Alpha Centauri (Latinized from α Centauri, abbreviated Alpha Cen or α Cen) is the closest star system and closest planetary system to the Solar System at 4.37 light-years (1.34 parsec) from the Sun. It is a triple star system, consisting of three stars: α Centauri A (officially Rigil Kentaurus), α Centauri B (officially Toliman), and α Centauri C (officially Proxima Centauri).
Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0
|Alpha Centauri A|
|Right ascension||14h 39m 36.49400s|
|Declination||–60° 50′ 02.3737″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||+0.01|
|Alpha Centauri B|
|Right ascension||14h 39m 35.06311s|
|Declination||–60° 50′ 15.0992″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||+1.33|
|U−B colour index||+0.24|
|B−V colour index||+0.71|
|U−B colour index||+0.68|
|B−V colour index||+0.88|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||−21.4±0.76 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: −3679.25 mas/yr |
Dec.: 473.67 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||754.81 ± 4.11 mas|
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||4.38|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||−18.6±1.64 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: −3614.39 mas/yr |
Dec.: 802.98 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||754.81 ± 4.11 mas|
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||5.71|
|Alpha Centauri A|
|Surface gravity (log g)||4.30 cgs|
|Metallicity [Fe/H]||0.20 dex|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||2.7±0.7 km/s|
|Alpha Centauri B|
|Surface gravity (log g)||4.37 cgs|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||1.1±0.8 km/s|
|Period (P)||79.91±0.011 yr|
|Semi-major axis (a)||17.57±0.022″|
|Longitude of the node (Ω)||204.85±0.084°|
|Periastron epoch (T)||1875.66±0.012|
|Argument of periastron (ω)|
|α Cen A: Rigil Kentaurus, Rigil Kent, α1 Centauri, HR 5459, HD 128620, GCTP 3309.00, LHS 50, SAO 252838, HIP 71683|
|α Cen B: Toliman, α2 Centauri, HR 5460, HD 128621, LHS 51, HIP 71681|
Alpha Centauri A and B are Sun-like stars (Class G and K), and together they form the binary star Alpha Centauri AB. To the naked eye, the two main components appear to be a single star with an apparent magnitude of −0.27, forming the brightest star in the southern constellation of Centaurus and the third-brightest in the night sky, outshone only by Sirius and Canopus.
Alpha Centauri A has 1.1 times the mass and 1.519 times the luminosity of the Sun, while Alpha Centauri B is smaller and cooler, at 0.907 times the Sun's mass and 0.445 times its luminosity. The pair orbit around a common centre with an orbital period of 79.91 years. Their elliptical orbit is eccentric, so that the distance between A and B varies from 35.6 astronomical units (AU), or about the distance between Pluto and the Sun, to that between Saturn and the Sun (11.2 AU).
Alpha Centauri C, or Proxima Centauri, is a small and faint red dwarf (Class M). Though not visible to the naked eye, Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun at a distance of 4.24 light-years (1.30 pc), slightly closer than Alpha Centauri AB. Currently, the distance between Proxima Centauri and Alpha Centauri AB is about 13,000 astronomical units (0.21 ly), equivalent to about 430 times the radius of Neptune's orbit. Proxima Centauri b is an Earth-sized exoplanet in the habitable zone of Proxima Centauri; it was discovered in 2016.
- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 Stellar system
- 3 Observation
- 4 Observational history
- 5 Kinematics
- 6 Planetary system
- 7 View from this system
- 8 Other names
- 9 Future exploration
- 10 Distance estimates
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
α Centauri (Latinised to Alpha Centauri) is the system's designation given by Johann Bayer in 1603. It bears the traditional name Rigil Kentaurus, which is a Latinisation of the Arabic name الرجل القنطورس ar-Rijl al-Qanṭūris, meaning 'the Foot of the Centaur'. The name is frequently abbreviated to Rigil Kent or even Rigil, though the latter name is better known for Beta Orionis (Rigel).
An alternative name found in European sources, Toliman, is an approximation of the Arabic الظَّلِيمَان aẓ-Ẓalīmān (in older transcription, aṭ-Ṭhalīmān), meaning 'the (two male) Ostriches', an appellation Kazwini had applied to Lambda and Mu Sagittarii, also in the southern hemisphere.
Alpha Centauri C was discovered in 1915 by Robert T. A. Innes, who suggested that it be named Proxima Centaurus, from Latin, meaning 'the nearest [star] of Centaurus'. The name Proxima Centauri later became more widely used and is now listed by the IAU as the approved proper name.
