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Army general (Kingdom of Yugoslavia)

Army general (Serbian: Armijski đeneral) was a rank of the Kingdom of Serbia and later Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It dated from Serbia in 1886. and it was abolished for some period after 1901. but it was again created in Kingdom of Yugoslavia after 1918 as Kingdom of Serbia passed along insignia and military ranks to newly named state. It was a high rank for Kingdom of Yugoslavia generals, inferior only to the Vojvoda. Kingdom of Yugoslavia army generals commanded army's, group of army's and held position of Deputy Commander in Chief of the Yugoslavian Armed Forces, Chief of the Air force of the Yugoslav Royal Army and Chief of the General Staff of the Yugoslav Royal Army. It was adopted and based on the similar French Army general.

Army general
Armijski đeneral
OF-9, OF-8 Armijski djeneral 1918–1945.png
Shoulder strap
Standard of Army General of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg
Rank flag
Country Kingdom of Serbia
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Service branchRoyal Yugoslav Army
Royal Yugoslav Army Air Force
RankGeneral officer
NATO rankOF-9
Formation1886
Abolished1946
Next higher rankVojvoda
Next lower rankDivision general
Equivalent ranksAdmiral

Contents

Promotion and useEdit

This rank was usually given to Kingdom of Yugoslavia senior officers in the Ministry of Defense and General Staff and also used to promoted division generals under Law on the Organization of the Army and Navy from 19.07.1923.[1] and 1929. by law[2] and Decree on army formations from 1936. It was used for army and air officers while navy had it own rank of Admiral [3] that was equal to army general. In order to be promoted to army general an officer had previously to have finished higher Military Academy, had successfully commanded with divisional area or similar division formation one year, as division general commanded at least one year or had a position more important then division commander at least a year, had highest military degrees and it was capable of highest command by opinion of senior officers or defense minister.

After dissolution of King and Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav's Peoples Army did not used this rank immediately but similar to this was created under name of General of the army. Only few person in Yugoslav People's Army hold title of 4 star General of the army - Veljko Kadijević, Nikola Ljubičić, Kosta Nađ. Ivan Gošnjak. In today Serbian Armed Forces equivalent is rank of General - 4 star for more see Military ranks of Serbia.

List of army generalsEdit

At beginning of war in 1941. Kingdom of Yugoslavia had 12 active army generals:

Their job was to command total of 1.700.000 soldiers and officers during war since 1936. under Decree of military formation in mobile and war time. 1.700.000 soldiers and officers was within:

  • Operational army
    • 3 HQ army groups
    • 7 HQ of army's totaling 28 infantry division, 3 cavalry division, 2 mountain detachment(13900 soldiers each - division in some other army), 15 joint detachments(one to three infantry regiments, one to three artillery regiments and zero to 1 cavalry regiments each),
    • 1 guard cavalry brigade
    • two coastal HQ
    • Special forces HQ
    • 4 regiments of heavy artillery
    • 1 motorized regiment of anti-tank artillery
    • 2 tank battalions
    • 1 chemical warfare battalion
    • one communication battalion
    • HQ of territorial air-defense
    • Many different transportation units and other units
  • Reserve army
    • 6 Army territorial area with 16 divisional area, 49 military districts, 15 border fortress regiments
    • 49 infantry regiments and many other units.[4]

Other notable army generalsEdit

Comparative to other army ranksEdit

Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia rank of army general is comparable to NATO OF-9 level and equivalent to the UK and US ranks of general; It had same function as the French Army general because until 1930 most of Army formations was done using France army model. It was given to Chief of the General Staff and commanders of army or army groups that usually had few division under them. Divisions in Kingdom of Yugoslavia particularly after 1930 had been 27-28000 strong and thus similar to some other army's corps. Usual Italian infantry division like 64th Infantry Division Catanzaro at time of WWII had less than 7000 soldiers and US infantry division in 1943 consisted of 14,253 officers and soldiers while Soviet rifle division at same time had 9375 man. British division numbered 12772 man.[6] All this illustrate how big was Yugoslavia division formation compared to others thus responsibility of 3 star Yugoslavia army generals was same as in other countries 4 star generals.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/aktuelno.69.html:319906-General-nad-generalima
  2. ^ "ABCD". Digitalizovanaizdanja.sluzbenenovine.rs. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  3. ^ Бјелајац 2004, p. 14.
  4. ^ http://www.znaci.net/00002/367.pdf
  5. ^ "Milan Obrenović". Biografija.org. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Military Organization". Cccnmtl.columbia.edu. Retrieved 25 February 2019.