Auxerre (/oʊˈsɛər/ oh-SAIR, French: [osɛʁ] (listen)) is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy. Auxerre's population today is about 35,000; the urban area (aire d'attraction) comprises roughly 113,000 inhabitants. Residents of Auxerre are referred to as Auxerrois.
Prefecture and commune
|Coordinates: 47°47′55″N 3°34′02″E / 47.7986°N 3.5672°E|
|Canton||Auxerre-1, Auxerre-2, Auxerre-3, Auxerre-4|
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||Crescent Marault|
|49.95 km2 (19.29 sq mi)|
|• Density||680/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||93–217 m (305–712 ft) |
(avg. 102 m or 335 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Auxerre is a commercial and industrial centre, with industries including food production, woodworking and batteries. It is also noted for its production of Burgundy wine, including Chablis. In 1995 Auxerre was named "Town of Art and History".
Auxerre lies on the river Yonne and the Canal du Nivernais, about 150 km southeast of Paris and 120 km northwest of Dijon. The A6 autoroute (Paris–Lyon) passes northeast of the city. Auxerre-Saint-Gervais station has rail connections to Dijon, Paris, Corbigny and Avallon.
Auxerre was a flourishing Gallo-Roman centre, then called Autissiodorum, through which passed one of the main roads of the area, the Via Agrippa (1st century AD) which crossed the Yonne (Gallo-Roman Icauna) here. In the third century it became the seat of a bishop and a provincial capital of the Roman Empire. In the 5th century it received a cathedral. In the late 11th-early 12th century the existing communities were included inside a new line of walls built by the feudal counts of Auxerre.
Bourgeois activities accompanied the traditional land and wine cultivations starting from the twelfth century, and Auxerre developed into a commune with a Town Hall of its own. The Burgundian city, which became part of France under King Louis XI, suffered during the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of Religion. In 1567 it was captured by the Huguenots, and many of the Catholic edifices were damaged. The medieval ramparts were demolished in the 18th century.
In the 19th century numerous heavy infrastructures were built, including a railway station, a psychiatric hospital and the courts, and new quarters were developed on the right bank of the Yonne.
Until the early 20th century, Auxerre was one of the most prosperous cities in the department. But the local authorities of that period refused the railway that was subsequently set in the village of Migennes, and signed the economic decline of the town.
|Source: EHESS and INSEE (1968-2017)|
|Climate data for Auxerre (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.8
|Average high °C (°F)||6.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.6
|Average low °C (°F)||0.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−20.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||56.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11.2||9.6||10.6||9.9||11.3||9.7||7.6||7.8||8.5||10.3||11.0||11.6||119.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87||82||77||72||76||74||71||73||78||85||87||88||79.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.7||89.2||135.2||173.9||198.0||213.9||245.2||229.6||177.2||121.2||70.1||53.3||1,768.5|
|Source 1: Meteo climat|
|Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990)|
- Cathedral of St. Étienne (11th–16th centuries). In Gothic style, it has three doorways with bas-reliefs. There are stained-glass windows in the choir and the apsidal chapel. The 11th-century crypt houses the remains of the former Romanesque cathedral.
- Abbey of Saint-Germain, existing from the 9th century. The crypt has some of the oldest mural paintings in France, and houses the tomb of the bishops of Auxerre. There is a chapter room (12th century), a cellar (14th century) and a cloister (17th century).
- The Clock Tower, in the Old Town
- The church of St. Pierre en Vallée (17th–18th centuries), established over a 6th-century abbey. In late Gothic style, it has a tower similar to that of the cathedral. Portions of the decorations and inner chapels were financed by local winegrowers.
- Church of St. Eusèbe, founded in the 7th century. The nave was rebuilt in the 13th century, while the tower is in Romanesque style.
- Germanus of Auxerre (c. 378 – c. 442–448), bishop of Auxerre, missionary to Britain
- William of Auxerre (died 1231), early High Scholastic theologian from Auxerre
- Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768–1830), mathematician, experimental physicist and politician, born in Auxerre
- Paul Bert (1833–1886), physiologist and politician, born in Auxerre
- Louis Amable Crapelet (1822–1867), water-colour painter, born in Auxerre
- Théodore Frédéric Gaillardet, (1808–1882), journalist, publisher of French-language newspaper Courrier des États-Unis in New York City and mayor of Plessis-Bouchard, France, born in Auxerre
- Eugène Hatin (1809–1893), historian and bibliographer
- Saint Helladius (died 387), bishop of Auxerre
- Paul Monceaux (1859–1941), historian, born in Auxerre
- Benoît Mourlon (born 1988), footballer
- Jean-Paul Rappeneau (1932), film director, born in Auxerre
- Guy Roux (1938), coach of AJ Auxerre for more than 40 years, holding the French record of 894 games in Ligue 1
- Gougère – baked choux pastry made of dough mixed with cheese.
- Kir – a traditional aperitif mixed drink from Burgundy wine (traditionally Bourgogne Aligoté) and blackcurrant liqueur.
- Bœuf bourguignon – a typical main dish made of beef and vegetables.
- Truffe bourguignonne – truffles from Burgundy.
- Chablis wine: a white wine made exclusively of Chardonnay in the Chablis AOC
- Saint-Bris AOC: the only white wine in Burgundy made of Sauvignon grapes, especially Sauvignon blanc and Sauvignon gris
- Irancy: a red wine from the surrounding area made of Pinot noir
- Bourgogne côte d'Auxerre: belonging to the Burgundy AOC (wine), it is made of Chardonnay for the white wine and Pinot noir for the red.
- Crémant de Bourgogne: sparkling wine following the tradition of Champagne, Crémant de Bourgogne has a strong production in and around Auxerre.
- Bourgogne Aligoté: dry wine. Aligoté is the second most popular grape variety grown in Burgundy after Chardonnay.
The whole region of Burgundy produces over 200 million bottles per year.
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- Greve in Chianti, Italy
- Płock, Poland
- Redditch, England, United Kingdom
- Roscoff, France
- Saint-Amarin, France
- Worms, Germany
- ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
- ^ "Populations légales 2020". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2022.
- ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- ^ Dossier complet commune d'Auxerre, INSEE
- ^ Comparateur de territoire: Aire d'attraction des villes 2020 d'Auxerre (102), INSEE, 9 December 2020.
- ^ Councils were held here in 578 and 1147.
- ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Auxerre, EHESS. (in French)
- ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
- ^ "Moyennes 1981/2010: Région Bourgogne" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- ^ "STATION Auxerre" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Auxerre (89) - altitude 207m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- ^ Howard Eves (1990). An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (sixth ed.). Saunders College Publishing.
- ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
- ^ "Villes jumelées" (in French). Auxerre. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
- Goyau, Georges (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- Auxerre Town Hall (in French)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .