Apple File System
Apple File System (APFS) is a proprietary file system for macOS High Sierra (10.13) and later, iOS 10.3 and later, tvOS 10.2 and later, and watchOS 3.2 and later, developed and deployed by Apple Inc. It aims to fix core problems of HFS+ (also called Mac OS Extended), APFS's predecessor on these operating systems. Apple File System is optimized for flash and solid-state drive storage, with a primary focus on encryption.
|Full name||Apple File System|
|Introduced||March 27, 2017 with iOS 10.3|
|Partition identifier||7C3457EF-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC (GPT)|
|Max. file size||8 EiB (263 bytes)|
|Max. number of files||263 |
|Allowed characters in filenames||Unicode 9.0 encoded in UTF-8|
|Dates recorded||access, attributes modified, contents modified, created|
|Date range||January 1, 1970 – July 21, 2554|
|Date resolution||1 ns|
|File system permissions||Unix permissions, NFSv4 ACLs|
|Supported operating systems||macOS, iOS, tvOS, watchOS and audioOS|
Apple File System was announced at Apple's developers conference (WWDC) in June 2016 as a replacement for HFS+, which had been in use since 1998. APFS was released for 64-bit iOS devices on March 27, 2017, with the release of iOS 10.3, and for macOS devices on September 25, 2017, with the release of macOS 10.13.
The file system can be used on devices with relatively small or large amounts of storage. It uses 64-bit inode numbers, and allows for more secure storage. The APFS code, like the HFS+ code, uses the TRIM command, for better space management and performance. It may increase read-write speeds on iOS and macOS, as well as space on iOS devices, due to the way APFS calculates available data.
Clones allow the operating system to make efficient file copies on the same volume without occupying additional storage space. Changes to a cloned file are saved as deltas, reducing storage space required for document revisions and copies.
- no encryption
- single-key encryption
- multi-key encryption, where each file is encrypted with a separate key, and metadata is encrypted with a different key.
Increased maximum number of filesEdit
Apple File System is designed to avoid metadata corruption caused by system crashes. Instead of overwriting existing metadata records in place, it writes entirely new records, points to the new ones and then releases the old ones. This avoids corrupted records containing partial old and partial new data caused by a crash that occurs during an update. It also avoids having to write the change twice, as happens with an HFS+ journaled file system, where changes are written first to the journal and then to the catalog file.
Unlike versions of HFS+ since Leopard, APFS has no support for hard links to directories. This is in line with many other modern file systems, but Time Machine still relies on them, so APFS is not yet an option for its backup volumes (as of macOS 10.14 Mojave).
Since macOS High Sierra, all devices with flash storage are automatically converted to APFS. FileVault volumes are also converted. As of macOS Mojave, Fusion Drives and hard disk drives are also upgraded on installation. The primary user interface to upgrade does not present an option to opt out of this conversion, and devices formatted with the High Sierra version of APFS will not be readable in previous versions of macOS. Users can disable APFS conversion by using the installer's
startosinstall utility on the command line and passing
An experimental version of APFS, with some limitations, is available in macOS Sierra through the command line
diskutil utility. Among these limitations, it does not perform Unicode normalization while HFS+ does, leading to problems with languages other than English. Drives formatted with Sierra’s version of APFS may also not be compatible with future versions of macOS or the final version of APFS, and the Sierra version of APFS cannot be used with Time Machine, FileVault volumes, or Fusion Drives.
iOS, tvOS, and watchOSEdit
Third party utilitiesEdit
Despite the ubiquity of APFS volumes in today's Macs and the format's 2016 introduction, third party repair utilities continue to have notable limitations in supporting APFS volumes, due to Apple's delayed release of complete documentation. According to Alsoft, the maker of the popular DiskWarrior, Apple's 2018 release of finalized APFS format documentation will enable safe rebuilding of APFS disks in future versions of its flagship product. Competing products, including as MicroMat's TechTool and Prosoft's Drive Genius are expected to increase APFS support as well.
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- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- A ZFS developer’s analysis of the good and bad in Apple’s new APFS file system Archived February 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Why Apple's APFS won't last 30 years Archived April 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- Adam Leventhal (June 19, 2016). "APFS in Detail: Overview". Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Leventhal, Adam H. (June 26, 2016). "A ZFS developer's analysis of the good and bad in Apple's new APFS file system". Ars Technica.
APFS right now is incompatible with Time Machine due to the lack of directory hard links, a fairly disgusting implementation that likely contributes to Time Machine's questionable reliability.
- "Disks you can use with Time Machine". Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- "Prepare for APFS in macOS High Sierra". Apple.com. September 7, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- "macOS 10.14 Mojave: The Ars Technica review". arstechnica.com. September 25, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Trouton, Rich (September 26, 2017). "Using the macOS High Sierra OS installer's startosinstall tool to avoid APFS conversion". Der Flounder. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
- APFS’s “Bag of Bytes” Filenames
- APFS is currently unusable with most non-English languages – The Eclectic Light Company Archived June 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- "How to Format a Drive With the APFS File System on macOS Sierra". Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "jakepetroules/Filesystem". GitHub. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Alsoft DiskWarrior: Mojave and Apple File System (APFS)