Arab studies

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Arab studies or Arabic studies is an academic discipline centered on the study of Arabs and Arab World. It consists of several disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, linguistics, historiography, archaeology, cultural studies, economics, geography, international relations, law, literature, philosophy, psychology, political science, and public administration.[1][2][3] The field draws from old Arabic chronicles, records and oral literature, in addition to written accounts and traditions about Arabs from explorers and geographers in the Arab World (Middle East-North Africa).[4][5][6]

Al-Battani was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.

History edit

Arab studies talk about the history of the Middle East and North Africa, before the rise of Islam to the present time. Covering a wide range of topics, such as methods, approaches, colonial history, gender, environmental and legal dimensions. It depends on the political, economic, social and cultural history of the region.

Linguistic edit

Arabic calligraphy

Arabic is a language spoken by more than 422 million people from the ocean to the Gulf, as the Arabs say.[7][8] This includes Morocco, Mauritania and Western Sahara in the west, and extends to Iraq, the Gulf states and Somalia in the east. The official language of 26 countries, one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also the sacred language of over 1.7 billion Muslims around the world,[9][10][11] and the language written by some of the greatest works of literature, science and history in the world.[12] According to the teachings of Islam, classical Arabic is the language in which God chose to speak to mankind through Muhammad in the seventh century of the Christian era. It is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. This is the language of Islamic and classical texts.[13] Modern Arabic is the language of books, news broadcasts, poetry and political speeches throughout the Arab world,[13] a language that every child in primary school learns to read and write, a diverse language of Arabic poetic traditions, the precise language of theologians and theologians of the Internet. Knowledge of Arabic provides an opportunity to connect with people throughout the Middle East, providing access to the richness and passion of the contemporary Arab world. Arabic is a way to explore nearly 14 centuries of one of the most sophisticated, diverse, and rich intellectual traditions in the world.[14][15]

Culture and society edit

Culture and society in the Arab world, from structures, institutions, art, poetry, letters, practices, and definitions of identity, based on anthropology, sociology, literature and religious studies.

Development edit

Development and political economy in the Arab world, focusing on economic and social development, education, humanitarian aid, and gender and environmental dimensions of development. This concentration is based on economic history, political economy, sociology and politics.

Politics edit

Contemporary political developments in the Arab world and the Middle East. The program covers the study of domineering, nationalism, local institutions, politics, war, peacemaking, identity, security policies and environmental security. It relies on comparative policies, international relations, history, science, political economy and development.

Themes edit

History of Arabs edit

Expansion of the Arab empire.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622-632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

To understand the history of Arabs provides the indispensable basis to understand all aspects of Arabs and its culture. Themes of special interest are:

Theology edit

Kalam (علم الكلام) is one of the "religious sciences" of Islam. In Arabic, the word means "discussion" and refers to the Arabic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. A scholar of kalam is referred to as a mutakallim.

Philosophy edit

An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils

Arabic philosophy is a part of Arab studies. It is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Arabs. A Muslim engaged in this field is called an Arab philosopher. It is divided in fields like:

Sciences edit

Arabic science is science in the context of traditional ideas of Arabs, including its ethics and prohibitions. An Arab engaged in this field is called a Muslim scientist This is not the same as science as conducted by any Muslim in a secular context.

Literature edit

"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish.

Architecture edit

Arabic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved within Arab culture in the course of the history of Arabs. Hence the term encompasses religious buildings as well as secular ones, historic as well as modern expressions and the production of all places that have come under the varying levels of Islamic influence.

Art edit

Notable Arabists edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Studies in the History of the Near East - Page 28 113627331X P.M. Holt - 2013 "He held the post until his death in 1624 and was succeeded by his former pupil, James Golius (1596–1667). Erpenius and Golius made outstanding contributions to the development of Arabic studies by their teaching, their preparation of texts, ..."
  2. ^ Arnoud Vrolijk, Richard van Leeuwen Arabic Studies in the Netherlands: A Short History in Portraits, 900426633X - 2013 "The following portraits of the most distinguished Dutch Arabists are placed in their historical and intellectual context in order to show how intimately the development of Arabic studies is entwined with European and Dutch history."
  3. ^ C. H. M. Versteegh, Kees Versteegh - The Arabic Language - Page 6 0748614362 2001 "In this introduction, we have traced the development of Arabic studies and stressed the connection between the study of Arabic and that of Hebrew and the other Semitic languages. Since the Second World War, Arabic studies have become ..."
  4. ^ "Arab Studies Degree Programs & Information | American University, Washington, DC". Archived from the original on 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  5. ^ "The Arab Studies Journal on JSTOR". Archived from the original on 2020-11-27. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  6. ^ "Arab Studies Quarterly on JSTOR". Archived from the original on 2020-11-27. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  7. ^ "Al-Jallad. The earliest stages of Arabic and its linguistic classification (Routledge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics, forthcoming)". Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  8. ^ "World Arabic Language Day". UNESCO. 18 December 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  9. ^ "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  10. ^ "Executive Summary". Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 2011-01-27. Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  11. ^ "Table: Muslim Population by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project". 2011-01-27. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
  12. ^ Al-Jallad, Ahmad. "Al-Jallad. The earliest stages of Arabic and its linguistic classification (Routledge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics, forthcoming)". Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2016-07-15. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ a b Lentin, Jérôme (2011-05-30). "Middle Arabic - Brill Reference". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. Archived from the original on 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  14. ^ "Arabic – the mother of all languages – Al Islam Online". Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  15. ^ Coffman, James (December 1995). "Does the Arabic Language Encourage Radical Islam?". Middle East Quarterly. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2008.