Ampol Limited is an Australian petroleum company headquartered in Sydney, New South Wales. Ampol is the largest transport energy distributor and retailer in Australia, with more than 1,900 Ampol-branded stations across the country as of October 2022[update]. It also operates in New Zealand through its subsidiary Z Energy.
|Industry||Oil, fuel and gas|
|Headquarters||Sydney, New South Wales, Australia|
Number of locations
|1,900+ (Australia) (2022)|
|Matthew Halliday (CEO)|
|Products||Petrochemical products and retail service stations|
Number of employees
Ampol was first incorporated in 1936 and would later be owned by Pioneer International. The Caltex brand in Australia separately began in 1941 to market petrol in its chain of service stations and was owned by Caltex Australia Limited. In 1995, the Ampol and Caltex operations merged to form Australian Petroleum, equally owned by Pioneer and Caltex Australia. Pioneer sold its shareholding between 1997 and 1998, and Caltex Australia gained full ownership of Australian Petroleum. Caltex Australia then gradually replaced the Ampol brand with Caltex over the next decade.
From 2001 until 2015, Caltex Australia was owned equally by American petroleum company Chevron Corporation and the Australian public until Chevron sold its shareholding to the public. In December 2019, Chevron, owner of the Caltex trademark, gave notice to Caltex Australia to terminate the licence agreement for use of the Caltex brand in Australia. In May 2020, the company officially changed its name and began to rebrand as Ampol, along with a new logo that was rolled out across Australia between 2020 and 2022.
Today's Ampol Limited traces its history back to two independent businesses that merged in 1995, Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd (a subsidiary of Caltex Australia Limited, owned by the global Caltex Petroleum Corporation) and a previous incarnation of Ampol Limited (owned by Pioneer International). At the time of merger, Caltex Petroleum Corporation was owned equally by American petroleum companies Chevron Corporation and Texaco.
Texas Company (later Texaco) products were first sold in Australia in 1900. Texas Company (Australasia) Limited was incorporated in New South Wales in 1918, with operations across Australia and New Zealand. In June 1936, the Caltex joint venture was formed in the United States between Standard Oil Company of California (later Chevron) and The Texas Company. Texas Company (Australasia) Limited eventually changed its name to Caltex Limited five years later on 2 January 1941.
The legal entity Caltex Australia Limited originated from California Asphalt Products Pty Ltd which was incorporated in May 1935. The company became public in December 1958 and briefly became California Asphalt Products Ltd, before changing its name to Caltex Securities (Australia) Ltd in February 1959 and finally to Caltex Australia Limited in March 1981.
Caltex Australia opened the Kurnell Refinery in 1956. In March 1981, Caltex Australia acquired Golden Fleece for A$75 million. In July the same year, Caltex Australia floated 25% of its shares to the Australian public, the first multinational oil company to do so in Australia. Part of the proceeds of the offering would be used to pay the acquisition of Golden Fleece.
Until the merger with Ampol, Caltex Australia operated though its subsidiary Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd. In 1976, through the subsidiary, Caltex Australia sued a surveying company and a dredge operator for compensation, due to the damage to a pipeline caused by their dredge in 1971. The pipeline connected Kurnell Refinery to an Australian Oil Refining Pty Ltd (AOR) refinery under Botany Bay. Caltex argued it had to arrange alternative means of transport of petroleum products. After a ruling and an appeal, Caltex Australia was not compensated as it did not own the pipeline (AOR did), and its loss was purely economic and was recoverable.
The Australian Motorists Petrol Company, simply known as Ampol, was incorporated by Sir William Gaston Walkley in 1936 in New South Wales. This was in response to Australians' concerns about perceived inequitable petrol pricing, and allegations of transfer pricing by foreign oil companies to limit their tax liabilities in Australia.
Walkley, along with William O'Callaghan and George Hutchison, approached the NRMA and offered to help it form a company to market petrol. Whilst deciding not to officially sponsor an oil company, members of the NRMA's board sought investors. In early 1936, an advertisement was printed in the NRMA's periodical publicising the float of Ampol. The first delivery of oil was received at White Bay in December 1937 and, by 1939, Walkley had joined the board of Ampol as managing director.
