American Missionary Association
The American Missionary Association (AMA) was a Protestant-based abolitionist group founded on September 3, 1846, in Albany, New York. The main purpose of the organization was abolition of slavery, education of African Americans, promotion of racial equality, and spreading Christian values. Its members and leaders were of both races; The Association was chiefly sponsored by the Congregationalist churches in New England. Starting in 1861, it opened camps in the South for former slaves. It played a major role during the Reconstruction Era in promoting education for blacks in the South by establishing numerous schools and colleges, as well as paying for teachers.
The American Missionary Association was started by members of the American Home Missionary Society (AHMS) and the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), who were disappointed that their first organizations refused to take stands against slavery and accepted contributions from slaveholders. From the beginning the leadership was integrated: the first board was made up of 12 men, four of them black. One of its primary objectives was to abolish slavery. The AMA (American Missionary Association) was one of the organizations responsible for pushing slavery onto the national political agenda.
Among the AMA's achievements was the founding of anti-slavery churches. For instance, the abolitionist Owen Lovejoy was among the Congregational ministers of the AMA who helped start 115 anti-slavery churches in Illinois before the American Civil War, aided by the strong westward migration of population to that area. Another member, Rev. Mansfield French, an Episcopalian who became a Methodist, helped found Wilberforce University in Ohio.
Members of the AMA began their support of education for blacks before the Civil War, and they recruited teachers for the numerous contraband camps that developed in Union-occupied territory in the South during the war. Rev. French was assigned to Port Royal, South Carolina and went on a speaking tour with Robert Smalls, who famously escaped enslavement, as well as met with President Lincoln, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase, jointly convincing them to allow blacks to serve in the Union military. By war's end, Union forces had organized 100 contraband camps, and many had AMA teachers. The AMA also served the Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony (1863–1867). Located on an island occupied by Union troops, the colony was intended to be self-sustaining. It was supervised by Horace James, a Congregational chaplain appointed by the Army as "Superintendent for Negro Affairs in the North Carolina District". The first of 27 teachers who volunteered through the AMA was his cousin, Elizabeth James. By 1864 the colony had more than 2200 residents, and both children and adults filled the classrooms in the several one-room schools, as they were eager for learning. The missionary teachers also evangelized and helped provide the limited medical care of the time.
The AMA's pace of founding schools and colleges increased during and after the war. Freedmen, historically free blacks (many of whom were of mixed race), and white sympathizers alike believed that education was a priority for the newly freed people. Altogether, "the AMA founded more than five hundred schools and colleges for the freedmen of the South during and after the Civil War, spending more money for that purpose than the Freedmen's Bureau of the federal government."
Among the eleven colleges they founded were Berea College and Atlanta University, (1865); Fisk University, (1866); Hampton Institute (1868) and Tougaloo College (1869); Dillard University, Talladega College, LeMoyne/LeMoyne-Owen College, Tillotson/Huston-Tillotson University, and Avery Normal Institute (1867) (now part of the College of Charleston). Together with the Freedmen's Bureau, the AMA founded Howard University in Washington, D.C., in 1867.
In addition, the AMA organized the Freedmen's Aid Society, which recruited northern teachers for the schools and arranged to find housing for them in the South.
In the mid-1870s, white Democrats began to regain control of state legislatures through violence and intimidation at the polls that suppressed Republican voting. The Association expressed disappointment at the failures of the Reconstruction Era but never wavered in opposing disenfranchisement and continued the struggle over the following decades.
By the 1870s, the AMA national office had relocated to New York City. Its magazine, American Missionary, had a circulation of 20,000 in the 19th century, ten times that of the abolitionist William Garrison's magazine. The Cornell University Library has editions from 1878-1901 accessible online in its Making of America digital library.
While the AMA became notable in the United States with its work in opposition to slavery and in support of education for freedmen, it also sponsored and maintained missions in numerous nations overseas. The 19th-century missionary effort was strong in India, China and east Asia. It was strongly supported by Congregational and Christian churches. Over time, the association became most closely aligned with the Congregational Christian Churches, established in 1931 as a union between those two groups of churches.
Most of those congregations became members of the United Church of Christ (UCC) in the late 20th century. The AMA maintained a distinct and independent identity until 1999, when a restructuring of the UCC merged it into the Justice and Witness Ministries division.
- Clara Merritt DeBoer, "Blacks and the American Missionary Association", United Church of Christ, 1973, accessed 12 Jan 2009
- "The Missionary Magazine" (1878-1901), Making of America, Cornell University Library, accessed 3 Mar 2009
- Clifton H. Johnson, "The Amistad Incident and the Formation of the American Missionary Association", New Conversations, Vol. XI (Winter/Spring 1989), pp. 3-6
- Paul Simon, "Preface", Owen Lovejoy, His Brother's Blood: Speeches and Writings, 1838-1864, edited by William Frederick Moore and Jane Anne Moore, University of Illinois Press, 2004, accessed 27 January 2011
- Philip Dray, Capitol Men (Houghton Mifflin Company 2008) p. 13
- "The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony", provided by National Park Service, at North Carolina Digital History: LEARN NC, accessed 11 November 2010
- Eric Foner, Reconstruction (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), p. 527
- Beard, Augustus Field. A Crusade of Brotherhood: A History of the American Missionary Association (1907); the old official history. online
- Click, Patricia C. Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, 1862-1867 (Univ of North Carolina Press, 2003). online
- Goldhaber, Michael. "A mission unfulfilled: Freedmen's education in North Carolina, 1865-1870." Journal of Negro History 77#4 (1992): 199-210. in JSTOR
- Harrold, Stanley. The abolitionists and the South, 1831-1861 (University Press of Kentucky, 1995).
- Jones, Jacqueline. "Women who were more than men: Sex and status in freedmen's teaching." History of Education Quarterly 19#1 (1979): 47-59. in JSTOR
- Morris, Robert C. Reading, 'Riting, and Reconstruction: The Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861-1870. (University of Chicago Press, 1981).
- Richardson, Joe M. Christian Reconstruction: The American Missionary Association and Southern Blacks, 1861-1890 (University of Alabama Press, 2009). excerpt; The standard history.
- Weisenfeld, Judith. "'Who is Sufficient For These Things?' Sara G. Stanley and the American Missionary Association, 1864–1868." Church History 60#4 (1991): 493-507. in JSTOR
- "Constitution of the American Missionary Association", The American Missionary, Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony (1863–1867) Website
- "American Missionary Association", North by South, Kenyon University, 1998
- The American Missionary magazine, Project Gutenberg, most issues from 1888–1900
- "Guide to the Records of the American Missionary Association", Amistad Research Center (link does not work and I do not know how to fix it)