In 2016, the Working Group on Star Names of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), having decided to attribute proper names to individual component stars rather than to multiple systems, approved the name Rigil Kentaurus /
Alpha Centauri is a triple star system, with its two main stars, Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B, being a binary component. The AB designation, or older A×B, denotes the mass centre of a main binary system relative to companion star(s) in a multiple star system. AB-C refers to the component of Proxima Centauri in relation to the central binary, being the distance between the centre of mass and the outlying companion. Because the distance between Proxima (C) and either of Alpha Centauri A or B is similar, the AB binary system is sometimes treated as a single gravitational object.
The A and B components of Alpha Centauri have an orbital period of 79.91 years. Their orbit is moderately eccentric, e = 0.5179; their closest approach is 11.2 AU (1.68 billion km), or about the distance between the Sun and Saturn; and their furthest separation is 35.6 AU (5.33 billion km), about the distance between the Sun and Pluto.
Viewed from Earth, the apparent orbit of A and B means that their separation and position angle (PA) are in continuous change throughout their projected orbit. Observed stellar positions in 2019 are separated by 4.92 arcsec through the PA of 337.1°, increasing to 5.49 arcsec through 345.3° in 2020. The closest recent approach was in February 2016, at 4.0 arcsec through the PA of 300°. The observed maximum separation of these stars is about 22 arcsec, while the minimum distance is 1.7 arcsec. The widest separation occurred during February 1976, and the next will be in January 2056.
The most recent, true orbit, closest approach or periastron was in August 1955, and the next will be in May 2035. The furthest orbital separation or apastron last occurred in May 1995, and the next will be in 2075. The apparent distance between Alpha Centauri A and B is rapidly decreasing, at least until 2019.
Alpha Centauri C is about 13,000 AU away from Alpha Centauri AB. This is equivalent to 0.21 ly or 1.9 trillion km—about 5% the distance between Alpha Centauri AB and the Sun. Until 2017, measurements of its small speed and its trajectory were of too little accuracy and duration in years to determine whether it is bound to Alpha Centauri AB or unrelated.
Radial velocity measurements made in 2017 were precise enough to show that Proxima Centauri and Alpha Centauri AB are gravitationally bound. The orbital period of Proxima Centauri is approximately 547000+6600
−4000 years, with an eccentricity of 0.50 ± 0.08, much more eccentric than Mercury's. Proxima Centauri comes within 4300+1100
−900 AU of AB at periastron, and its apastron occurs at 13000+300
Asteroseismic studies, chromospheric activity, and stellar rotation (gyrochronology) are all consistent with the Alpha Centauri system being similar in age to, or slightly older than, the Sun. Asteroseismic analyses that incorporate tight observational constraints on the stellar parameters for the Alpha Centauri stars have yielded age estimates of 4.85±0.5 Gyr, 5.0±0.5 Gyr, 5.2 ± 1.9 Gyr, 6.4 Gyr, and 6.52±0.3 Gyr. Age estimates for the stars based on chromospheric activity (Calcium H & K emission) yield 4.4 ± 2.1 Gyr, whereas gyrochronology yields 5.0±0.3 Gyr. Stellar evolution theory implies both stars are slightly older than the Sun at 5 to 6 billion years, as derived by their mass and spectral characteristics.
From the orbital elements, the total mass of Alpha Centauri AB is about 2.0 M☉[note 2]—or twice that of the Sun. The average individual stellar masses are 1.09 M☉ and 0.90 M☉, respectively, though slightly higher masses have been quoted in recent years, such as 1.14 M☉ and 0.92 M☉, or totalling 2.06 M☉. Alpha Centauri A and B have absolute magnitudes of +4.38 and +5.71, respectively.
Alpha Centauri AEdit
Alpha Centauri A, also known as Rigil Kentaurus, is the principal member, or primary, of the binary system. It is a solar-like main-sequence star with a similar yellowish colour, whose stellar classification is spectral type G2 V; it is slightly larger and more luminous than the Sun. Alpha Centauri A is about 10 percent more massive than the Sun, with a radius about 22 percent larger. When considered among the individual brightest stars in the sky (excluding the Sun), it is the fourth brightest at an apparent magnitude of −0.01, being slightly fainter than Arcturus at an apparent magnitude of −0.04.