During World War II, Walkley served on the Oil Advisory Committee and the board of Pool Petroleum Pty Ltd, both of which supervised the distribution of petrol. This brought him into contact with Sir George Wales, who owned Alba Petroleum, which had a small market in South Australia and Tasmania. In 1945, Ampol purchased Alba Petroleum in an amicable takeover.
The company listed on the Australian Securities Exchange in 1948, and in 1949, it changed its name to Ampol Petroleum Ltd. The name change was largely to distinguish the company from minerals explorer Ampolex.: 48
The first Ampol-owned service station opened in Military Road, Mosman, Sydney in 1952 with the help of Caltex.: 48–9  Within the following six years, 600 new Ampol service stations were opened. During 1959, Ampol expanded by opening a grease plant at Balmain, Sydney and commenced manufacturing tyres and tubes in Somerton, an outer suburb of Melbourne.: 48–9 
In 1965, Ampol's Lytton Oil Refinery in Brisbane came on stream. Pioneer International purchased a 20% stake in Ampol in 1979. From 1980 until 1984, Ampol owned a 66% shareholding in Brisbane television station TVQ.
In 1982, Ampol purchased the marketing and refining assets of Total Australia and changed its name to Ampol Limited. In 1988, Ampol was fully taken over by Pioneer International and delisted from the ASX the following year. The following year, Ampol purchased Solo, the largest independent retailer and distributor in Australia at that time.
Caltex Australia (1995–2020)Edit
Merger between Caltex and AmpolEdit
Prior to 1995, Caltex and Ampol were rivals in the petroleum industry in Australia. However, the two companies were still relatively small compared to other petroleum companies.
Despite being rivals, the two companies had partnered up previously. In 1952, Caltex and Ampol established the West Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd (WAPET) as a joint venture for oil and gas exploration in Western Australia. In 1964, Caltex, Ampol and Golden Fleece partnered up to build Australian Lubricating Oil Refinery at Kurnell (not to be confused with the Caltex's nearby Kurnell Refinery). The refinery was Australia's first lube oil plant.
In May 1995, Caltex and Ampol merged their petroleum, refining and marketing assets (i.e. Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd and Ampol Limited) to form Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd (APPL), owned equally by Pioneer International and Caltex Australia. At the time, the merged company held a 28% market share in the petroleum industry. Under the merger plan, Pioneer would operate the new company while Caltex would be an investor. The Caltex brand was also planned to be retired and replaced by Ampol, but this never eventuated.
In 1997, Pioneer planned to leave the petroleum industry. First, in October 1997, Pioneer announced it would sell its 50% shareholding of APPL to Caltex Australia, finalised on 31 December 1997. This resulted in Caltex Australia gaining full ownership of the company and the name change of APPL to Caltex Petroleum Australia Ltd on 1 January 1998. In exchange, Pioneer received 90 million Caltex Australia shares (33.33% stake). After the sale, Caltex Australia was owned by 50% owned by Caltex Petroleum Corporation (the global Caltex company) and 16.66% by the public.
Then, in April 1998, Pioneer sold the 90 million Caltex Australia shares through public offering. This meant that 50% of Caltex Australia was then owned by the public (ASX shareholders). The remainder 50% continued to be owned by Caltex Petroleum Corporation. The latter would later become fully owned by Chevron Corporation in 2001. The 50% Chevron shareholding and 50% ASX shareholding of Caltex Australia then remained in this composition until 2015.
As a result of the merger, the WAPET oil and gas exploration joint venture was replaced by Chevron Australia Pty Ltd in February 2000. The owners of the Kurnell lube oil refinery, Golden Fleece, Ampol and Caltex, were under the same ownership, and the refinery was later called Caltex Lubricating Oil Refinery.
Later history (1998–2020)Edit
In February 1999, Caltex opened an "IGA Everyday" supermarket at its service station in Bondi, to compete with Woolworths and Coles. Also in the same month, the new Caltex branding, introduced globally in 1996, was introduced to Australia. The existing network of convenience stores was also renamed "Star Mart". The Ampol brand was replaced but would remain in use at some service stations, primarily in country areas where customer loyalty and strong brand-recognition were factors.
On 27 May 2009, Caltex Australia announced a proposal to acquire 302 Mobil and Mobil Quix service stations in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide, subject to approval of the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC). The ACCC subsequently opposed the takeover on the grounds that the acquisition could result in diminished competition. Caltex subsequently abandoned the acquisition, with Mobil entering into an agreement to sell the same sites to 7-Eleven Australia.
In late 2009 and early 2010, Caltex Australia announced the closure of the Caltex Lubricating Oil Refinery at Kurnell by 2011. At the time of closure, it was Australia's last remaining lube refinery. Caltex Australia claimed the refinery was "not viable" because it manufactured "outmoded lubricant products" and faced "declining feedstock sources".
In 2012, Caltex Australia wanted to establish an overseas trading arm to enable the importation of petrol into Australia. As Chevron Corporation already operate the Caltex brand overseas in areas like Singapore, Caltex Australia opted to name their Singaporean business after their former Australian business, Ampol.
Until 2014, Caltex operated two petroleum refineries in Australia: one at Kurnell in Sydney, and one at Lytton in Brisbane, each inherited from Caltex and Ampol respectively. The Kurnell Refinery ceased operations in 2014, and part of the existing infrastructure such as wharfs and tanks would be converted to a fuel importation and blending terminal. The conversion was completed in May 2019.
Between 2016 and 2017, Caltex acquired 46 Milemaker sites in Victoria, including 30 in Metropolitan Melbourne. Milemaker was a Caltex independent franchisee but set its own retail prices.
In March 2015, Chevron sold its 50% stake in Caltex Australia (the deal valuing the company at $9.24 billion). However, Caltex Australia was allowed to continue to use the Caltex brand under a trademark licence.
In November 2019, Alimentation Couche-Tard (ATD) proposed an offer to acquire Caltex Australia. Initially declined by the Caltex Australia board, ATD proposed an improved offer in February 2020, and the board agreed to further engage with ATD. Separately in the same month, the EG Group also proposed an offer to acquire Caltex Australia, which was declined by the Caltex Australia board. In April 2020, ATD decided not to proceed with its acquisition proposal due to the high level of economic uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, but will seek to re-engage once there is sufficient clarity to the global economic outlook.
Rebrand to AmpolEdit
After the sale of Chevron's 50% share, Caltex Australia continued to use the Caltex brand under a trademark license agreement. Under the terms of the agreement, the minimum period of notice required when terminating without cause was six months. In December 2019, Caltex Australia announced that Chevron had given notice to terminate the trademark licence agreement for the use of the Caltex brand in Australia, effective from 30 June 2020. The licence agreement termination followed Chevron announcing it would re-enter the Australian market and acquire Puma Energy's Australian operations and intending to rebrand them under the Caltex brand.
Caltex Australia proposed to rebrand itself back as Ampol, which was approved by more than 99% of shareholders during the annual general meeting on 14 May 2020. Caltex Australia cited continued high recognition and regard for the Ampol brand, and the move was expected to save the company $20 million per year in licensing fees to Chevron.
Ampol would have to cease using the licensed Caltex trademarks thirty months ("work-out period") after the termination of the trademark licence agreement (30 June 2020). The first part of the work-out period was an 18-month "exclusivity period" where Ampol had exclusive rights to use the Caltex brand until 31 December 2021. The remaining twelve months until 31 December 2022 were the "non-exclusivity period", where both Chevron and Ampol could use the Caltex brand at the same time. After this date, Ampol would no longer be authorised to use the Caltex brand. This meant the rebranding to Ampol had to be completed by 31 December 2022.
Ampol planned to rebrand its sites in Sydney and Melbourne in August 2020, followed by Brisbane and Adelaide in October 2020, Perth in November 2020 and nationally in 2021. The Granville and Concord sites along Parramatta Road in Sydney were the first two sites to be rebranded to Ampol on 21 August 2020. The Star Mart store branding was also rebranded as Foodary.
