Armadillidium vulgare

Armadillidium vulgare, the (common) pill-bug, potato bug, (common) pill woodlouse, roly-poly, doodle bug, or carpenter, is a widespread European species of woodlouse. It is the most extensively investigated terrestrial isopod species.[2]

Armadillidium vulgare
Armadillidium vulgare 001.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Superorder: Peracarida
Order: Isopoda
Suborder: Oniscidea
Family: Armadillidiidae
Genus: Armadillidium
Species:
A. vulgare
Binomial name
Armadillidium vulgare
Latreille, 1804 [1]
Synonyms [2]
  • Armadillidium affine
  • Armadillidium armeniense
  • Armadillidium brevicaudatum
  • Armadillidium commutatum
  • Armadillidium decipiens
  • Armadillidium marmoreum
  • Armadillidium nitidulum
  • Armadillidium oliveti
  • Armadillidium pilulare
  • Armadillidium schellenbergi
  • Armadillidium sorattinum
  • Armadillidium subdentatum
  • Armadillidium triviale
  • Armadillidium variegatum
  • Armadillo ater
  • Armadillo convexus
  • Armadillo marmoreus
  • Armadillo pilularis
  • Armadillo pustulatus
  • Armadillo trivialis
  • Armadillo variegatus
  • Armadillo vulgaris

DescriptionEdit

Armadillidium vulgare may reach a length of 18 millimetres (0.71 in), and is capable of rolling into a ball when disturbed; this ability, along with its general appearance, gives it the name pill-bug and also creates the potential for confusion with pill millipedes such as Glomeris marginata.[3] It can be distinguished from Armadillidium nasatum and Armadillidium depressum by the gap that A. nasatum and A. depressum leave when rolling into a ball; A. vulgare does not leave such a gap.[4]

EcologyEdit

Armadillidium vulgare is able to withstand drier conditions than many other woodlouse species, and is restricted to calcareous soils or coastal areas.[3] It feeds chiefly on decaying plant matter, but also grazes lichens and algae from tree bark and walls.[5]

It is able to regulate its temperature through its behaviour, preferring bright sunshine when temperatures are low, but remaining in shadow when temperatures are high; temperatures below −2 °C (28 °F) or above 36 °C (97 °F) are lethal to it.[6] A. vulgare is less susceptible to cold during the night, and may enter a state of dormancy during the winter in order to survive temperatures that would otherwise be lethal.[6]

DistributionEdit

The native distribution of A. vulgare ranges across Europe, especially in the Mediterranean Basin.[2] In the United Kingdom, A. vulgare is very common in southern and eastern England, but is more confined to coastal areas in the north.[7] Similarly, in Ireland, A. vulgare is common in the south and east, but rarer in the north and west.[7]

A. vulgare has also been introduced to many locations in North America, where it may reach population densities of up to 10,000 individuals per square metre.[8] It is now one of the most abundant invertebrate species in California coastal grassland habitats.[9] It has also been introduced, to a lesser extent, to sites across the world.[2]

Relationships with humansEdit

Because of their unusual yet non-threatening appearance, some Armadillidium vulgare are kept as pets in areas throughout the U.S., typically among children. Different lineages are bred, usually in regards to color, in order to provide stock to hobbyists. One supposed variation, "Punta Cana," is often referred to as Armadillidium sordidum, while others insist it is a variety of A. vulgare.[10] Among non-hobbyist adults, they are often seen as unwanted (but essentially harmless) home pests.[11] Keeping a pet pill bug requires a very moist habitat with limited light and lots of decaying plant matter.[12] They can often live up to three years.[11]

Mitochondrial genomeEdit

Most metazoans have circular mitochondrial genomes, but A.vulgare has an unusual combination of both circular and linear mitochondrial DNA.[13]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Armadillidium vulgare". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  2. ^ a b c d Helmut Schmalfuss (2003). "World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) — revised and updated version" (PDF). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A. 654: 341 pp.
  3. ^ a b "Pill woodlouse (Armadillidium vulgare)". ARKive.org. Archived from the original on 2009-09-03. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  4. ^ "Woodlouse Wizard: an identification key". Natural History Museum. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
  5. ^ "Common pill woodlouse — Armadillidium vulgare". Natural England. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
  6. ^ a b Roberto Refinetti (1984). "Behavioral temperature regulation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda)". Crustaceana. 47 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1163/156854084X00298.
  7. ^ a b "Armadillidium vulgare". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  8. ^ Jan Frouza; Richard Lobinske; Jirí Kalcík; Arshad Ali (2008). "Effects of the exotic crustacean, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda), and other macrofauna on organic matter dynamics in soil microcosms in a hardwood forest in central Florida". The Florida Entomologist. 91 (2): 328–331. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2008)91[328:EOTECA]2.0.CO;2.
  9. ^ Oscar H. Paris (1963). "The ecology of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscoidea) in California grassland: food, enemies, and weather". Ecological Monographs. Ecological Society of America. 33 (1): 1–22. doi:10.2307/1948475. JSTOR 1948475.
  10. ^ "Armadillidium vulgare var. "Punta Cana"". Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  11. ^ a b Smith-Rogers, Sheryl (October 2009). "Wild Thing: Roly-Poly Pillbugs". TPW Magazine. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  12. ^ Stanley A. Schultz & Marguerite J. Schultz (2009). The Tarantula Keeper's Guide: Comprehensive Information on Care, Housing, and Feeding. Barron's Educational Series. pp. 181–183. ISBN 978-0-7641-3885-0.
  13. ^ Marcadé, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Doublet, Vincent; Debenest, Catherine; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Roland (2007). "Structure and Evolution of the Atypical Mitochondrial Genome of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea)". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 65 (6): 651–9. Bibcode:2007JMolE..65..651M. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.688.9796. doi:10.1007/s00239-007-9037-5. PMID 17906827.

External linksEdit