The type of magnetic activity on Alpha Centauri A is comparable to that of the Sun, showing coronal variability due to star spots, as modulated by the rotation of the star. However, since 2005 the activity level has fallen into a deep minimum that might be similar to the Sun's historical Maunder Minimum. Alternatively, it may have a very long stellar activity cycle and is slowly recovering from a minimum phase.
Alpha Centauri BEdit
Alpha Centauri B, also known as Toliman, is the secondary star of the binary system. It is a main-sequence star of spectral type K1 V, making it more an orange colour than Alpha Centauri A; it has around 90 percent the mass of the Sun and a 14 percent smaller diameter. Although it has a lower luminosity than A, Alpha Centauri B emits more energy in the X-ray band. Its light curve varies on a short time scale, and there has been at least one observed flare. It is more magnetically active than Alpha Centauri A, showing a cycle of 8.2±0.2 yr compared to 11 years for the Sun, and about half the minimum-to-peak variation in coronal luminosity of the Sun. Alpha Centauri B has an apparent magnitude of +1.35, slightly dimmer than Mimosa.
Alpha Centauri C (Proxima Centauri)Edit
Alpha Centauri C, better known as Proxima Centauri, is a small main-sequence red dwarf of spectral class M6 Ve. It has an absolute magnitude of +15.60, over 20,000 times fainter than the Sun. Its mass is calculated to be 0.1221 M☉.
To the naked eye, Alpha Centauri AB appears to be a single star, the brightest in the southern constellation of Centaurus. Their apparent angular separation varies over about 80 years between 2 and 22 arcsec (the naked eye has a resolution of 60 arcsec), but through much of the orbit, both are easily resolved in binoculars or small telescopes. At −0.27 apparent magnitude (combined for A and B magnitudes), Alpha Centauri is fainter only than Sirius and Canopus. It forms the outer star of The Pointers or The Southern Pointers, so called because the line through Beta Centauri (Hadar/Agena), some 4.5° west, points to the constellation Crux—the Southern Cross. The Pointers easily distinguish the true Southern Cross from the fainter asterism known as the False Cross.
South of about 29° S latitude, Alpha Centauri is circumpolar and never sets below the horizon.[note 3] North of about 29° N latitude, Alpha Centauri never rises. Alpha Centauri lies close to the southern horizon when viewed from the 29° N latitude to the equator (close to Hermosillo, Chihuahua City in Mexico, Galveston, Texas, Ocala, Florida and Lanzarote, the Canary Islands of Spain), but only for a short time around its culmination. The star culminates each year at local midnight on 24 April and at local 9 p.m. on 8 June.
As seen from Earth, Proxima Centauri is 2.2° southwest from Alpha Centauri AB, about four times the angular diameter of the Moon. Proxima Centauri appears as a deep-red star of a typical apparent magnitude of 11.1 in a sparsely populated star field, requiring moderately sized telescopes to be seen. Listed as V645 Cen in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars Version 4.2, this UV Ceti-type flare star can unexpectedly brighten rapidly by as much as 0.6 magnitudes at visual wavelengths, then fade after only a few minutes. Some amateur and professional astronomers regularly monitor for outbursts using either optical or radio telescopes. In August 2015, the largest recorded flares of the star occurred, with the star becoming 8.3 times brighter than normal on 13 August, in the B band (blue light region).
Alpha Centauri is listed in the 2nd-century star catalog of Ptolemy. He gave its ecliptic coordinates, but texts differ as to whether the ecliptic latitude reads 44° 10′ South or 41° 10′ South. (Presently the ecliptic latitude is 43.5° South, but it has decreased by a fraction of a degree since Ptolemy's time due to proper motion.) In Ptolemy's time, Alpha Centauri was visible from Alexandria, Egypt, at 31° N, but, due to precession, its declination is now –60° 51′ South, and it can no longer be seen at that latitude. English explorer Robert Hues brought Alpha Centauri to the attention of European observers in his 1592 work Tractatus de Globis, along with Canopus and Achernar, noting:
Now, therefore, there are but three Stars of the first magnitude that I could perceive in all those parts which are never seene here in England. The first of these is that bright Star in the sterne of Argo which they call Canobus. The second [Achernar] is in the end of Eridanus. The third [Alpha Centauri] is in the right foote of the Centaure.
