Auckland volcanic field

The Auckland volcanic field is an area of monogenetic volcanoes covered by much of the metropolitan area of Auckland, New Zealand's largest city, located in the North Island. The approximately 53 volcanoes[1] in the field have produced a diverse array of maars (explosion craters), tuff rings, scoria cones, and lava flows. With the exception of Rangitoto, no volcano has erupted more than once, but eruptions lasted for various periods ranging from a few weeks to several years.[2] Rangitoto erupted twice; the first eruption occurred about 600 years ago, followed by a second eruption approximately 50 years later.[3] The field is fuelled entirely by basaltic magma, unlike the explosive subduction-driven volcanism in the central North Island, such as at Mount Ruapehu and Lake Taupō.[4] The field is currently dormant, but could become active again.[5]

Auckland Volcanic Field
Map of the Auckland Volcanic Field from 1859
Map of the field drawn by Hochstetter in 1859 and published in English in 1864
Highest point
Elevation260 m (850 ft)
Coordinates36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764Coordinates: 36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764
Geology
Age of rockPleistocene and Holocene
Mountain typeVolcanic field
Type of rockBasalt
Last eruptionc. 1400 CE

FeaturesEdit

The field ranges from Lake Pupuke and Rangitoto Island in the north to Matukutururu (Wiri Mountain) in the south, and from Mount Albert in the west to Pigeon Mountain in the east.

The first vent erupted at Pupuke 193,200 ± 2,800 years ago.[6] The most recent eruption (about 600 years ago[7] and within historical memory of the local Māori) was of Rangitoto, an island shield volcano just east of the city, erupting 0.7 cubic kilometres of lava. The last volcano to erupt was much bigger than all others, with Rangitoto making up 41 per cent of the field's entire volume of erupted material.[8] The field's volcanoes are relatively small, with most less than 150 metres (490 ft) in height.

Lake Pupuke, on the North Shore near Takapuna, is a volcanic explosion crater. A few similar craters such as Ōrākei Basin are open to the sea.

The field has produced voluminous lava flows that cover much of the Auckland isthmus. One of the longest runs from Mt Saint John northward, almost crossing the Waitematā Harbour to form Meola Reef.[9] More than 50 lava tubes and other lava caves have been discovered, including the 290-metre (950 ft)-long Wiri Lava Cave.[10] The second-longest individual cave in the Auckland field, some 270 metres (890 ft) in total length, is the Cave of a Thousand Press-ups to the east of Maungakiekie/One Tree Hill.[11] Two impressive depressions caused by lava cave collapses are the Puka Street Grotto and the nearby Hochstetter Pond, also known as Grotto Street Pond, in Onehunga.[12][13]

For most of the 200,000 years that the field has been erupting, the planet has been in glacial periods (ice ages) where sea levels were much lower due to water being locked up as ice, and the Waitemata and Manukau Harbours were dry land. All the volcanoes probably erupted on land except for Rangitoto, which erupted during the current interglacial (warmer) period.[14]

Human contextEdit

 
Terraces carved by Māori into the slopes of Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill

MythologyEdit

Tāmaki Māori myths describe the creation of the volcanic field as a creation of Mataaho (the guardian of the earth's secrets) and his brother Rūaumoko (the god of earthquakes and volcanoes), made as punishment against a tribe of patupaiarehe, supernatural beings living in the Waitākere Ranges, who used deadly magic from the earth to defeat a war party of patupaiarehe from the Hunua Ranges.[15][16] In some traditions, the fire goddess Mahuika creates the volcanic field as a way to warm Mataaho, after his wife leaves and takes his clothing.[17][18] Because of their close association to Mataaho, the volcanic features can be collectively referred to as Nga Maunga a Mataaho ("The Mountains of Mataaho"),[15] or Ngā Huinga-a-Mataaho ("the gathered volcanoes of Mataaho").[18] Many of the volcanic features of Māngere can be referred to as Nga Tapuwae a Mataoho ("The Sacred Footprints of Mataoho"), including Māngere Lagoon, Waitomokia, Crater Hill, Kohuora, Pukaki Lagoon and Robertson Hill.[17][19] Many of the Māori language names of volcanic features in the field refer to Mataaho by name, including Te Pane o Mataaho (Māngere Mountain), Te Tapuwae a Mataoho (Robertson Hill) and Te Kapua Kai o Mataoho (the crater of Maungawhau / Mount Eden).