In late 2020, EG Australia, the owner of former Woolworths service stations co-branded with Caltex, sued Ampol regarding the latter's rebranding, accusing them of "misleading or deceptive conduct". When EG acquired the stores from Woolworths in April 2019, it also inherited the agreement which allowed the use of the Caltex brand. EG accused Ampol of making "false representations" about the status of the latter's branding agreement with Chevron in that the then-Caltex Australia could use the Caltex brand for a long time. EG also accused Ampol for failing to disclose that the latter was already locked in discussions with Chevron about the future of the trademark licence agreement. The legal dispute was mutually resolved in April 2022 with all legal proceedings dropped. The resolution allowed Ampol to continue to be the exclusive supplier to all EG stores under the agreement, and paved the way for the rebranding from Caltex to Ampol in EG stores by the end of the year.
In 2021, Chevron also sued Ampol for breaching the Caltex trade mark licensing agreement, regarding the continued use of the red canopy fascia in its rebranded service stations, continuing to promote and accept the Caltex StarCard loyalty card at Ampol service stations, and continuing to use Caltex and StarCard trade marks in conjunction with Ampol trade marks. Chevron argued that these infringed on Chevron's registered trademarks, and that these were misleading and deceptive conduct, and hence contravening the Australian Consumer Law. The Federal Court of Australia ruled that the use of the red canopy fascia was not misleading or deceptive as "no reasonable consumer was likely to think that there is any relevant association between the two entities or that the Caltex and Ampol brands are from the same stable". The court also ruled that the accepting the use of StarCard also was not misleading or deceptive as it was "obvious to a reasonable consumer" that "branded methods of payment may be accepted by businesses that are unrelated to the owner of the payment method brand". However, the court ruled that advertising and offering to accept a StarCard was in breach of the trade mark licensing agreement, in that the use of licensed marks in conjunction with its own trade mark should only be "for the sole purpose of educating customers that it is transitioning away" from the licensed marks. Therefore, the advertising with words such as "StarCard accepted here" or "StarCard will be accepted at Ampol branded sites" was for commercial use and not "for the sole purpose of educating customers". Even so, this conduct was not misleading or deceptive. Consequently, Ampol was ordered to cease using those statements at Ampol stations or in advertising with effect from 2 August 2021.
Ampol (after 2020)Edit
Ampol partnered with Evie to provide 350 kW electric car chargers at Ampol service stations.
Ampol-branded sites can have any of the following types of convenience store formats.
- Foodary: Large Sites containing a bakery, coffee, hot food, convenience items and an ATM. Selected larger sites also offer barista made coffee and fresh healthy food. Other retailers such as Boost Juice and Guzman y Gomez are co-located on selected Foodary sites. The first Foodary store, initially known as "The Foodary" opened in Concord, Sydney in February 2017 as a pilot store to offer a "unique, convenient experience" on food and convenience when refuelling. There were previously also a few stand-alone Foodary stores not connected to fuel stations, including one at Bondi Junction station in Sydney.
- Ampol Woolworths MetroGo: A mini Woolworths convenience store offering a smaller range of items such as fresh food found at the major Woolworths Supermarkets, along with offering coffee. Some sites also contain a co-located Boost Juice outlet. Ampol Woolworths MetroGo is owned and operated by Ampol and is not part of EG Australia. Prior to March 2022, they were previously known simply as Ampol Woolworths Metro stores.
- Co-Branded: Ampol supplies the fuel for an external provider who operates their own store format. An example of this is EG Group via their acquisition of the former Caltex Woolworths joint-venture. These sites often display the Ampol branding (and previously Caltex branding) on both the pylon signs and canopy with the convenience store using its own branding.
Prior to the rebranding to Ampol, service stations could also have Caltex's Star Mart and Star Shop convenience store formats, which were converted to Woolworths MetroGo or Foodary during the Ampol rebranding. Star Shop was a smaller version of Star Mart with just convenience items and packaged foods and limited operating hours.
In 2003, Caltex Australia entered into a joint venture agreement with large supermarket retailer Woolworths. Shortly after in 2004, a similar fuel discount offer was launched by rival Coles Group. Woolworths' existing Plus Petrol service stations received Caltex branding and, similarly, Caltex service stations received Woolworths branding—the joint venture outlets became Caltex Woolworths. However, this was the case only with certain Caltex service stations close to Woolworths Supermarkets and many remain unassociated with the fuel discount offer until November 2018, when 125 Caltex-operated sites also began to accept the fuel discount offer.
In April 2019, Woolworths sold all its 540 fuel stores to EG Group. As part of the sale, Woolworths fuel discount offers and collection of Woolworths Rewards points would be continued by EG Group for 15 years.
All 540 EG Ampol sites, alongside 220 participating Ampol Woolworths MetroGo and Foodary branded Ampol sites, accept the four cents per litre discount petrol offer from Woolworths.
Julian Segal was the CEO of Caltex Australia for almost 11 years from July 2009 until 2 March 2020. CFO Matthew Halliday was appointed as interim CEO until he was appointed permanent CEO of Ampol on 29 June 2020.
The Vortex fuel brand was launched internationally across Caltex in 1999, and to Caltex Australia in August 2000. After Techron was launched across Caltex in 2006, Caltex Australia continued to sell Vortex fuels instead of Techron.
As part of the rebranding to Ampol, the Vortex fuel brand was replaced by Amplify.
In 2012, Caltex Australia wanted to establish an overseas trading arm to enable the importation of petrol into Australia. This was largely due to the decision to close Kurnell Refinery. As Chevron Corporation already operate the Caltex brand overseas in areas like Singapore, Caltex Australia opted to name their Singaporean business after their former Australian business, Ampol. It commenced trading in October 2013, and the Kurnell Refinery closed in 2014.
In December 2017, Caltex Australia entered a strategic partnership with Seaoil, the leading independent fuel company in the Philippines. As part of the partnership, Caltex Australia would supply oil to Seaoil via Ampol Singapore, while Caltex Australia would take up a 20% equity interest in Seaoil. The acquisition of the 20% equity interest was completed in March 2018.
In August 2021, Ampol launched a takeover bid for New Zealand fuel distributor Z Energy for NZ$2 billion. In May 2022, the takeover was completed. Z Energy operates more than 300 service stations under the Z Energy and Caltex brands, the latter of which is under a 5-year licensing agreement with Chevron renewed in March 2022.
Gull New ZealandEdit
In July 2017, Caltex Australia acquired Gull New Zealand for NZ$340 million (approximately A$325 million). In the year 2018, Gull contributed to Caltex Australia's 39% increase in international fuel sales volumes to 3.5 billion litres.
After Ampol had announced its takeover bid of Z Energy, in March 2022, Ampol agreed to an outright sale to Australian investment firm Allegro Funds for $572 million, in order to get Commerce Commission approval to buy Z Energy. The sale was conditional on the Z Energy purchase being approved, and proceeds from the sale would be used to fund the Z Energy purchase. Ampol agreed to continue supply Gull with petrol for five years following the sale. Allegro Funds expressed an interest in expanding Gull.
In the late 1950s, Ampol sponsored professional tennis events. The Ampol Tournament of Champions was held at White City Stadium in Sydney in 1957, at Kooyong Stadium in Melbourne in 1958, and at White City Stadium in Sydney in 1959. In 1959/1960, the Ampol Open Trophy and bonus prize was presented to the winner of a 15-tournament professional world series of tennis tournaments. It was presented at Kooyong Stadium on 2 January 1960 to Lew Hoad, acclaimed "the world's top professional tennis player".
During the 1980s and early 1990s, Caltex was the naming rights sponsor of Endeavour Field, the home ground of the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, which is on the road to its Kurnell Refinery. In 2020, Ampol was announced as the sponsor of the State of Origin series until 2023.
In 1957 Ampol sponsored David Mackay (Australian Land Speed Record, 143.19 m.p.h.) and Mary Seed (Class E World Land Speed Record and Australian Women's Land Speed Record, 112.95 m.p.h.) at the Carrathool Speed Trials. From 1987 until 1993, Caltex was the title sponsor of Colin Bond Racing. From 2000 until 2007, it was title sponsor of Stone Brothers Racing with Russell Ingall winning the 2005 championship. In 2016 and 2017, Caltex was title sponsor of the Triple Eight Race Engineering car of Craig Lowndes, having previously been an associate sponsor of the team.
Under its new brand, in August 2020, Ampol continued its sponsorship relationship with the Red Bull Holden Racing for the Triple Eight Race Engineering, with the team updating its car livery and race suits to Ampol and its fuel brands. In 2021, Ampol replaced Holden as the team's Major Sponsor for Triple Eight alongside Red Bull, and the team was renamed Red Bull Ampol Racing.
- "Frequently asked questions". Ampol. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
- "Who we are". Ampol. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
- "History". Ampol Singapore. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Texas Company (Australasia) Limited (Private) Act 1928" (PDF). Western Australia Legislation. p. 10. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
- "Cootamundra World War II Fuel Depot Site (former No.3 AIFD)". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Department of Planning and Environment. H01943. Retrieved 18 February 2020. Text is licensed by State of New South Wales (Department of Planning and Environment) under CC-BY 4.0 licence.
- Rappoport Pty Ltd (2011). Conservation Management Plan No.3 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot, Cootamundra NSW (PDF). Retrieved 19 November 2022.
- "2009 Annual Review". Caltex Australia. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Texaco in the 1930s – the USA vs NZ". Project Texaco Tanker. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2022.
- "NZX Listing and provider of New Zealand share registry management services" (PDF). NZX. Ampol. 17 May 2022. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
- Caltex absorbs Golden Fleece Canberra Times 16 March 1981 page 6
- "Historical milestones". Caltex Australia. Archived from the original on 10 March 2005.
- "Grandmums' jumped at big Caltex offering". The Christian Science Monitor. 13 July 1981. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- "Project Pacific: how Caltex Australia revived the Ampol brand". Australian Financial Review. 6 December 2021. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- "Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd & Anor v The Dredge Willemstad & Anor". Australian Taxation Office. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- "Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd v The Dredge Willemstad (1976) 11 ALR 227" (PDF). Wiley. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- Arnold, Ken (2000). History of the Australian petrol companies, Vol.2.
- Dyster, Barrie. Walkley, Sir William Gaston (1896–1976). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Smith, Bruce A. "Australian Motorists Petrol Company Limited - Guide to Australian Business Records Corporate entry". www.gabr.net.au. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Simpson, Colin; Simpson, Colin; Ampol Petroleum Limited (1961), Show me a mountain : the rise of an Australian company, Ampol, Angus & Robertson, retrieved 20 June 2015
- "Caltex brings back iconic Ampol brand". Caltex Australia. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
- "Pioneer and Brambles vie for big Ampol stake". Newspapers.com. Sydney Morning Herald. 24 August 1979. p. 19.
- ABT told of plans to warehouse TVQ shares Canberra Times 9 August 1980 page 21
- Qld TV channel pursuing media interest Canberra Times 6 May 1984 page 3
- Ampol buys Total operations Canberra Times 24 December 1982 page 3
- "History of Pioneer International Limited". Funding Universe. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "Ampol back in business after Caltex brand vote". The West Australian. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "Our History". Ampol. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022.
- "Liberty's Davids to do a deal with Goliath". Australian Financial Review. 20 July 2001. Archived from the original on 2 October 2022.
- "Our Company". Caltex Australia. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Australia's Oil & Gas History". Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia. December 2003 – January 2004. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- "Environmental audit report - Corner Brown and Londsale Streets, Hamilton" (PDF). Environment Protection Authority Victoria. Axis Environmental Consultants. September 1995. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- $3bn oil merger full steam ahead Canberra Times 29 March 1995 page 27
- "Shareholders back Caltex, Ampol plan". The Canberra Times. 9 May 1995.
- "Ampol $6bn merger puts Pioneer on the prowl". Australian Financial Review. 15 December 1994. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
- "Pioneer's unrefined exit". Australian Financial Review. 3 October 1997.
- "Caltex Annual Review 2000" (PDF). Caltex Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2006.
- "Caltex Australia achieves half year profit recovery". Caltex Australia. 28 August 1998. Archived from the original on 10 December 2000.
- "A petroleum Pioneer opts to take stock". Australian Financial Review. 3 March 1998.
- Pioneer to reap less in Caltex sell-off Australian Financial Review 4 April 1998
- Ceasing to be a s/s from Pioneer Pioneer International 22 April 1998
- "West Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd (WAPET) (1952 - 2000)". Australian Science At Work. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- "Caltex announces service station supermarket chain". Caltex Australia. 5 February 1999. Archived from the original on 13 February 2003.
- "Caltex Australia launches new brand image". Caltex Australia. 24 February 1999. Archived from the original on 13 February 2003.
- Caltex Annual Review 1999 Archived 6 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine (PDF) Page 10
- Durie, John (27 May 2009). "Caltex pumps for control". The Australian. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009.
- "Julian Segal says Caltex to maintain strategy". The Australian. 12 February 2009.
- "Caltex to close lube refinery at Kurnell". F+L Daily. 1 February 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- "Major cost efficiency drive and 2009 results outlook". Caltex Australia. 9 December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010.
- "Caltex Australia to close lube plant at Kurnell". Oil & Gas Journal. 12 December 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- "Ampol Singapore". Ampol International Holdings. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Chris Zappone (26 July 2012). "Caltex axes up to 630 jobs with refinery closure". The Age. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Caltex completes $200M project to convert Kurnell refinery into fuel terminal". The Leader. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "ACCC will not oppose Caltex's proposed acquisition of Milemaker". Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. 4 May 2017.
- "Chevron exits Caltex Australia in record $4.61b block trade". Sydney Morning Herald. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Caltex welcomes new investors to share register". Caltex Australia. Caltex. 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- "Receipt of Non-binding, Indicative, Condition Proposal" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Update on the Proposal from Alimentation Couche-Tard" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Update on the Improved Acquisition Proposal from ATD" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Update on Acquisition Proposal from EG Group" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Caltex rejects EG Group's acquisition offer". 2 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Conclusion of Acquisition Discussions with Alimentation Couche-Tard" (PDF). ASX. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- "Caltex Announces Intention to Transition to Ampol Brand" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 23 December 2019.
- Zuchetti, Adam. "Caltex brand to disappear in Australia". Mybusiness. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- "Chevron to revive Caltex brand for Puma network". Australian Financial Review. 2 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- "Chevron completes acquisition of Puma Energy (Australia) Holdings Pty Ltd". Chevron Australia. 1 July 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- "2020 Caltex Annual General Meeting Results" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 14 May 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2020.
- "Caltex Australia officially renamed Ampol". 7News. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- Saunokonoko, Mark (23 December 2019). "Back to the future: Caltex services stations will be rebranded as Ampol". 9NEWS. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
- "The return of Ampol but you might notice some changes during your next pit stop: StarCard no longer accepted here but red canopies are allowed to stay". Ashurst. 21 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
- "Chevron Global Energy Inc v Ampol Australia Petroleum Pty Ltd  FCA 617 (8 June 2021)". Commmbar Matters. 7 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
- "A Star Reborn". Caltex. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
- "Welcoming back an Australian icon". Ampol Limited. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
- "After 25 years, Ampol is back". Australian Financial Review. 21 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- "EG sues Ampol over Caltex branding". Australian Financial Review. 17 December 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- "Resolution of legal dispute between Ampol and EG". Australian Securities Exchange. Ampol. 1 April 2022.
- "Caltex and Evie Networks partnership is on the charge". pv magazine Australia. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
- "Foodary". Ampol. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- "Caltex presents a fresh take on food and convenience". Convenience World Magazine. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
- "2016 Full Year Results Announcement" (PDF). Australian Securities Exchange. Caltex Australia. 2017. p. 9. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
- "CEO Julian Segal reinvents Caltex business model". ACAPMag. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2022.
- "Woolworths Metro". Ampol. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
- "Ampol Woolworths MetroGo". Woolworths. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
- "Caltex and Woolworths Welcome Customers to The New Age of Convenience". Ampol. 13 November 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
- "MetroGo shifts into gear as Ampol and Woolworths Metro rebrand convenience stores". Ampol. 17 March 2022. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
- "Woolworths and Caltex Work Together in Petrol" (PDF) (Press release). Woolworths Limited, Caltex Australia Limited. 21 August 2003. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
- "Expanded Caltex and Woolworths partnership begins today, helping Australian consumers save money on fuel and earn more Rewards". Caltex Australia. 7 November 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "EG Group taps former Caltex executive to run Woolworths Petrol". Australian Financial Review. 18 April 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Woolworths Group to sell Petrol business and enter into commercial alliance with EG Group". Woolworths Group. 9 November 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Woolworths Everyday Rewards Partnership".
- AFX-News: Caltex Australia poaches Incitec Pivot CEO
- "ASX Release - Appendix 3Z - Julian Segal" (PDF). ASX. Caltex Australia. 2 March 2020.
- "Leadership Team". Caltex Australia. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Ampol appoints interim chief to lead the business through next chapter". Inside FMCG. 28 June 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- "About us - Who we are - Our journey". Caltex Singapore. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
- "History". Caltex New Zealand. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007.
- "Caltex launches new brand of petrol". Caltex Australia. 21 August 2000. Archived from the original on 10 December 2000.
- "Vortex Premium Fuels". Caltex Australia. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020.
- "Fuel Partners". EG Australia. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
- "Introduction to Ampol - Caltex Investor Day" (PDF). ASX. Caltex. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Caltex Australia enters into a strategic partnership with SEAOIL (Philippines), including the acquisition of a 20% equity interest". Caltex Australia. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Caltex finalises investment in SEAOIL (Philippines)". Caltex Australia. 2 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Ampol make $2b takeover bid for Z Energy". Radio New Zealand. 23 August 2021.
- "Ampol completes acquisition of Z Energy" (PDF). Australian Securities Exchange. Ampol. 10 May 2022.
- "Caltex brand to continue in NZ". Z Energy. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
- "The $700m family behind Gull NZ, the low-profile Raes". Stuff. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "Caltex Welcomes Consent to Gull New Zealand Acquisition". Caltex Australia. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "Gull acquisition beating expectations for Caltex Australia". NZ Herald. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "Ampol plans to sell Gull Petroleum to Allegro Funds pending approvals". Radio New Zealand. RNZ News. 14 March 2022.
- "Ampol Agress to Sell Gull NZ to Allegro Funds". Dow Jones & Company. MarketWatch. 13 March 2022.
- "Australia's Ampol makes space for Z Energy with sale of Gull NZ unit". Reuters. 14 March 2022.
- "Ampol to sell Gull business in New Zealand to Allegro for $389m". NS Energy. 14 March 2022.
- Smith, Daniel (14 March 2022). "Gull New Zealand sold to Aussie equity firm". stuff.co.nz. Stuff Business.
- "How this Sydney startup secured a $2.5 million investment from a corporate giant". SmartCompany. 3 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- "2021 Annual Report" (PDF). Australian Securities Exchange. Ampol. 21 February 2022. p. 95,128. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
- David Burke (10 January 1960). "Hoad takes stock". The Sun-Herald. p. 33 – via Newspapers.com.
- Ampol secures State of Origin naming rights National Rugby League 27 October 2020
- Carrathool Speed Trials 1957
- Eighties inspired Caltex retro livery for Sandown 500 Auto Action 6 September 2017
- "Ampol Returns to Australian Motorsport". Red Bull Holden Racing. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
- "New name for Triple Eight in 2021". Supercars Championship. 6 November 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- Caltex new naming-rights sponsor of Socceroos The World Game 3 March 2016