The binary nature of Alpha Centauri AB was recognised in December 1689 by Jean Richaud, while observing a passing comet from his station in Puducherry. Alpha Centauri was only the second binary star to be discovered, preceded by Acrux.
The large proper motion of Alpha Centauri AB was discovered by Manuel John Johnson, observing from Saint Helena, who informed Thomas Henderson at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope of it. The parallax of Alpha Centauri was subsequently determined by Henderson from many exacting positional observations of the AB system between April 1832 and May 1833. He withheld his results, however, because he suspected they were too large to be true, but eventually published them in 1839 after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel released his own accurately determined parallax for 61 Cygni in 1838. For this reason, Alpha Centauri is sometimes considered as the second star to have its distance measured because Henderson's work was not fully acknowledged at first. (The distance of Alpha Centauri from the Earth is now reckoned at 4.396 ly or 41.59 trillion km.)
By 1926, William Stephen Finsen calculated the approximate orbit elements close to those now accepted for this system. All future positions are now sufficiently accurate for visual observers to determine the relative places of the stars from a binary star ephemeris. Others, like D. Pourbaix (2002), have regularly refined the precision of new published orbital elements.
Robert T. A. Innes discovered Proxima Centauri in 1915 by blinking photographic plates taken at different times during a proper motion survey. These showed large proper motion and parallax similar in both size and direction to those of Alpha Centauri AB, suggesting that Proxima Centauri is part of the Alpha Centauri system and slightly closer to Earth than Alpha Centauri AB. Lying 4.24 ly (1.30 pc) away, Proxima Centauri is the nearest star to the Sun.
All components of Alpha Centauri display significant proper motion against the background sky. Over centuries, this causes their apparent positions to slowly change. Proper motion was unknown to ancient astronomers. Most assumed that the stars are immortal and permanently fixed on the celestial sphere, as stated in the works of the philosopher Aristotle. In 1718, Edmond Halley found that some stars had significantly moved from their ancient astrometric positions.
In the 1830s, Thomas Henderson discovered the true distance to Alpha Centauri by analysing his many astrometric mural circle observations. He then realised this system also likely had a high proper motion. In this case, the apparent stellar motion was found using Nicolas Louis de Lacaille's astrometric observations of 1751–1752, by the observed differences between the two measured positions in different epochs.
Calculated proper motion of the centre of mass for Alpha Centauri AB is about 3620 mas (milli-arcseconds) per year toward the west and 694 mas/y toward the north, giving an overall motion of 3686 mas/y in a direction 11° north of west.[note 4] The motion of the centre of mass is about 6.1 arcmin each century, or 1.02° each millennium. The velocity in the western direction is 23.0 km/s and in the northerly direction 4.4 km/s. Using spectroscopy the mean radial velocity has been determined to be around 22.4 km/s towards the Solar System.
Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly in the plane of the Milky Way as viewed from Earth, there are many stars behind them. In early May 2028, Alpha Centauri A will pass between us and a distant red star, when there will be a 45% probability that an Einstein ring will be observed. Other conjunctions will also occur in the coming decades, allowing accurate measurement of proper motions and possibly giving information on planets.
Predicted future changesEdit
Based on the system's common known proper motion and radial velocities, Alpha Centauri will continue to change its position in the sky significantly and will gradually brighten. For example, in about 6,200 AD, α Centauri's true motion will cause an extremely rare first-magnitude stellar conjunction with Beta Centauri, forming a brilliant optical double star in the southern sky. It will then pass just north of the Southern Cross or Crux, before moving northwest and up towards the present celestial equator and away from the galactic plane. By about 29,700 AD, in the present-day constellation of Hydra, Alpha Centauri will be 1.00 pc or 3.3 ly away, though later calculations suggest 0.90 pc or 2.9 ly in 29,000 AD. At nearest approach, Alpha Centauri will attain a maximum apparent magnitude of −0.86, comparable to present-day magnitude of Canopus, but it will still not surpass that of Sirius, which will brighten incrementally over the next 60,000 years, and will continue to be the brightest star as seen from Earth (other than the Sun) for the next 210,000 years.
Only one planet has been confirmed for the Alpha Centauri system: Proxima Centauri b. It is slightly larger than the Earth, and orbits around Proxima Centauri in its habitable zone. The existence of Proxima Centauri b was announced in 2016 by the European Southern Observatory. It was found using the radial velocity method, where periodic Doppler shifts of spectral lines of the host star suggest an orbiting object.
