Arabic Afrikaans

Arabic Afrikaans (Arabies Afrikaans, عربس افركانس‎) or Lisan-e-Afrikaans (لسانِ افرکانس‎)was a form of Afrikaans written in Arabic script. It began in the 1830s in the madrasa in Cape Town. Beside a 16th-century manuscript in the German language written with Arabic script,[1] it is the only Germanic language known to have been written in an Arabic script.[2]

Arabisi Afrikaans
al-Lisaan-ul-Afrikaans
اللسان الفرکانس
RegionCape Town, Western Cape, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape North West, South Africa
Early forms
Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3

LettersEdit

OverviewEdit

the Arabic Afrikāns alphabet
ݗ خ ح چ ج ث ت پ ب ا
ksā khā chīm jīm
thā
’alif
ط ض ص ش س ژ ز ر ذ د
tāh zād
dād
sād shīn sīn zhā zāl
dhāl
dāl
گ ک ق ڤ ف ڠ ݝ غ ع ظ
gāf kāf qāf ngīn gīn ghīn aīn zāh
dāh
ے ی أ،ؤ،ئ ء و ه ن م ل لا
hamzā alif,
hamza wāw,
hamza yā
hamzā wāw nūn mīm lām lām alif

The Arabic Afrikaans (Afrikaans: alifbe) is a variant of the Arabic alphabet used to write the Afrikaans. It consists of 36 letters:

Afrikaans Alphabet
Yy Ww - Hh Nn Mm Ll Gg/gg Gh/gh Kk/Cc W/w Ff/Vv Ng/ng Gg/Gh gg/gh Ch/Gh ch/gh - Zz Tt Zz Ss Sj sj Ss/Cc Ss Zz Rr Zz Dd/Tt Ch ch Hh Xx Tj tj Dj dj Ss Tt/Dd Pp/Bb Bb -
Arabic Alphabet
ی و ء ہ ن م ل گ ک ڤ ف ڠ ݝ غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ژ ز ر ذ د خ ح ݗ چ ج ث ت پ ب ا
IPA value
j w ʔ ɦ n m l g k v f ŋ g ɣ ʔ(ʕ) z t z s ʃ s ʒ z r z(ð) d x ɦ(ħ) ks t͡ʃ d͡ʒ s(θ) t p b ʔ

Note: This alphabet is the Persian form of the Arabic alphabet, with 36 letters, including extra letters for sounds that are not in the Arabic alphabet.

VowelsEdit

Afrikaans Latin Alphabet Pronunciation Afrikaans Arabic Alphabet
a /ɐ/ ـَ
aa /ɑː/ ـَآ،ـَا
ie /i/ ـِ
eeu/eu/uu /iːu/eø/y/ ـِى
e/è /ɛ/ ىٖ
oe /u/ ـُ
oo /oə/ ـُوْ
oei/ooi /ui/ɔːi/ ـُوی
ô /ɔː/ ـُو
î /əː/ ـَـِى
ee /eə/ ـِىْ
a /ɛ/ ویْ
a /i~ə/ ـِـَ
a /eː/ɛː/ ـَـِـٖ
a /ɔ/ ـَـُ
a /ə/ ـٖى،ـَـِ
a /œ/œː/ ـَوی
a /ɛi/ آی
a /aj/ ـَى
a /ɑːi/ ـَای،آی

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Dorsal Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t t͡ʃ k (q) (ʔ)
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ χ
voiced v z ʒ (ʁ) ɦ
Approximant w l j
Rhotic r

TextsEdit

 
Arabisi-Afrikaans 1872

Seventy-four Arabic Afrikaans texts are extant. The earliest, the "Hidyat al-Islam", is dated 1845, though its source manuscript no longer exists. The oldest surviving manuscript, which describes the basic Islamic learning, was written by the imam Abdul-Kahhar ibn Abdul-Malik in 1868. The most professional version was written in 1869 by Abu Bakr Effendi, who came from Istanbul to the Cape in 1862.

Uiteensetting van die GodsdiensEdit

One of the best examples of this literature was Uiteensetting van die Godsdiens ("Exposition of the Religion"), a book laying out Islamic traditions according to the Hanafi religious law. Written by Abu Bakr Effendi, it was printed using Arabic script throughout, but contained transcriptions of Afrikaans.

According to one of the three experts in this field, the German Hans Kähler [de], about 20 people were responsible for the text, but the most important contributors to Arabic Afrikaans opinion were:

  • Abdul Kahhar ibn Hajji Abdul Malik (early 19th century)
  • Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Baha ud-Din (mid-19th century)
  • Ismail ibn Muhammad Hanif (mid-19th century)
  • Abd ur-Rahman ibn Muhammad Al-Iraqi (late 19th century), and
  • Abu Bakr Effendi (late 19th century).