UsageEdit

Many of the maunga (mountains) were occupied by substantial Māori (fortifications) before Pākehā settlement, and many terraces and other archeological remnants are still visible.[20] Many of the cones have been levelled or strongly altered, in small part due to the historical Māori use, but mostly through relatively recent quarrying of construction materials (especially scoria). However many of the remaining volcanoes are now preserved as landmarks and parks.[7]

The warmer northern sides of the mountains were also popular among early Pākehā settlers for housing.[20] In the 1880s, Takarunga / Mount Victoria and Maungauika / North Head were developed as military installations due to fears of a Russian invasion.[20] The cones are also protected by a 1915 law, the Reserves and Other Lands Disposal and Public Bodies Empowering Act 1915, which was passed due to early concern that the distinctive landscape was being eroded, especially by quarrying. While often ignored until the late 20th century, it has amongst other things minimised severe changes to Mount Roskill proposed by Transit New Zealand for the Southwestern Motorway.[21]

In March 2007, New Zealand submitted the volcanic field, with several specifically named features, as a World Heritage Site candidate based on its unique combination of natural and cultural features.[7] At that time, only 2 per cent of more than 800 World Heritage Sites worldwide were in this "mixed" category.

For most of Auckland's post-1840 history, the mountains have been administered variously by the New Zealand Crown, the Auckland Council (or its former bodies including the Auckland City Council and Manukau City Council) or the Department of Conservation.[20]

In the 2014 Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the Crown and the Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau collective of 13 Auckland iwi and hapu (also known as the Tāmaki Collective), ownership of the 14 Tūpuna Maunga (ancestral mountains) of Tāmaki Makaurau / Auckland, was vested to the collective. The legislation specified that the land be held in trust "for the common benefit of Ngā Mana Whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau and the other people of Auckland". The Tūpuna Maunga o Tāmaki Makaurau Authority or Tūpuna Maunga Authority (TMA) is the co-governance organisation established to administer the 14 Tūpuna Maunga. Auckland Council manages the Tūpuna Maunga under the direction of the TMA.[20][22][23]

DangersEdit

Since the field is not extinct, new volcanic events may occur at any time, though the usual period between events is, on average, somewhere between hundreds to thousands of years. However, the effects of such an event—especially a full-scale eruption—would be substantial, ranging from pyroclastic surges to earthquakes,[24] lava bombs, ash falls, and the venting volcanic gas, as well as lava flows. These effects might continue for several months, potentially causing substantial destruction and disruption, ranging from the burial of substantial tracts of residential or commercial property, to the mid-to-long-term closures of major parts of the country's infrastructure such as the Port of Auckland, the State Highway network, or the Auckland Airport.[5] It is possible that several volcanoes could erupt simultaneously. There is strong evidence that eight erupted within a span of 3000 years or so, between 31,000 and 28,000 years ago.

Most eruptive events in the field have been small volume, very constrained in time, typically involving less than 0.005 km3 (0.0012 cu mi) of magma making its way to the surface.[25] However the same amount of magma can have an order of magnitude different impact. An underwater eruption which is more likely to be explosive resulted in the formation of the 0.7 km (0.43 mi) wide Ōrākei crater that destroyed an area of 3 km3 (0.72 cu mi) by crater formation and base surge impact. This contrasts with the about 0.5 km (0.31 mi) diameter cone produced by the same amount of upwelling magma that might be expected to destroy an area of 0.3 km3 (0.072 cu mi) if there is no ground water interaction.[25] Modelling has suggested that the next eruption in the volcanic field is likely to be associated with water and in the area extending from the central city to its north and northeast suburbs surrounding and including the Waitemata Harbour.[26] Within New Zealand the volcanic hazard of the field is graded below that of Taupo Volcanic Zone volcano's but is likely to be perceived by the population affected as a greater potential nuisance if it occurs[27]