Controversial and hypothetical planetsEdit
Alpha Centauri BbEdit
In 2012, a planet around Alpha Centauri B was announced, Alpha Centauri Bb, but in 2015 a new analysis concluded that it almost certainly does not exist and was just a spurious artefact of the data analysis.
Whilst ruling out the existence of Alpha Centauri Bb, a possible transit of a separate exoplanet in 2013 was observed. The transit event could correspond to a planetary body with a radius around 0.92 R⊕. This planet would most likely orbit Alpha Centauri B with an orbital period of 20.4 days or less, with only a 5 percent chance of it having a longer orbit. The median of the likely orbits is 12.4 days with an impact parameter of around 0–0.3. Its orbit would likely have an eccentricity of 0.24 or less. Like the probably spurious Alpha Centauri Bb, it likely has lakes of molten lava and would be far too close to Alpha Centauri B to harbour life.
Additional planets may exist in the Alpha Centauri system, either orbiting Alpha Centauri A or Alpha Centauri B individually, or in large orbits around Alpha Centauri AB. Because both stars are fairly similar to the Sun (for example, in age and metallicity), astronomers have been especially interested in making detailed searches for planets in the Alpha Centauri system. Several established planet-hunting teams have used various radial velocity or star transit methods in their searches around these two bright stars. All the observational studies have so far failed to find evidence for brown dwarfs or gas giants.
In 2009, computer simulations showed that a planet might have been able to form near the inner edge of Alpha Centauri B's habitable zone, which extends from 0.5 to 0.9 AU from the star. Certain special assumptions, such as considering that the Alpha Centauri pair may have initially formed with a wider separation and later moved closer to each other (as might be possible if they formed in a dense star cluster), would permit an accretion-friendly environment farther from the star. Bodies around Alpha Centauri A would be able to orbit at slightly farther distances due to its stronger gravity. In addition, the lack of any brown dwarfs or gas giants in close orbits around Alpha Centauri make the likelihood of terrestrial planets greater than otherwise. A theoretical study indicates that a radial velocity analysis might detect a hypothetical planet of 1.8 M⊕ in Alpha Centauri B's habitable zone.
Radial velocity measurements of Alpha Centauri B made with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph were sufficiently sensitive to detect a 4 M⊕ planet within the habitable zone of the star (ie. with an orbital period P = 200 days), but no planets were detected.
Current estimates place the probability of finding an Earth-like planet around Alpha Centauri at roughly 75%. The observational thresholds for planet detection in the habitable zones by the radial velocity method are currently (2017) estimated to be about 50 M⊕ for Alpha Centauri A, 8 M⊕ for Alpha Centauri B, and 0.5 M⊕ for Proxima Centauri.
Early computer-generated models of planetary formation predicted the existence of terrestrial planets around both Alpha Centauri A and B,[note 5] but most recent numerical investigations have shown that the gravitational pull of the companion star renders the accretion of planets difficult. Despite these difficulties, given the similarities to the Sun in spectral types, star type, age and probable stability of the orbits, it has been suggested that this stellar system could hold one of the best possibilities for harbouring extraterrestrial life on a potential planet.
In the Solar System, Jupiter and Saturn were probably crucial in perturbing comets into the inner Solar System, providing the inner planets with a source of water and various other ices. In the Alpha Centauri system, Proxima Centauri may have influenced the planetary disk as the Alpha Centauri system was forming, enriching the area around Alpha Centauri with volatile materials. This would be discounted if, for example, Alpha Centauri B happened to have gas giants orbiting Alpha Centauri A (or vice versa), or if Alpha Centauri A and B themselves were able to perturb comets into each other's inner system as Jupiter and Saturn presumably have done in the Solar System. Such icy bodies probably also reside in Oort clouds of other planetary systems. When they are influenced gravitationally by either the gas giants or disruptions by passing nearby stars, many of these icy bodies then travel star-wards. Such ideas also apply to the close approach of Alpha Centauri or other stars to the Solar System, when, in the distant future, the Oort Cloud might be disrupted enough to increase the number of active comets.
To be in the habitable zone, a planet around Alpha Centauri A would have an orbital radius of between about 1 and 2 AU so as to have similar planetary temperatures and conditions for liquid water to exist. For the slightly less luminous and cooler Alpha Centauri B, the habitable zone is between about 0.7 and 1.2 AU.
With the goal of finding evidence of such planets, both Proxima Centauri and Alpha Centauri AB were among the listed "Tier 1" target stars for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Detecting planets as small as three Earth-masses or smaller within two AU of a "Tier 1" target would have been possible with this new instrument. The SIM mission, however, was cancelled due to financial issues in 2010.
Based on observations between 2007 and 2012, a study found a slight excess of emissions in the 24 µm (mid/far-infrared) band surrounding α Centauri AB, which may be interpreted as evidence for a sparse circumstellar disc or dense interplanetary dust. The total mass was estimated to be between 10−7 to 10−6 the mass of the Moon, or 10–100 times the mass of the Solar System's zodiacal cloud. If such a disc existed around both stars, α Centauri A's disc would likely be stable to 2.8 AU, and α Centauri B's would likely be stable to 2.5 AU. This would put A's disc entirely within the frost line, and a small part of B's outer disc just outside.
View from this systemEdit
The sky from Alpha Centauri AB would appear much as it does from the Earth, except that Centaurus would be missing its brightest star. The Sun would appear as a yellow star of apparent magnitude +0.47, roughly the same as the average brightness of Betelgeuse from Earth. It would be at the antipodal point of Alpha Centauri AB's current right ascension and declination, at 02h 39m 35s +60° 50′ (2000), in eastern Cassiopeia, easily outshining all the rest of the stars in the constellation. With the placement of the Sun east of the magnitude 3.4 star Epsilon Cassiopeiae, nearly in front of the Heart Nebula, the "W" line of stars of Cassiopeia would have a "/W" shape.[note 6]
In modern literature, Rigil Kent (also Rigel Kent and variants;[note 7] /
The name Toliman originates with Jacobus Golius' 1669 edition of Al-Farghani's Compendium. Tolimân is Golius' latinisation of the Arabic name الظلمان al-Ẓulmān "the ostriches", the name of an asterism of which Alpha Centauri formed the main star.
In Chinese astronomy, 南門 Nán Mén, meaning Southern Gate, refers to an asterism consisting of Alpha Centauri and Epsilon Centauri. Consequently, the Chinese name for Alpha Centauri itself is 南門二 Nán Mén Èr, the Second Star of the Southern Gate.
To the Australian aboriginal Boorong people of northwestern Victoria, Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri are Bermbermgle, two brothers noted for their courage and destructiveness, who speared and killed Tchingal "The Emu" (the Coalsack Nebula). The form in Wotjobaluk is Bram-bram-bult.
Alpha Centauri is a likely first target for manned or unmanned interstellar exploration. Using current spacecraft technologies, crossing the distance between the Sun and Alpha Centauri would take several millennia, though the possibility of nuclear pulse propulsion or laser light sail technology, as considered in the Breakthrough Starshot program, could reduce the journey time to decades. An objective of such a mission would be to make a fly-by of, and possibly photograph, planets that might exist in the system. The existence of Proxima Centauri b, announced by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in August 2016, would be a target for the Starshot program.
In January 2017, Breakthrough Initiatives and the ESO entered a collaboration to search for habitable planets in the Alpha Centauri system. The agreement involves Breakthrough Initiatives providing funding for an upgrade to the VISIR (VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid-Infrared) instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. This upgrade will greatly increase the likelihood of planet detection in the system.
|Source||Parallax (mas)||Distance (pc)||Distance (ly)||Distance (Pm)||References|
|2.57 ± 0.53||26.6+2.8
|Henderson (1842)||912.8±64||1.03 ± 0.15||3.34 ± 0.5||33.8+2.5
|32.4 ± 2.5|||
|Gill & Elkin (1885)||750±10||1.333±0.018||4.35±0.06||41.1+0.6
|Roberts (1895)||710±50||1.32 ± 0.2||4.29 ± 0.65||43.5+3.3
|Woolley et al. (1970)||743±7||1.346±0.013||4.39±0.04||41.5±0.4|||
|Gliese & Jahreiß (1991)||749.0±4.7||1.335±0.008||4.355±0.027||41.20±0.26|||
|van Altena et al. (1995)||749.9±5.4||1.334±0.010||4.349+0.032
|Perryman et al. (1997) (A and B)||742.12±1.40||1.3475±0.0025||4.395±0.008||41.58±0.08|||
|van Leeuwen (2007) (A)||754.81±4.11||1.325±0.007||4.321+0.024
|van Leeuwen (2007) (B)||796.92±25.90||1.25±0.04||4.09+0.14
|37.5 ± 2.5|||
|RECONS TOP100 (2012)||747.23±1.17[note 8]||1.3383±0.0021||4.365±0.007||41.29±0.06|||
- Proxima Centauri is gravitationally bound to the α Centauri system, but for practical and historical reasons it is described in detail in its own article.
- , see formula
- This is calculated for a fixed latitude by knowing the star's declination (δ) using the formulae (90°+ δ). Alpha Centauri's declination is −60° 50′, so the observed latitude where the star is circumpolar will be south of −29° 10'S or 29°. Similarly, the place where Alpha Centauri never rises for northern observers is north of the latitude (90°+ δ) N or +29°N.
- Proper motions are expressed in smaller angular units than arcsec, being measured in milli-arcsec (mas.) or one-thousandth of an arcsec. Negative values for proper motion in RA indicate the sky motion is from east to west, and in declination north to south.
- see Lissauer and Quintana in references below
- The coordinates of the Sun would be diametrically opposite Alpha Centauri AB, at α= 02h 39m 36.4951s, δ=+60° 50′ 02.308″
- Spellings include Rigjl Kentaurus, Hyde T., "Ulugh Beighi Tabulae Stellarum Fixarum", Tabulae Long. ac Lat. Stellarum Fixarum ex Observatione Ulugh Beighi, Oxford, 1665, p. 142., Hyde T., "In Ulugh Beighi Tabulae Stellarum Fixarum Commentarii", op. cit., p. 67., Portuguese Riguel Kentaurus da Silva Oliveira, R., "Crux Australis: o Cruzeiro do Sul" Archived 6 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Artigos: Planetario Movel Inflavel AsterDomus.
- Weighted parallax based on parallaxes from van Altena et al. (1995) and Söderhjelm (1999).
- Van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
- Ducati, J. R. (2002). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2237: 0. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.
- Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; da Silva, L .; de la Reza, R.; Melo, C. H. F.; Sterzik, M. (2006). "Search for associations containing young stars (SACY)". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 460 (3): 695–708. arXiv:astro-ph/0609258. Bibcode:2006A&A...460..695T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065602. ISSN 0004-6361.
- Valenti, Jeff A.; Fischer, Debra A. (2005). "Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 159 (1): 141–166. Bibcode:2005ApJS..159..141V. doi:10.1086/430500. ISSN 0067-0049.
- Wilkinson, John (2012). "The Sun and Stars". New Eyes on the Sun. Astronomers' Universe. pp. 219–236. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22839-1_10. ISBN 978-3-642-22838-4. ISSN 1614-659X.
- P. A. Wiegert; M. J. Holman (1997). "The stability of planets in the Alpha Centauri system". The Astronomical Journal. 113: 1445 , – 1450. arXiv:astro-ph/9609106. Bibcode:1997AJ....113.1445W. doi:10.1086/118360.
- Thévenin, F.; Provost, J.; Morel, P.; Berthomieu, G.; Bouchy, F.; Carrier, F. (2002). "Asteroseismology and calibration of alpha Cen binary system". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 392: L9. arXiv:astro-ph/0206283. Bibcode:2002A&A...392L...9T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021074.
- Kervella, P.; Bigot, L.; Gallenne, A.; Thévenin, F. (January 2017). "The radii and limb darkenings of α Centauri A and B. Interferometric measurements with VLTI/PIONIER". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 597. A137. arXiv:1610.06185. Bibcode:2017A&A...597A.137K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629505.
- Gilli G.; Israelian G.; Ecuvillon A.; Santos N. C.; Mayor M. (2006). "Abundances of Refractory Elements in the Atmospheres of Stars with Extrasolar Planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 449 (2): 723–36. arXiv:astro-ph/0512219. Bibcode:2006A&A...449..723G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053850. libcode 2005astro.ph.12219G.
- Bazot, M.; et al. (2007). "Asteroseismology of α Centauri A. Evidence of rotational splitting". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 470 (1): 295–302. arXiv:0706.1682. Bibcode:2007A&A...470..295B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065694.
- DeWarf, L.; Datin, K.; Guinan, E. (2010). "X-ray, FUV, and UV Observations of α Centauri B: Determination of Long-term Magnetic Activity Cycle and Rotation Period". The Astrophysical Journal. 722 (1): 343–357. arXiv:1009.1652. Bibcode:2010ApJ...722..343D. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/343.
