Australian Convict Sites
Australian Convict Sites is a World Heritage property consisting of 11 remnant penal sites originally built within the British Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries on fertile Australian coastal strips at Sydney, Tasmania, Norfolk Island, and Fremantle; now representing "...the best surviving examples of large-scale convict transportation and the colonial expansion of European powers through the presence and labour of convicts."
View of Port Arthur, Tasmania one of the 11 penal sites constituting the Australian Convict Sites
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||(iv), (vi) |
|Inscription||2010 (34th Session)|
These properties were all individually included on the Australian National Heritage List before inclusion on the World Heritage list.
Preparations began in 1995, and a World Heritage nomination was first made in January 2008. That attempt failed, and the nomination was subsequently reworked.
Penal sites includedEdit
- Cockatoo Island Convict Site (New South Wales)
- Great North Road (New South Wales)
- Hyde Park Barracks (New South Wales)
- Old Government House (New South Wales)
- Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area (Norfolk Island)
- Brickendon and Woolmers Estates (Tasmania)
- Cascades Female Factory (Tasmania)
- Coal Mines Historic Site (Tasmania)
- Darlington Probation Station (Tasmania)
- Port Arthur (Tasmania)
- Fremantle Prison (Western Australia)
Criteria for listingEdit
Out of over 3,000 convict sites remaining in Australia, the 11 constituting the Australian Convict Sites were selected as the pre-eminent examples of the world's convict era satisfying World Heritage selection criteria IV & VI, as follows:
|World Heritage selection criteria|
|Criterion IV||Ensemble of buildings/architecture etc., illustrating significant stage in human history||"an exceptional example of the forced migration of convicts - an important stage of human history."|
|Criterion VI||Directly or tangibly associated with events etc., of outstanding universal significance||"an extraordinary example of global ideas and developments associated with the punishment and reform of the criminal elements of humanity during the Age of Enlightenment and the modern era."|
- "Australian Convict Sites". World Heritage List. UNESCO. 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- Witcomb, Andrea (2012). Albert, Marie-Theres; Richon, Marielle; Viñals, Marie José; et al., eds. "Tensions between World Heritage and local values: the case of Fremantle Prison (Australia)" (PDF). World heritage papers: Community Development through World Heritage. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 31: 62. ISBN 978-92-3-001024-9. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- Chalmers, Emma; Martin, Saray (1 August 2010). "World Heritage Committee approves Australian Convict Sites as places of importance". The Courier–Mail. Australia. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Australian Convict Sites". World heritage places. Commonwealth of Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "Cockatoo Island: more information". National heritage places. Commonwealth of Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Cascades Female Factory". National heritage places. Commonwealth of Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "Port Arthur: more information". National heritage places. Commonwealth of Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Executive summary". Australian convict sites: World Heritage Nomination. Commonwealth of Australia: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. January 2008. ISBN 978-0-642-55390-4. Retrieved 5 August 2010.