which lie the Tablets of Stone upon which the Ten Commandments are inscribed.[11] Ethiopian traditions suggest that it was from Axum that Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, journeyed to visit King Solomon in Jerusalem and that the two had a son, Menelik, who grew up in Ethiopia but travelled to Jerusalem as a young man to visit his father's homeland. He lived several years in Jerusalem before returning to his country with the Ark of the Covenant. According to the Ethiopian Church and Ethiopian tradition, the Ark still exists in Axum. This same church was the site where Ethiopian emperors were crowned for centuries until the reign of Fasilides, then again beginning with Yohannes IV until the end of the empire. Axum is considered to be the holiest city in Ethiopia and is an important destination of pilgrimages.[11][12] Significant religious festivals are the Timkat festival (known as Epiphany in western Christianity) on 19 January (20 January in leap years) and the Festival of Maryam Zion on 30 November[13] (21 Hidar on the Ethiopian calendar).

 
The Obelisk of Axum after being returned to Ethiopia.

In 1937, a 24 m (79 ft) tall, 1,700-year-old Obelisk of Axum, was broken into five parts by the Italians and shipped to Rome to be erected. The obelisk is widely regarded as one of the finest examples of engineering from the height of the Axumite empire. Despite a 1947 United Nations agreement that the obelisk would be shipped back, Italy balked, resulting in a long-standing diplomatic dispute with the Ethiopian government, which views the obelisk as a symbol of national identity. In April 2005, Italy finally returned the obelisk pieces to Axum amidst much official and public rejoicing; Italy also covered the US$4 million costs of the transfer. UNESCO assumed responsibility for the re-installation of this stele in Axum, and by the end of July 2008 the obelisk had been reinstalled. It was unveiled on 4 September 2008.[14][15]

Axum and IslamEdit

 
A 14th century illustration showing the Christian ruler of Aksum (Negus Atse Armah, also known as Al-Najashi) declining the request of a pagan Meccan delegation to hand over the first Muslims who had received refuge in the city during the first Hijra after Muhammad told them to take refuge there.

The Aksumite Empire had a long-standing relationship with Islam. According to ibn Hisham,[16] when Muhammad faced oppression from the Quraysh clan in Mecca, he sent a small group of his original followers, that included his daughter Ruqayya and her husband Uthman, to Axum. The Negus, the Aksumite monarch[17] (known as An-Najashi (النجاشي) in the Islamic tradition), gave them refuge and protection and refused the requests of the Quraish clan to send the refugees back to Arabia. These refugees did not return until the sixth Hijri year (628 C.E.) and even then many remained in Ethiopia, eventually settling at Negash in what is now the Misraqawi Zone.[citation needed]

There are different traditions concerning the effect these early Muslims had on the ruler of Axum. The Muslim tradition is that the ruler of Axum was so impressed by these refugees that he became a secret convert.[18] On the other hand, Arabic historians and Ethiopian tradition state that some of the Muslim refugees who lived in Ethiopia during this time converted to Orthodox Christianity.[citation needed] There is also a second Ethiopian tradition that, on the death of Ashama ibn Abjar, Muhammed is reported to have prayed for the king's soul, and told his followers, "Leave the Abyssinians in peace, as long as they do not take the offensive."[19]

Earlier researchesEdit

In February 1893 the British explorers, James Theodore Bent and his wife Mabel Bent, travelled by boat to Massawa on the west coast of the Red Sea. They then made their way overland to excavate at Axum and Yeha, in the hope of researching possible links between early trading networks and cultures on both sides of the Red Sea.[20] They reached Axum by 24 February 1893,[21] but their work was curtailed[22] by the tensions between the Italian occupiers and local warlords, together with the continuing ramifications of the First Italo-Ethiopian War and they had to make a hasty retreat by the end of March to Zula for passage back to England.[23]

3D documentation with laser-scanningEdit

 
Archaeologist, Stuart Munro-Hay, wrote of the Great Obelisk: "...among the biggest single stones ever quarried by human labour. It testifies to the magnificent self-esteem of the unknown ruler who had it extracted and dragged several kilometres to its final site, and to the skill and artistry of those who prepared and decorated it. Over thirty-three metres tall, the stele represents a thirteen storey tower, with elaborate window-tracery, frames, lintels, beam-ends, even a door with a bolt. This monstrous stone soon fell---perhaps a few seconds after being levered upright---smashing onto the roof block of a tomb nearby. This block (some 17 x 7 x 1.5 metres), was not broken, though the tomb underneath it was crushed, but the great stele separated into three pieces. The top was completely smashed by the impact. Nearby is its largest still-standing neighbour, twenty-seven metres tall."