Various operative structures, plans and systems have been set up to prepare responses to volcanic activity within the urban areas, mainly coordinated in the Auckland Volcanic Field Contingency Plan[28] of the Auckland Regional Council, which provides a framework for interaction of civil defence and emergency services during an eruption. Auckland also has a seismic monitoring network comprising six seismometers—including one 250 metres (820 ft) deep at Riverhead—and three repeaters within the region that will detect the small tremors likely to precede any volcanic activity.[29] This is likely to give between a few hours and several days' warning of an impending eruption, and its approximate location.[24]

Auckland War Memorial Museum, itself built on the crater rim of Pukekawa, has an exhibition on the field, including the "Puia Street multi-sensory visitor experience", which simulates a grandstand view of an eruption in Auckland.[30]

In 2013, scientists said new studies showed Rangitoto had been much more active in the past than previously thought, suggesting it had been active on and off for around 1000 years before the final eruptions around 550 years ago.[31] Civil Defence officials said the discovery did not make living in Auckland any more dangerous, but did change their view of how an evacuation might proceed.[32]

List of volcanoesEdit

The volcanoes within the field are:[2][33][34]

Volcanoes Age (thousand years)[35] Height Location (Coordinates) Refs Images
Albert Park Volcano 145.0 ± 4.0 Unclear 36°50′55″S 174°46′02″E / 36.8486°S 174.7673°E / -36.8486; 174.7673 [36]
Ash Hill 31.8 ± 0.4 30 metres (98 ft) 37°00′10″S 174°52′03″E / 37.002754°S 174.867545°E / -37.002754; 174.867545
Boggust Park Crater 130+ 5 metres (16 ft) 36°57′19″S 174°48′49″E / 36.955413°S 174.813552°E / -36.955413; 174.813552 [1]
Cemetery Crater Undated 33 metres (108 ft) 36°59′23″S 174°50′28″E / 36.989828°S 174.841082°E / -36.989828; 174.841082 [1]
Crater Hill 30.4 ± 0.8 36°59′12″S 174°49′38″E / 36.986546°S 174.827135°E / -36.986546; 174.827135
Grafton Volcano 106.5 36°51′30″S 174°45′49″E / 36.858440°S 174.763624°E / -36.858440; 174.763624
Hampton Park 57.0 ± 32.0 35 metres (115 ft) 36°57′03″S 174°53′44″E / 36.950925°S 174.89544°E / -36.950925; 174.89544
Kohuora 33.7 ± 2.4 36°58′43″S 174°50′34″E / 36.97873°S 174.842691°E / -36.97873; 174.842691
Māngere Lagoon 59.5 36°57′25″S 174°46′39″E / 36.95702°S 174.77763°E / -36.95702; 174.77763
Matanginui / Green Mount 19.6 ± 6.6 78 metres (256 ft) 36°56′24″S 174°53′54″E / 36.939911°S 174.898267°E / -36.939911; 174.898267
Matukutureia / McLaughlins Mountain 48.2 ± 6.4 73 metres (240 ft) 37°00′49″S 174°50′46″E / 37.013511°S 174.845974°E / -37.013511; 174.845974
Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill 67.0 ± 12.0 182 metres (597 ft) 36°54′0″S 174°46′59″E / 36.90000°S 174.78306°E / -36.90000; 174.78306
 
