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Anton Wilhelm Amo or Anthony William Amo (c. 1703 – c. 1759) was a Ghanaian philosopher from what is now Ghana. Amo was a teacher at the universities of Halle and Jena in Germany after studying there. Brought to Germany by the Dutch West India Company in 1707 as a child, and given as a gift to the Dukes of August Wilhelm and Ludwig Rudolf von Wolfenbüttel,[1] he was treated as a member of the family of Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, he was the first African known to have attended a European university.

Anton Wilhelm Amo
Bornc. 1703
Diedc. 1759
NationalityNzema (an Akan people), German
Scientific career
Fieldseconomics, philosophy
InstitutionsHalle, Jena


Early life and educationEdit

Plaque to Anton Wilhelm Amo, quadrangle, Wittenberg University

Amo was an Ahanta (an Akan people). He was born in Dixcove in the Western region of present-day Ghana, but at the age of about four he was taken to Amsterdam by the Dutch West India Company. Some accounts say that he was taken as a slave, others that he was sent to Amsterdam by a preacher working in Ghana. The truth of the matter is that he was given as a "present" to Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to whose palace in Wolfenbüttel he was taken.[2]

Amo was baptised (and later confirmed) in the palace's chapel. He was treated as a member of the Duke's family, and was educated at the Wolfenbüttel Ritter-Akademie (1717–21) and at the University of Helmstedt (1721–27).

He went on to the University of Halle, whose Law School he entered in 1727. He finished his preliminary studies within two years, titling his thesis: Dissertatio Inauguralis De Jure Maurorum in Europa (1729). This manuscript on The Rights of Moors in Europe is lost, but a summary was published in his university's Annals (1730). For his further studies Amo moved to the University of Wittenberg, studying logic, metaphysics, physiology, astronomy, history, law, theology, politics, and medicine, and mastered six languages (English, French, Dutch, Latin, Greek, and German). His medical education in particular was to play a central role in much of his later philosophical thought.

He gained his doctorate in philosophy at Wittenberg in 1734; his thesis (published as On the Absence of Sensation in the Human Mind and its Presence in our Organic and Living Body) argued against Cartesian dualism in favour of a broadly materialist account of the person. He accepted that it is correct to talk of a mind or soul, but argued that it is the body rather than the mind which perceives and feels.

Whatever feels, lives; whatever lives, depends on nourishment; whatever lives and depends on nourishment grows; whatever is of this nature is in the end resolved into its basic principles; whatever comes to be resolved into its basic principles is a complex; every complex has its constituent parts; whatever this is true of is a divisible body. If therefore the human mind feels, it follows that it is a divisible body.

(On the Ἀπάθεια (Apatheia) of the Human Mind 2.1)

Philosophical career and later lifeEdit

Amo returned to the University of Halle to lecture in philosophy under his preferred name of Antonius Guilelmus Amo Afer. In 1736 he was made a professor. From his lectures, he produced his second major work in 1738, Treatise on the Art of Philosophising Soberly and Accurately, in which he developed an empiricist epistemology very close to but distinct from that of philosophers such as John Locke and David Hume. In it he also examined and criticised faults such as intellectual dishonesty, dogmatism, and prejudice.

In 1740 Amo took up a post in philosophy at the University of Jena, but while there he experienced a number of changes for the worse. The Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel had died in 1735, leaving him without his long-standing patron and protector. That coincided with social changes in Germany, which was becoming intellectually and morally narrower and less liberal. Those who argued against the secularisation of education (and against the rights of Africans in Europe) were regaining their ascendancy over those (such as Christian Wolff) who campaigned for greater academic and social freedom.

Amo was subjected to an unpleasant campaign by some of his enemies, including a public lampoon staged at a theatre in Halle. He finally decided to return to the land of his birth. He set sail on a Dutch West India Company ship to Ghana via Guinea, arriving in about 1747; his father and a sister were still living there. His life from then on becomes more obscure. According to at least one report, he was taken to a Dutch fortress, Fort San Sebastian in Shama, in the 1750s, possibly to prevent him sowing dissent among his people. The exact date, place, and manner of his death are unknown, though he probably died in about 1759 at the fort in Chama in Ghana.

Later, during the time of German idealism and romanticism, Amo's philosophical work was ignored by other Jena-based German intellectuals such as Schiller, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Brentano, and the Schlegel brothers.[3]



  • Dissertatio inauguralis de iure maurorum in Europa, 1729 (lost)
  • Dissertatio inauguralis de humanae mentis apatheia, Wittenberg, 1734
  • Disputatio philosophica continens ideam distinctam eorum quae competunt vel menti vel corpori nostro vivo et organico, Wittenberg, 1734 (Ph.D. thesis)
  • Tractatus de arte sobrie et accurate philosophandi, 1738


  1. ^ Loutzenhiser, Mike (September 17, 2008). THE ROLE OF THE INDIGENOUS AFRICAN PSYCHE IN THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS. iUniverse. pp. xiii. ISBN 0595503764.
  2. ^ Wirth, Nikolaus. "Amo, Anton Wilhelm". BlackPast. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  3. ^ Hochkeppel, Willy (2012). "Der schwarze Philosoph" [The black Philosopher]. Damals (in German). No. 12. pp. 66–69.

Further readingEdit

  • Abraham, William E. (1996). "The Life and Times of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first African (black) Philosopher in Europe". In Asante, Molefi Kete; Abarry, Abu S. (eds.). African Intellectual Heritage. A Book of Sources. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 424–440. ISBN 1-5663-9403-1.
  • Abraham, William E. (2001). "Amo". In Arrington, Robert L. (ed.). A Companion to the Philosophers. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22967-1.
  • Amo, Anton Wilhelm (1968). Antonius Gvilielmus Amo Afer of Axim in Ghana: Translation of his Works. Halle: Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg.
  • Brentjes, Burchhard (1969). "Anton Wilhelm Amo in Halle, Wittenberg, und Jena". Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung (in German). XV: 56–76.
  • Firla, Monika (2002). "Anton Wilhelm Amo (Nzema, Rep. Ghana) — Kammermohr, Privatdozent für Philosophie, Wahrsager" [Anton Wilhelm Amo... Valet Moor, Private Lecturer of Philosophy, Fortune Teller]. Tribus (in German). 51: 55–90.
  • Glötzner, Johannes (2002). "Anton Wilhelm Amo. Ein Philosoph aus Afrika im Deutschland des 18. Jahrhunderts" (in German).
  • Glötzner, Johannes (2003). "Der Mohr. Leben, Lieben und Lehren des ersten afrikanischen Doctors der Weltweisheit Anton Wilhelm Amo" (in German).
  • Herbjørnsrud, Dag (2017) The African Enlightenment, edited by Sam Dresser, AEON, 13 December 2017
  • King, Peter J. (2004). One Hundred Philosophers. New York: Barron's Educational Books. ISBN 0-7641-2791-8.
  • Kwame, Safro, ed. (1995). "On the Απαθεια of the Human Mind". Readings in African Philosophy: An Akan Collection. University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-9911-7.
  • Martin, Peter (1993). "Der schwarze Philosoph" [The black Philosopher]. In Martin, Peter (ed.). Schwarze Teufel, Edle Mohren [Black Devils, Noble Moors] (in German). Hamburg: Junius. ISBN 3-930908-64-6.
  • Smith, Justin E. H. (2013). "The Enlightenment’s ‘Race’ Problem, and Ours"
  • Wiredu, Kwasi (2004). "Amo’s Critique of Descartes’ Philosophy of Mind". In Wiredu, Kwasi: A Companion to African Philosophy. MA, USA, Blackwell Publishing. pp. 200–206.

External linksEdit

  • An extensive archive of materials by and about Amo can be found at
  • The Latin original of Amo's Dissertatio inauguralis de humanae mentis apatheia, Wittenberg (On the Impassivity of the Human Mind), 1734 (State Library of Berlin)
  • Amo scholar Dwight Lewis provides a concise account of Amo's life and work which can be found on the American Philosophical Association blog: APA Online.