The Zamani Project documents cultural heritage sites in 3D to create a record for future generations.[24][25][26][27] The documentation is based on terrestrial laser-scanning.[28][29] The 3D documentation of parts of the Axum Stelae Field was carried out in 2006[30] and 3D models, plans and images can be viewed here.

1989 air raidEdit

During the Ethiopian Civil War, on 30 March 1989, Axum was bombed from the air by the Ethiopian National Defence Forces and three people were killed.[31]

Maryam Ts'iyon massacreEdit

 
Dome and bell tower of the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion

Thousands of civilians died during the Axum massacre that took place in and around the Maryam Ts'iyon Church in Axum during the Tigray War in December 2020.[32][33] There was indiscriminate shooting by the Eritrean Defence Forces (EDF) throughout Axum[34][35]and focussed killings at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion (Maryam Ts'iyon) by the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) and Amhara militia.[32][33][36]

The church was also a place where the corpses of civilians killed elsewhere were collected for burial.[34] A tight government communications blackout ensured that news of the massacre (or two separate massacres; reports are still emerging) was only revealed internationally in early January 2021 after survivors escaped to safer locations.[37]

Main sites of AxumEdit

 
King Ezana's Stele, in Axum, Ethiopia

The major Aksumite monuments in the town are steles. These obelisks are around 1,700 years old and have become a symbol of the Ethiopian people's identity.[38] The largest number are in the Northern Stelae Park, ranging up to the 33 m (108 ft) long[a 1] Great Stele, believed to have fallen and broken during construction.[39] The Obelisk of Axum[a 2] was removed by the Italian army in 1937, and returned to Ethiopia in 2005 and reinstalled 31 July 2008.[38] The next tallest is the 24 m (79 ft)[a 3] King Ezana's Stele. Three more stelae measure 18.2 m (60 ft) high,[a 4] 15.8 m (52 ft) high,[a 5] 15.3 m (50 ft) high.[a 6][40] The stelae are believed to mark graves and would have had cast metal discs affixed to their sides, which are also carved with architectural designs. The Gudit Stelae to the west of town, unlike the northern area, are interspersed with mostly 4th century tombs.

 
The Chapel of the Tablet

The other major features of the town are the old and new churches of Our Lady Mary of Zion. The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion was built in 1665 by Emperor Fasilides and said to have previously housed the Ark of the Covenant. The original cathedral, said to have been built by Ezana and augmented several times afterwards, was believed to have been massive with an estimated 12 naves.[citation needed] It was burned to the ground by Gudit, rebuilt, and then destroyed again during the Abyssinian–Adal war of the 1500s. It was again rebuilt by Emperor Gelawdewos (completed by his brother and successor Emperor Minas) and Emperor Fasilides replaced that structure with the present one. Only men are permitted entry into the Old St. Mary's Cathedral (some say as a result of the destruction of the original church by Gudit). The New Cathedral of St. Mary of Zion stands next to the old one, and was built to fulfil a pledge by Emperor Haile Selassie to Our Lady of Zion for the liberation of Ethiopia from the Fascist occupation. Built in a neo-Byzantine style, work on the new cathedral began in 1955, and allows entry to women. Emperor Haile Selassie interrupted the state visit of Queen Elizabeth II to travel to Axum to attend the dedication of the new cathedral and pay personal homage, showing the importance of this church in the Ethiopian Empire. The Queen visited the Cathedral a few days later. Between the two cathedrals is a small chapel known as The Chapel of the Tablet built at the same time as the new cathedral, and which is believed to house the Ark of the Covenant. Emperor Haile Selassie's consort, Empress Menen Asfaw, paid for its construction from her private funds. Admittance to the chapel is closed to all but the guardian monk who resides there. Entrance is even forbidden to the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church, and to the Emperor of Ethiopia during the monarchy. The two cathedrals and the chapel of the Ark are the focus of pilgrimage and considered the holiest sites in Ethiopia to members of its Orthodox Church.

 
The Ezana Stone, engraved from AD 330 to 356, is written in ancient Ge'ez, Sabaean and Greek.

Other attractions in Axum include archaeological and ethnographic museums, the Ezana Stone written in Sabaean, Geʽez and Ancient Greek in a similar manner to the Rosetta Stone, King Bazen's Tomb (a megalith considered to be one of the earliest structures), the so-called Queen of Sheba's Bath (actually a reservoir), the 4th-century Ta'akha Maryam and 6th-century Dungur palaces, Pentalewon Monastery and Abba Liqanos and about 2 km (1.2 mi) west is the rock art called the Lioness of Gobedra.

Local legend claims the Queen of Sheba lived in the town.

ClimateEdit

The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as subtropical highland (Cwb).[41]

Climate data for Axum
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.9
(78.6)
27.2
(81.0)
28.6
(83.5)
29.4
(84.9)
28.8
(83.8)
27.0
(80.6)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.8
(76.6)
26.3
(79.3)
26.8
(80.2)
25.7
(78.3)
26.3
(79.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
17.8
(64.0)
17.7
(63.9)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
19.7
(67.5)
17.2
(63.0)
17.4
(63.3)
17.9
(64.2)
17.9
(64.2)
17.4
(63.3)
16.2
(61.2)
18.1
(64.7)
Average low °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
8.4
(47.1)
10.8
(51.4)
12.7
(54.9)
12.9
(55.2)
12.4
(54.3)
12.0
(53.6)
12.6
(54.7)
11.1
(52.0)
9.6
(49.3)
8.0
(46.4)
6.7
(44.1)
10.4
(50.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
9
(0.4)
27
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
67
(2.6)
221
(8.7)
199
(7.8)
67
(2.6)
12
(0.5)
13
(0.5)
1
(0.0)
652
(25.6)
Source: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 2133m)[41]

DemographicsEdit

PopulationEdit

According to the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), as of 1 July 2012 the town of Axum's estimated population was 56,576. The census indicated that 30,293 of the population were females and 26,283 were males.[42]

ReligionEdit

The 2007 national census showed that the town population was 44,647, of whom 20,741 were males and 23,906 females). The majority of the inhabitants said they practised Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 88.03% reporting that as their religion, while 10.89% of the population were Ethiopian Muslim.[43]

The 1994 national census reported the population for the city as 27,148, of whom 12,536 were men and 14,612 were women. The largest ethnic group reported was Tigrayans with 98.54% and Tigrinya was spoken as a first language by 98.68%. The majority of the population practised Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity with 85.08% reported as embracing that religion, while 14.81% were Muslim.[44]

TransportEdit

 
The Axum Airport terminal building.

Axum Airport, also known as Emperor Yohannes IV Airport,[45] is located just 5.5 km (3.4 miles) to the east of the city.

EducationEdit

Aksum University was established in May 2006 on a greenfield site, 4 km (2.5 mi) from Axum's central area. The inauguration ceremony was held on 16 February 2007 and the current area of the campus is 107 ha (260 acres), with ample room for expansion.[citation needed] The establishment of a university in Axum is expected to contribute much to the ongoing development of the country in general and of the region in particular.

Notable peopleEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 3.84 m (12.6 ft) wide, 2.35 m (7 ft 9 in) deep, weighing 520 t (510 long tons; 570 short tons)
  2. ^ 24.6 m (81 ft) high, 2.32 m (7 ft 7 in) wide, 1.36 m (4 ft 6 in) deep, weighing 170 t (170 long tons; 190 short tons)
  3. ^ 20.6 m (68 ft) high above the front baseplate, 2.65 m (8 ft 8 in) wide, 1.18 m (3 ft 10 in) deep, weighing 160 t (160 long tons; 180 short tons)
  4. ^ 1.56 m (5 ft 1 in) wide, 0.76 m (2 ft 6 in) deep, weighing 56 t (55 long tons; 62 short tons)
  5. ^ 2.35 m (7 ft 9 in) wide, 1 m (3 ft 3 in) deep, weighing 75 t (74 long tons; 83 short tons)
  6. ^ 1.47 m (4 ft 10 in) wide, 0.78 m (2 ft 7 in) deep, weighing 43 t (42 long tons; 47 short tons)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "City Population".
  2. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Axum". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Aksum Ethiopia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  4. ^ Phillipson, David W. (2014). Foundations of an African Civilisation: Aksum and the Northern Horn, 1000 BC - AD 1300. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 69. ISBN 9781847010889. Retrieved 24 February 2019. At Aksum itself, little is known about the earliest phases, such as might aid our understanding of the transition. Archaeological investigation has been restricted by the presence of the modern town, and penetration of the lowest levels is impeded by later features which merit preservation.
  5. ^ De Agostini, ed. (2012). L'Egitto e il Vicino Oriente. Novara: Corriere della Sera. p. 366.
  6. ^ G. Mokhtar, UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. II, Abridged Edition (Berkeley: University of Aksum Press, 1990), pp. 215-35. ISBN 0-85255-092-8
  7. ^ Nyssen, J., Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannes, Hailemariam Meaza, Dondeyne, S., 2020. Exploration of a medieval African map (Aksum, Ethiopia) – How do historical maps fit with topography? In: De Ryck, M., Nyssen, J., Van Acker, K., Van Roy, W., Liber Amicorum: Philippe De Maeyer In Kaart. Wachtebeke (Belgium): University Press: 165-178.
  8. ^ Smidt W (2003) Cartography, in: Uhlig S (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, vol. 1: 688-691
  9. ^ Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 871.
  10. ^ Fage, J. D., A History of Africa (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 53–4. ISBN 0-415-25248-2
  11. ^ a b Hodd, Mike, Footprint East Africa Handbook (New York: Footprint Travel Guides, 2002), p. 859. ISBN 1-900949-65-2.
  12. ^ See Linda Kay Davidson and David Gitlitz Pilgrimage, from the Ganges to Graceland: an Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2002), 17–18.
  13. ^ Lim, Fr. John Francesco Maria. "Mary of the Day (November 30) – Our Lady Mary of Zion (New Ark of the New Covenant), Axum, Tigray, Ethiopia". Mary the Immaculate One. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  14. ^ "Ethiopia unveils ancient obelisk". BBC News. 4 September 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  15. ^ "The Reinstallation of the Axum Obelisk" (PDF). UNESCO. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  16. ^ ibn Hisham, The Life of the Prophet
  17. ^ Nimer, Ph.D., Muḥammad. "Exegesis, Social Science and the Place of the Jews in the Qur'an". Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  18. ^ Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad (Oxford, 1955), 657–58.
  19. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 42f
  20. ^ Bent published the trip in his: The sacred city of the Ethiopians: being a record of travel and research in Abyssinia in 1893, London, Longmans, Green and Co, 1894.
  21. ^ The Travel Chronicles of Mrs J. Theodore Bent, Vol. 2, 2012, Oxford, Archaeopress, page 201.
  22. ^ ‘Theodore Bent’s expedition to Abyssinia for the purpose of investigating the ruins of Aksum has not been so successful as might have been wished, owing to the hostilities which are being carried on between two of the chiefs; indeed, he and Mrs. Bent had a narrow escape from being involved in their hostilities. Still the expedition has not been altogether without interesting results.’ (Mountstuart E. Grant Duff, The Annual Address on the Progress of Geography, 1892-93, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jul., 1893), 21).
  23. ^ Bent published three further accounts relating to their Ethiopian trip of 1893: From the Heart of Abyssinia, Illustrated London News, 8 April 1893; In the North of Abyssinia, Illustrated London News, 6 May 1893; The Ancient Trade Route across Ethiopia, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 2 (2) (Aug), 140-6.
  24. ^ Rüther, Heinz; Rajan, Rahim S. (2007). "Documenting African Sites: The Aluka Project". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 66 (4): 437–443. doi:10.1525/jsah.2007.66.4.437. ISSN 0037-9808. JSTOR 10.1525/jsah.2007.66.4.437.