Maungakiekie / One Tree Hill and its obelisk
Maungarahiri / Little Rangitoto 24.6 ± 0.6 75 metres (246 ft) 36°52′31″S 174°48′35″E / 36.875407°S 174.809636°E / -36.875407; 174.809636
Maungarei / Mount Wellington 10.0 ± 1.0 135 metres (443 ft) 36°53′35″S 174°50′47.6″E / 36.89306°S 174.846556°E / -36.89306; 174.846556
Maungataketake / Elletts Mountain 88.9 ± 4.8 76 metres (249 ft) 36°59′41″S 174°44′51″E / 36.994635°S 174.747548°E / -36.994635; 174.747548
Maungauika / North Head 87.5 ± 15.2 50 metres (160 ft) 36°49′40″S 174°48′43″E / 36.827751°S 174.81205°E / -36.827751; 174.81205
Maungawhau / Mount Eden 28.0 ± 0.6 196 metres (643 ft) 36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764
 
Crater of Maungawhau / Mount Eden
Motukorea / Browns Island 24.4 ± 0.6 68 metres (223 ft) 36°49′50″S 174°53′41″E / 36.8306°S 174.8948°E / -36.8306; 174.8948
Mount Robertson / Sturges Park 24.3 ± 0.8 78 metres (256 ft) 36°56′55″S 174°50′30″E / 36.948477°S 174.841726°E / -36.948477; 174.841726
Ōhinerau / Mount Hobson 34.2 ± 1.8 143 metres (469 ft) 36°52′40″S 174°47′10″E / 36.877814°S 174.786156°E / -36.877814; 174.786156
Ohuiarangi / Pigeon Mountain 23.4 ± 0.8 55 metres (180 ft) 36°53′20″S 174°54′11″E / 36.888846°S 174.903116°E / -36.888846; 174.903116
Ōrākei Basin 126.0 ± 6.0 Sea level 36°52′02″S 174°48′47″E / 36.867124°S 174.81308°E / -36.867124; 174.81308
Otahuhu / Mount Richmond 30.2 ± 4.2 50 metres (160 ft) 36°55′57″S 174°50′22″E / 36.932562°S 174.839451°E / -36.932562; 174.839451
Ōtuataua 24.2 ± 1.8 64 metres (210 ft) 36°59′10″S 174°45′15″E / 36.98611°S 174.75417°E / -36.98611; 174.75417
Ōwairaka / Te Ahi-kā-a-Rakataura / Mount Albert 119.2 ± 5.6 135 metres (443 ft) 36°53′26″S 174°43′12″E / 36.890475°S 174.720097°E / -36.890475; 174.720097
Puhinui Craters Undated 22 metres (72 ft) 37°00′53″S 174°49′59″E / 37.01465°S 174.83296°E / -37.01465; 174.83296 [1]
Pukaki Lagoon 45+ Sea Level 36°58′59″S 174°48′37″E / 36.982998°S 174.810226°E / -36.982998; 174.810226
Pukeiti 23.7 30 metres (98 ft) 36°59′02″S 174°45′26″E / 36.983756°S 174.757183°E / -36.983756; 174.757183
Pukekawa / Auckland Domain 106.0 ± 8.0 36°51′33″S 174°46′33″E / 36.859158°S 174.775808°E / -36.859158; 174.775808
Pukewīwī / Puketāpapa / Mount Roskill 105.3 ± 6.2 110 metres (360 ft) 36°55′S 174°44′E / 36.917°S 174.733°E / -36.917; 174.733
Pukewairiki 130+ 30 metres (98 ft) 36°56′39″S 174°51′57″E / 36.944078°S 174.865887°E / -36.944078; 174.865887
Pupuke 193.2 ± 5.6 −57 metres (−187 ft) 36°46′48″S 174°45′58″E / 36.780115°S 174.766184°E / -36.780115; 174.766184
Rangitoto Island 0.55 (first eruption) 260 metres (850 ft) 36°47′12″S 174°51′36″E / 36.786742°S 174.860115°E / -36.786742; 174.860115
 
