Argaeus (Greek: Ἀργαῖος, romanized: Argaios) or Araeus, was according to 5th-century BC Greek writer Herodotus one of six predecessors of his contemporary, King Alexander I of Macedon (r. 498–454). Alexander I's predecessors, starting from the nearest, were according to Herodotus: Amyntas, Alcetas, Aëropus, Philip I, Argaeus, and Perdiccas I. A rival tradition is held by Livy, Pausanias, Suidas and Junianus Justinus, with Caranus as the first Macedonian king.
|King of Macedonia|
|Successor||Philip I of Macedon|
|Religion||Ancient Greek religion|
Argaeus was according to 2nd-century AD Macedonian writer Polyaenus the first king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon, who tricked and won over his superior enemies (the Taulantii king Galaurus) with women dressed as men with wreaths and thyrsi (staffs), closely related to the cult of Dionysus. After the victory, Argaeus founded a temple dedicated to Pseudanor (Fake-man).
Only Alexander I's father, Amyntas, is firmly established in historical record. The eponym Argaeus for the dynasty (the Argead dynasty) was used to maintain the myth of origin from Argos. Nevertheless, regnal years have been applied to these legendary predecessors in modern literature; Argaeus has been claimed to have ruled in 678 BC.
- Isaac Newton; Larry Pierce; Marion Pierce (1 February 2009). Newton's Revised History of Ancient Kingdoms: A Complete Chronology. New Leaf Publishing Group. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-89051-556-3.
- Michael Gagarin (31 December 2009). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-19-517072-6.
- Thomas H. Carpenter; Christopher A. Faraone (1993). Masks of Dionysus. Cornell University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-8014-2779-4.
- Polyaenus (1994). Stratagems of War: Books I-V. Ares. p. 315.
- Joseph Roisman; Ian Worthington (7 July 2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 432–. ISBN 978-1-4443-5163-7.
- Mark William Padilla (1999). Rites of Passage in Ancient Greece: Literature, Religion, Society. Bucknell University Press. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-0-8387-5418-4.
- The Lincoln Library of Essential Information. Frontier Press. 1949. p. 585.
- Synchronology of the Principal Events in Sacred and Prefane History: From the Creation of Man, to the Present Time. S. Hawes. 1869. p. 39.
678 Argaeus, first king of Macedon.