This is a paragraph of the book Uiteensetting van die godsdiens:

  • Transcription of the Arabic-alphabet text. The italics mark Arabic-language words:
    Iek bagent diesie kitab met Allah (ta'ala) sain naam. Allah (ta'ala) es rizq giefar ien dunya fer al wat liefandag ies. Allah (ta'ala) es beriengar ien die gannat ien dag ahirat fer al die miesie an djinns wat oewhap iman gadoet het. Al die dank an parais es rieg fer Allah (ta'ala) alien. Allah (ta'ala) het gagief fer oewhans Islam sain agama. Islam sain agama oek waas gawies fantefoewhar Ibrahim sain agama... An Allah (ta'ala) het gamaak die Qur'an rasulullah sain hadit fer seker dalil fer oewhans... An Allah (ta'ala) het galaat oewhans wiet die riegtie wieg fan die ilms an gahelp fer oewhans oewham ta lier ander miesie oewhap die riegtie manierie.
  • Translation into modern standard Afrikaans:
    Ek begin hierdie boek met Allah (hy is verhewe) se naam. Allah (h.i.v.) is onderhouer in die wêreld vir al wat lewendig is. Allah (h.i.v.) is bringer in die paradys in die laaste dag vir al die mense en djinns wat oop iman gedoen het (m.a.w. in die geloof gesterwe het). Al die dank en prys is reg vir Allah (h.i.v.) alleen. Allah het gegee vir ons Islam se godsdiens. Islam se godsdiens ook was gewees vantevore Abraham se godsdiens...En Allah (h.i.v.) het gemaak die Koran en die profeet se hadit vir seker bewys vir ons...En Allah (h.i.v.) het gelaat ons weet die regte weg van die godsdienswetenskappe en gehelp vir ons om te leer ander mense op die regte manier.

The Arabic-alphabet version uses an Arabic word in several places where modern Afrikaans uses a Germanic word, e.g. dunya دنيا for wêreld, meaning "world". The Arabic words are entirely unknown in Afrikaans.

Without the above Translation into modern standard Afrikaans (which is in itself not standard Afrikaans although much closer to it), it is nearly impossible for an Afrikaans-speaking person to understand the above Transcription of the Arabic-alphabet text. Some words do however appear to resemble phonetic transliterations between Arabic script and the version of Afrikaans spoken by Cape Coloured people, mixed with Dutch.

Islam arrived among the Malays during the early 15th century and these works were most likely teaching tools; a way for Muslim teachers to instruct Malay slaves in the Cape while not necessarily being able to speak Dutch very well or at all.

Qur'anEdit

An example that used Arabic vowels was a handwritten Arabic–Afrikaans bilingual Quran (perhaps written in the 1880s). In it, for example, Surah 67, Ayah 1 says:[3]

Arabic: Afrikaans:
No diacritics
تبارك الذي بيده الملك
ان دى كونڠ سكپ اس بيدى هوك الله تعالا ان ڤارلك الله تعالا اس باس فر الدى اتس
With diacritics
تَبَارَكَ ٱللَّذِي بِيَدِهِ ٱلمُلْكُ
ان دى كُوْنِڠْ سْكَپْ اس بِيْدِىْ هُوْكَ الله تعالا ان ڤَارْلِكْ الله تعالَا اِسْ بَاس فَِرْ اَلْدِىْ اِتْسْ
Transliterated tabāraka -llaḏī bi-yadihi l-mulk[u] °n dī kūnuň skap is bīdī hūka Allah ta`ālā °n vārlik Allah ta`ālā is bās fir aldī its
In Conventional Afrikaans - En die koningskap is by die hoë Allah ta`ālā en waarlik Allah ta`ālā is die baas van alle dinge.
In English Blessed is the One in Whose hand is the kingdom. And the kingship is with the high Allah (may He be exalted) and truly Allah (may He be exalted) is the boss of all things.

(° = vowel sign missing, ň = /ŋ/ as in "king", ʿ = ayn, underlined = in Arabic.)

Here in the Afrikaans text:

  • /ŋ/ ň is written as ayn but with three dots above ڠ
  • /v/ v is written as ڤ
  • /f/ f in "fir" has both an /a/ vowel and an /i/ vowel.
  • The letter of prolongation in ī and ū has sukūn.
  • The Afrikaans preposition by is written as part of the next word, likely by copying Arabic language usage with some prepositions.
  • The Afrikaans word al = "all" is written as part of the next word, likely by copying Arabic language usage with al- = "the".

LexiconEdit

Arabic Afrikaans English translation Etymology Afrikaans Equivalent
Kitaab کتاب book Arabic کتاب Boek بک
dunya دنیا world Arabic دنیا Wêreld ڤرلت
Aql عقل intellect Arabic عقل
Ilm علم knowledge Arabic علم Kennis کنس
Waqt وقت time Arabic وقت tyd تآیت
Akhirat آخرت Hereafter Arabic آخرت hierna هرنا
Halaal حلال permitted Arabic حلال
Haraam حرام Forbidden Arabic حرام
Haq حق rights Arabic حق reg رخت رخ
Maqsad مقصد Goal Arabic مقصد doel دل
Sawal سوال Question Arabic سوال vraag فراخ
Jawab جواب Answer Arabic جواب Antwoord انتڤیرت
Jannat جنت heaven Arabic جنة hemel همل
Jahanaam جهنم Hell Arabic جهنم hel هیل
Izzat عزت respect Arabic عزة respek رسپیک
Zillat / Dhillat ذلت disrespect Arabic ذلة beledigen بلدغی
awwal اول start, beginning Arabic اول begin بغن
akhir آخر end, last Arabic آخر einde اندی
din دین religion Arabic دین godsdiens ختسدنس
Rizq رزق sustenance Arabic رزق
ustad استاد teacher Persian استاد onderwyser اندرڤآیزر
Qaiser قیصر Caesar Arabic قیصر from Latin Caesar تسزغ/ سزغ
lisan لسان language Arabic لسان taal تال
dua دعا prayer Arabic دعاء bed بت
sabr صبر patience Arabic صبر geduld غدلت
salat
namaz
صلات
نماز
ritual prayer Arabic صلاة, Persian (نماز) rituele gebed برتییل خبویت
dawat دعوت invitation
(Islamic missionary activity)
Arabic دعاة uitnodiging اوییتنودغڠ
Falsafah فلسفه philosophy Arabic فلسفه from Greek filosofie فلوسوفی
Fitnah فتنه trial and tribulation Arabic فتنه burgeroorlog بویرخررلخ
ibaadat عبادت worship Arabic عبادة aanbidding آنبدڠ
iman ایمان faith Arabic ایمان geloof خلوف
millat ملت personal law Ottoman Turkish ملت from Arabic ملة persoonlike reg پرسنلک رخ
yaqin یقین certainty, Arabic یقین zekerheid زکرہآیت
Usul اصول principles Arabic اصول beginsel بغنسل
Barakat برکت blessing Arabic برکة seën سن
hasan حسن good Arabic حسن goed غت
hikmat حکمت wisdom Arabic حکمة wysheid ڤسهت
Baazaar بازار market Persian بازار Baazaar بازار
nikah نکاح marriage Arabic نکاح bruiloft بروییلفت
Qiyaamat قیامت Day of Resurrection Arabic قیامة dag des oordeels دخ دی اوردلس
alam عالم world Arabic عالم Wêreld ڤرلت
insan انسان human Arabic انسان mens منس
haiwan حیوان animal Arabic حیوان dier در
jahil جاهل ignorant Arabic جاهل onwetend انڤتنت
wazir وزیر minister Arabic وزیر minister منستر
daftar دفتر notebook Arabic دفتر Notaboek نوتابک
fasad فساد corruption Arabic فساد korrupsie کریپس
hayat حیات life Arabic حیات lewe لوی
maut موت death Arabic موت dood دوت
sabt سبت saturday Arabic السبت Saterdag ساترداخ
shams شمس sun Arabic شمس son سن
junub جنوب south Arabic جنوب suid سویت
qamar قمر moon Arabic قمر maan مان
najm نجم star Arabic نجم ster ستیر
zawja زوجه wife Arabic زوجه vrou فروی
zawj زوج couple Arabic زوج paar پار
shamaal شمال north Arabic شمال noord نورت
gharb/maghrib مغرب
غرب
west Arabic مغرب
غرب
west ڤیست
yaum یوم day Arabic یوم dag دخ
laylat لیلت night Arabic لیلة nag نخ
sharq/mashriq مشرق
شرق
east Arabic مشرق
شرق
oost اوست

NumeralsEdit

Arabic Afrikaans used Eastern Arabic numerals. The following is the list of basic cardinal numerals with the spelling in the Afrikaans Latin alphabet:

Arabic form Number Afrikaans Arabic Alphabet (with diacritics)[4] Afrikaans Arabic Alphabet (without diacritics) Afrikaans Latin Alphabet
٠ 0
نَویل/صِفِر
نویل/صفر
nul/siefier
١ 1
اَِٖن
ان
een
٢ 2
تڤِیْ
تڤی
tvee
٣ 3
درِ
در
drie
٤ 4
ڤِر
ڤر
vier
٥ 5
ڤآیف
ڤآیف
vyf
٦ 6
سیٖس
سیس
ses
٧ 7
سَِٖڤٖی
سڤی
seve
٨ 8
اَخت
اخت
agt
٩ 9
نَِٖغٖی
نغی
nege
١٠ 10
تنٖ
تن
tien

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ compare the Lutheran hymn Vater unser im Himmelreich in the following picture. [Martin Luther]: Alaman Türkīsi. In: [Anon.]: Meǧmūʿa. [o.O.u.J.] fol. 40r.-41v. http://data.onb.ac.at/rec/AL00642162 also the digitalization of the full picture http://data.onb.ac.at/dtl/3373545 (accessed 2019-01-15).
  2. ^ "List of issues Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies". www.tandfonline.com.
  3. ^ Michael Cook, The Koran, A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-285344-9, p. 93
  4. ^ "Arabic Afrikaans – early standardisation of Afrikaans orthography: A discussion of The Afrikaans of the Cape Muslims by Achmat Davids".

External linksEdit