Rangitoto Island on the horizon
Rarotonga / Mount Smart 20.1 ± 0.2 87 metres (285 ft) (quarried) 36°55′6″S 174°48′45″E / 36.91833°S 174.81250°E / -36.91833; 174.81250
Styaks Swamp 19.1 36°56′10″S 174°54′01″E / 36.936138°S 174.900155°E / -36.936138; 174.900155
Takaroro / Mount Cambria 42.3 ± 22.0 30 metres (98 ft) (quarried) 36°49′28″S 174°48′07″E / 36.824444°S 174.801933°E / -36.824444; 174.801933
Takarunga / Mount Victoria 34.8 ± 4.0 87 metres (285 ft) 36°49′36″S 174°47′56″E / 36.8266°S 174.7990°E / -36.8266; 174.7990
Taurere / Taylors Hill 30.2 ± 0.2 56 metres (184 ft) 36°51′51″S 174°52′12″E / 36.864223°S 174.869943°E / -36.864223; 174.869943
Te Apunga-o-Tainui / McLennan Hills 41.3 ± 2.4 45 metres (148 ft) (quarried) 36°55′45″S 174°50′47″E / 36.929208°S 174.846468°E / -36.929208; 174.846468
Te Hopua-a-Rangi / Gloucester Park 31.0 Sea level (reclaimed) 36°55′46″S 174°47′05″E / 36.9295°S 174.784734°E / -36.9295; 174.784734
Te Kopua Kai-a-Hiku / Panmure Basin 25.2 ± 1.8 Sea level 36°54′18″S 174°50′58″E / 36.90495°S 174.849343°E / -36.90495; 174.849343
Te Kopua-o-Matakamokamo / Tank Farm 181.0 ± 2.0 36°48′07″S 174°45′12″E / 36.8020°S 174.7533°E / -36.8020; 174.7533
Onepoto 187.6 36°48′29″S 174°45′03″E / 36.80818°S 174.75085°E / -36.80818; 174.75085
Te Kōpuke / Tītīkōpuke / Mount St John 75.3 ± 3.4 126 metres (413 ft) 36°53′00″S 174°46′49″E / 36.883431°S 174.780196°E / -36.883431; 174.780196
Te Motu-a-Hiaroa / Puketutu 29.8 ± 4.4 65 metres (213 ft) 36°57′55″S 174°44′50″E / 36.965186°S 174.747248°E / -36.965186; 174.747248
Te Pane-o-Mataaho / Māngere Mountain 59.0 ± 20.0 106 metres (348 ft) 36°56′59″S 174°46′59″E / 36.9496°S 174.7831°E / -36.9496; 174.7831 [37]
Te Pou Hawaiki 28.0+ Quarried 36°52′57″S 174°46′00″E / 36.88247°S 174.766726°E / -36.88247; 174.766726
Te Puke ō Tara / Otara Hill 56.5 89 metres (292 ft) (quarried) 36°56′50″S 174°53′54″E / 36.947105°S 174.898363°E / -36.947105; 174.898363
Te Tātua-a-Riukiuta / Three Kings 31.0 ± 1.8 133 metres (436 ft) 36°54′11″S 174°45′17″E / 36.902926°S 174.754651°E / -36.902926; 174.754651
Te Tauoma / Purchas Hill 10.9 ± 0.2 50 metres (160 ft) (quarried) 36°53′14″S 174°50′51″E / 36.887138°S 174.847476°E / -36.887138; 174.847476
Waitomokia / Mt Gabriel 20.3 ± 0.2 20 metres (66 ft) (quarried) 36°58′37″S 174°46′13″E / 36.976981°S 174.770336°E / -36.976981; 174.770336
Whakamuhu / Saint Heliers / Glover Park – see Achilles Point 161.0 ± 36.0 Sea level 36°50′36″S 174°51′50″E / 36.843390°S 174.863800°E / -36.843390; 174.863800
Wiri Mountain / Matukutūruru 30.1–31.0 80 metres (260 ft) (quarried) 37°00′26″S 174°51′30″E / 37.007334°S 174.858441°E / -37.007334; 174.858441

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Needham, A.J.; Lindsay, J.M.; Smith, I.E.M.; Augustinus, P.; Shane, P.A. (April 2011). "Sequential eruption of alkaline and sub-alkaline magmas from a small monogenetic volcano in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 201 (1–4): 126–142. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.07.017.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit