Angelo Sodano

Angelo Raffaele Sodano, GCC (born 23 November 1927) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church, a Cardinal since 1991. He was the Dean of the College of Cardinals from 2005 to 2019, and Cardinal Secretary of State from 1991 to 2006; Sodano was the first person since 1828 to serve simultaneously as Dean and Secretary of State.


Angelo Sodano

Dean Emeritus of the College of Cardinals
Card. Angelo Sodano.jpg
Portrait of Angelo Sodano
ProvinceDiocese of Rome
SeeAlbano,
S. Maria Nuova (in commendam)
Appointed30 April 2005
Term ended21 December 2019
PredecessorJoseph Ratzinger
SuccessorGiovanni Battista Re
Other posts
  • Cardinal-Bishop of Albano
  • Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Nuova
Orders
Ordination23 September 1950
by Umberto Rossi
Consecration15 January 1978
by Antonio Samorè
Created cardinal28 June 1991
by Pope John Paul II
RankCardinal-Bishop
Personal details
Born (1927-11-23) 23 November 1927 (age 93)
Isola d'Asti, Piedmont, Kingdom of Italy
NationalityItalian
DenominationRoman Catholic
Previous post
  • Titular Archbishop of Nova Caesaris (1977–1991)
  • Apostolic Nuncio to Chile (1977–1988)
  • Secretary of the Roman Curia (1988–1989)
  • Official of the Secretariat of State (1989–1991)
  • Secretary of the Secretariat of State (1991–2006)
  • Vice-Dean (Sub-Dean) of the College of Cardinals (2002–2005)
  • Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia (2005-2019)
Alma materPontifical Gregorian University
Pontifical Lateran University
Mottout unum sint
(that they may be one)
SignatureAngelo Sodano's signature
Coat of armsAngelo Sodano's coat of arms
Styles of
Angelo Sodano
Coat of arms of Angelo Sodano.svg
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeAlbano (suburbicarian),
S. Maria Nuova (in commendam)

On 22 June 2006, Pope Benedict XVI accepted Sodano's resignation as Secretary of State, effective on 15 September 2006. He had served in the diplomatic corps of the Holy See since 1959, including a decade as nuncio to Chile from 1978 to 1988.

On 21 December 2019, the same day it was reported that he shielded sexually abusive clergy in the Legion of Christ,[1] Pope Francis accepted Sodano's resignation as Dean of the College of Cardinals.

Early lifeEdit

The second of six children, Sodano was born on 23 November 1927 in Isola d'Asti, Piedmont, to Giovanni and Delfina Sodano. His father (1901-1991) was a Christian Democrat deputy in the Italian Parliament for three terms from 1948 until 1963.[2] After studying philosophy and theology at the seminary of Asti,[3] Sodano was ordained a priest by Bishop Umberto Rossi on 23 September 1950, and then did pastoral work and taught dogmatic theology at the Asti seminary.

He studied in Rome at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, and at the Pontifical Lateran University, earning a doctorate in canon law. To prepare for a diplomatic career he entered the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in 1959.[4] Upon joining the diplomatic service of the Holy See, he served as secretary in nunciatures in Latin America. In 1968 he was assigned to the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church in the Vatican.[3]

Apostolic nuncioEdit

On 30 November 1977, Sodano, who speaks English, German, Spanish, French and Italian, was appointed titular archbishop of Nova Caesaris and apostolic nuncio to Chile, one of the countries where he had served as nunciature secretary.[3] He was consecrated in his native Asti by Cardinal Antonio Samoré on 15 January 1978. He arrived at a difficult moment, with Chile on the brink of war with Argentina over the Beagle Channel and Augusto Pinochet in power.[5] In 1980, together with Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, he tried without success to get Pinochet to allow the return of certain political exiles, and in 1984 he obtained, at the cost of a dispute between the Holy See and the military government of Chile, safe conduct for four members of the Revolutionary Left Movement, who had sought diplomatic asylum in the nunciature, to leave for Ecuador.[5]

In 1987, when Pope John Paul II visited Chile, Sodano arranged for him to meet in the nunciature the leaders of the opposition to the Pinochet government.[5] The following year, the Pope appointed Sodano Secretary for Relations with States, a post corresponding to that of a foreign minister, and on 1 December 1990 named him Pro-Secretary of State, creating him Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria Nuova (thus making him Secretary of State) on 28 June 1991.

Secretary of StateEdit

 
The two Secretaries of State: Cardinal Sodano (Secretary of State of the Holy See) with Condoleezza Rice (Secretary of State of the U.S.)

On 29 June 1991, Sodano became Cardinal Secretary of State, succeeding Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, who had retired on 1 December 1990.[3] On 10 January 1994, Pope John Paul II named Sodano Cardinal Bishop of the suburbicarian see of Albano. Sodano retained his relationship to the church of Santa Maria Nuova no longer as titular but in commendam, that is, in trust or in his custody.[3]

On 27 December 1998, he wrote, at the request of the democratic government of Chile, an official letter to the British Prime Minister Tony Blair stating that "the Chilean Government considers it an offence to its territorial sovereignty as a nation the fact of being deprived of the power to judge its own citizens" through the detention of Pinochet in Britain.[5] When in 2002 Sodano turned 75, John Paul invited him to stay on as Secretary of State, though this is the customary retirement age for heads of major Vatican departments. On 30 November 2002, exactly twenty-five years after he was first appointed a bishop, he was elected vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, succeeding Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who became Dean. In 2003 Sodano drew attention by quite positively commemorating the 500th anniversary of the election the Renaissance Pope Julius II.[6]

When Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, Sodano, who participated in the 2005 papal conclave, was not generally seen as one of the papabili, the cardinals likely to become the next pope. This was largely due to his advanced age (although he was seven months younger than the cardinal who was eventually elected, Joseph Ratzinger, who took the name Benedict XVI), and his lack of experience outside the Roman Curia. During the conclave, because Cardinal Ratzinger, the pope-elect, was the Dean, Sodano as the Sub-Dean exercised the duties normally allotted to the Dean in asking the pope-elect if he accepted his election and by what name he would be called. Also as the Sub-Dean and the most senior Cardinal-Bishop, Cardinal Sodano discharged the duties normally allotted to the Dean at the new pope's papal inauguration. At the papal inauguration, Sodano presented Pope Benedict XVI with the Ring of the Fisherman, and along with the protopriest Stephen Kim Sou-hwan and the protodeacon Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, was one of the three cardinals who made the public profession of obedience to the new pope.

Sodano's position as Secretary of State expired upon the death of John Paul II. Benedict XVI reappointed him to the position on 21 April 2005, despite the fact that he was past the customary retirement age. On 30 April Benedict ratified Sodano's election to the position of Dean of the College of Cardinals by the suburbicarian Cardinal Bishops,[7] adding as was customary the suburbicarian see of Ostia to his honorary titles.[3]

On 22 June 2006, Benedict XVI accepted Sodano's resignation as Secretary of State, effective 15 September 2006.[8] On 18 September 2012, Sodano was named by Pope Benedict XVI as one of the Synod Fathers of the 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Catholic Synod of Bishops.

When Pope Benedict XVI resigned, Sodano as Dean of the College of Cardinals summoned the cardinals for the conclave during the sede vacante and was the principal concelebrant of the Pro eligendo Pontifice mass on the morning the conclave opened. He was not eligible to participate in the conclave, which elected Pope Francis. At the inauguration of the new pope, Sodano, as Dean of the College, presented the Ring of the Fisherman to Francis.

On 21 December 2019, Pope Francis accepted Sodano's resignation as Dean of the College of Cardinals,[9] following the Pope's annual Christmas meeting with officials of the Curia that opens with a greeting by the Dean.[10] As Dean Emeritus, Sodano no longer has the title of Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, which is reserved to the Dean.

Sex abuse casesEdit

Former Irish minister for foreign affairs Dermot Ahern stated that in 2004, Sodano pressured him to "indemnify the Catholic Church against legal actions for compensation by clerical child sexual-abuse survivors" in Ireland, which Ahern refused.[11]

Jason Berry writes that Sodano, as John Paul II's secretary of state, "pressured Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict, in two notorious cases," the Hans Hermann Groër case and the Marcial Maciel case, to stop investigations into abuse.[12] In his address as Dean of the College of Cardinals to Pope Benedict XVI at Easter 2010, Sodano told him: "The people of God are with you and do not allow themselves to be impressed by the petty gossip of the moment, by the trials that sometimes assail the community of believers." Victims of clerical sex abuse interpreted the "petty gossip" remark as a highly inappropriate reference to their complaints.[13][14]

On 8 May 2010, the Austrian Catholic news agency Kathpress published remarks made by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, in what was supposed to be a private conversation with newspaper editors. The Austrian cardinal criticized Sodano's "petty gossip" comment, and indicated that Sodano had blocked actions of then-Cardinal Ratzinger, who was serving as head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and was intending to investigate accusations against Schönborn's predecessor Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër. Schönborn added: "The days of cover-up are over. For a long while the Church's principle of forgiveness was falsely interpreted and was in favour of those responsible and not the victims."[15][16]

Sodano is one of many Catholic bishops and cardinals who are accused in an August 2018 letter by former Apostolic Nuncio to the United States Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò of failing to act on reports of sexual misconduct by former cardinal Theodore McCarrick. According to Viganò, his predecessos in the nuncio position attempted to warn the Holy See about McCarrick, but McCarrick was shielded from discipline by a series of secretaies of state, including Sodano.[17][18]

On 21 December 2019, the Legion of Christ identified 33 priests and 71 seminaries as sex abusing 175 children for decades and stated that Sodano was the one who led efforts to cover up the reports of abuse when he was serving as Secretariat of State.[19][20] Sodano was accused of seeking a deal to bury documents detailing abuse.[19] A third of the sex abuse cases which Sodano was accused of covering up involved notorious predator priest Marcial Maciel.[19] The same day, Pope Francis accepted Sodano's resignation as Dean of the College of Cardinals.[1] However, the Vatican claimed he resigned due to his "advanced age."[20]

Honours and awardsEdit

Foreign honoursEdit

 
Coat of arms as knight of the Spanish Order of Charles III

Dynastic OrdersEdit

AwardsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b https://cruxnow.com/vatican/2019/12/cardinal-tainted-by-abuse-scandals-steps-down-as-dean-pope-sets-term-limit/
  2. ^ "Giovanni Sodano". Camera dei deputati. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Sodano Card. Angelo". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  4. ^ "Pontificia Accademia Ecclesiastica, Ex-alunni 1950 – 1999" (in Italian). Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Sodano, el contacto de Chile en el Vaticano in El Mercurio on 21 November 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2008
  6. ^ Sermon Cardinal Sodano on the pontificate of Pope Jules II, Vatican, 30 November 2003.
  7. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 30.04.2005" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 30 April 2005. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  8. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 22.06.2006" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 22 June 2006. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Rinunce e nomine, 21.12.2019" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 21 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Angelo Sodano deja de ser el Decano del Colegio cardenalicio". Revista Ecclesia (in Spanish). 21 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  11. ^ McGarry, Patsy (8 August 2018). "Vatican proposed Irish State indemnify it against clerical abuse claims". Irish Times. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  12. ^ Berry, Jason (11 February 2013). "The Pope Could Still Right the Wrongs". New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  13. ^ Pullella, Philip (4 April 2010). "Cardinal defends pope, denounces 'petty gossip'". Reuters.
  14. ^ Squires, Nick (5 April 2010). "Cardinal tells Pope not to be distracted by 'petty gossip'". The Telegraph.
  15. ^ Pullella, Philip (9 May 2010). "Cardinal accuses Vatican official of abuse cover-up". Reuters.
  16. ^ Pisa, Nick (10 May 2010). "Vatican cardinal attacks fellow cardinal for 'covering up' abuse case". The Telegraph.
  17. ^ Pentin, Edward (25 August 2018). "Ex-nuncio accuses Pope Francis of failing to act on McCarrick's abuse reports". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  18. ^ Horowitz, Jason (26 August 2018). "Pope Francis Long Knew of Cardinal's Abuse and Must Resign, Archbishop Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  19. ^ a b c https://apnews.com/e23d4e965a0b84cad18bef11d9b5d825
  20. ^ a b https://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/religion-and-beliefs/cardinal-92-who-sought-deal-to-bury-sex-abuse-documents-resigns-1.4122879
  21. ^ Website of Portuguese Presidency of the Republic
  22. ^ Prime Minister of Malta Website, Honorary Appointments to the National Order of Merit Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Slovak republic website, State honours Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine : 1st Class received in 1997 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)

External linksEdit

  Media related to Angelo Sodano at Wikimedia Commons

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Sotero Sanz Villalba
Apostolic Nuncio to Chile
30 November 1977 – 23 May 1988
Succeeded by
Giulio Einaudi
Political offices
Preceded by
Achille Silvestrini
Secretary for Relations with States
1 March 1989 – 1 December 1990
Succeeded by
Jean-Louis Tauran
Preceded by
Agostino Casaroli
Cardinal Secretary of State
29 June 1991 – 15 September 2006
Succeeded by
Tarcisio Bertone, SDB
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Joseph Ratzinger
Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals
2002– 2005
Succeeded by
Roger Etchegaray
Dean of the College of Cardinals
30 April 2005 – 21 December 2019
Succeeded by
Giovanni Battista Re