  25. ^ Rüther, Heinz. "AN AFRICAN HERITAGE DATABASE – THE VIRTUAL PRESERVATION OF AFRICA'S PAST" (PDF). isprs.org.
  26. ^ Giles, Chris. "Meet the scientists immortalizing African heritage in virtual reality". CNN. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  27. ^ Wild, Sarah. "Africa's great heritage sites are being mapped out with point precision lasers". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  28. ^ Rüther, Heinz; Held, Christof; Bhurtha, Roshan; Schroeder, Ralph; Wessels, Stephen (2012-01-13). "From Point Cloud to Textured Model, the Zamani Laser Scanning Pipeline in Heritage Documentation". South African Journal of Geomatics. 1 (1): 44–59–59. ISSN 2225-8531.
  29. ^ "Challenges in Heritage Documentation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning" (PDF).
  30. ^ "Site - Aksum Obelisk". zamaniproject.org. Retrieved 2019-10-18.
  31. ^ Human Rights Watch, 24 July 1991: ETHIOPIA - "Mengistu has Decided to Burn Us like Wood" - Bombing of Civilians and Civilian Targets by the Air Force
  32. ^ a b "Situation Report EEPA HORN No. 53 – 12 January 2021" (PDF). Europe External Programme with Africa. 2021-01-12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-01-12. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  33. ^ a b Nyssen, Jan (2021). "The situation in Tigray at the beginning of 2021". ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 2021-01-14. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
  34. ^ a b Mak, Getu (2021-02-13). "What happened in Aksum? My personal account". Tghat. Archived from the original on 2021-02-13. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  35. ^ Woinishet; Tsegaye, Tedros; T. Gebreananaye, Meron (2020-01-20). "Massacre and silenced voices in Aksum: An eyewitness account". Tghat. Archived from the original on 2021-02-13. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  36. ^ Hochet-Bodin, Noé (2021-01-18). "'Les gens meurent de faim' : en Ethiopie, le Tigré au bord du désastre humanitaire" ['People are dying of hunger': in Ethiopia, Tigray is on the verge of a humanitarian disaster]. Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 2021-01-18. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  37. ^ Plaut, Martin (2021-01-11). "Massacre at Tigray's Mariam of Zion cathedral in Aksum". Eritrea Hub. Archived from the original on 2021-01-13. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  38. ^ a b "Mission accomplished: Aksum Obelisk successfully reinstalled". UNESCO. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  39. ^ Phillipson, David W. (2003). "Aksum: An archaeological introduction and guide". Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 38 (1): 1–68. doi:10.1080/00672700309480357. S2CID 218602463.
  40. ^ Scarre, Chris Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World 1999
  41. ^ a b "Climate: Aksum - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
  42. ^ "National Statistics-population-2011 by town and sex". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  43. ^ Census 2007 Tables: Tigray Region Archived November 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Tables 2.1, 2.4, 2.5 and 3.4.
  44. ^ 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Results for Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Vol. 1, part 1 Archived November 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Tables 2.2, 2.13, 2.16, 2.20 (accessed 30 December 2008)
  45. ^ "Axum Emperor Yohanes IV Airport". Ethiopian Airports Enterprise. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012.

Further readingEdit

  • Francis Anfray. Les anciens ethiopiens. Paris: Armand Colin, 1991.
  • Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9
  • David W. Phillipson. Ancient Ethiopia. Aksum: Its antecedents and successors. London: The British Brisith Museum, 1998.
  • David W. Phillipson. Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia, 1993–7. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 2000. ISBN 1-872566-13-8
  • Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6 online edition
  • Stuart Munro-Hay. Excavations at Aksum: An account of research at the ancient Ethiopian capital directed in 1972-74 by the late Dr Nevill Chittick London: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1989 ISBN 0-500-97008-4
  • Sergew Hable Sellassie. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270 Addis Ababa: United Printers, 1972.
  • African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
  • J. Theodore Bent. The Sacred City of the Ethiopians: Being a Record of Travel and Research in Abyssinia in 1893. London: Longmans, Green and Co, 1894. online edition

External linksEdit