- Raassen, A. J. J; Ness, J.-U; Mewe, R; Van Der Meer, R. L. J; Burwitz, V; Kaastra, J. S (2003). "Chandra-LETGS X-ray observation of α Centauri: A nearby (G2V + K1V) binary system". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 400 (2): 671–678. Bibcode:2003A&A...400..671R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021899.
- Joyce, M.; Chaboyer, B. (2018). "Classically and Asteroseismically Constrained 1D Stellar Evolution Models of α Centauri a and B Using Empirical Mixing Length Calibrations". The Astrophysical Journal. 864 (1): 99. arXiv:1806.07567. Bibcode:2018ApJ...864...99J. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aad464.
- Pourbaix, D.; et al. (2002). "Constraining the difference in convective blueshift between the components of alpha Centauri with precise radial velocities". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 386 (1): 280–85. arXiv:astro-ph/0202400. Bibcode:2002A&A...386..280P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020287.
- "Naming Stars". IAU.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- Kervella, Pierre; Thevenin, Frederic (15 March 2003). "A Family Portrait of the Alpha Centauri System". European Southern Observatory Press Release: 5. Bibcode:2003eso..pres....5. eso0307, PR 05/03.
- Hartkopf, W.; Mason, D. M. (2008). "Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binaries". U.S. Naval Observatory.
- Kervella, P.; Thévenin, F.; Lovis, C. (January 2017). "Proxima's orbit around α Centauri". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 598. L7. arXiv:1611.03495. Bibcode:2017A&A...598L...7K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629930.
- Paul Kunitzsch; Tim Smart (2006). A Dictionary of Modern Star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations. Sky Pub. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
- Davis, George R., Jr. (October 1944). "The pronunciations, derivations, and meanings of a selected list of star names". Popular Astronomy. 52 (3): 16. Bibcode:1944PA.....52....8D.
- R.H. Allen, Star Names and their Meanings.
- ظَلِيمٌ ذ, in Edward William Lane, An Arabic–English Lexicon
- Innes, R. T. A. (October 1915). "A Faint Star of Large Proper Motion". Circular of the Union Observatory Johannesburg. 30: 235–236. Bibcode:1915CiUO...30..235I.
- Innes, R. T. A. (September 1917). "Parallax of the Faint Proper Motion Star Near Alpha of Centaurus. 1900. R.A. 14 h 22 m 55s.-0s 6t. Dec-62° 15'2 0'8 t". Circular of the Union Observatory Johannesburg. 40: 331–336. Bibcode:1917CiUO...40..331I.
- Stevenson, Angus, ed. (2010), Oxford Dictionary of English, OUP Oxford, p. 1431, ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3.
- Alden, Harold L. (1928). "Alpha and Proxima Centauri". Astronomical Journal. 39 (913): 20–23. Bibcode:1928AJ.....39...20A. doi:10.1086/104871.
- "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 2" (PDF). International Astronomical Union. October 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN), International Astronomical Union, retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "WG Triennial Report (2015–2018) – Star Names" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "IAU Catalog of Star Names". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- Heintz, W. D. (1978). Double Stars. D. Reidel. p. 19. ISBN 978-90-277-0885-4.
- Worley, C. E.; Douglass, G. G. (1996). Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1996.0 (WDS). United States Naval Observatory. Archived from the original on 22 April 2000.
- Andrew James (11 March 2008). "ALPHA CENTAURI : 6". Homepage.mac.com. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Aitken, R. G. (1961). The Binary Stars. Dover. pp. 235–237.
- Matthews, R. A. J.; Gilmore, Gerard (1993). "Is Proxima really in orbit about α Cen A/B?". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 261: L5–L7. Bibcode:1993MNRAS.261L...5M. doi:10.1093/mnras/261.1.l5.
- Kamper, K. W.; Wesselink, A. J. (1978). "Alpha and Proxima Centauri". Astronomical Journal. 83: 1653. Bibcode:1978AJ.....83.1653K. doi:10.1086/112378.
- E. E. Mamajek; L. A. Hillenbrand (2008). "Improved Age Estimation for Solar-Type Dwarfs Using Activity-Rotation Diagnostics". Astrophysical Journal. 687 (2): 1264–1293. arXiv:0807.1686. Bibcode:2008ApJ...687.1264M. doi:10.1086/591785.
- Bazot, M.; Bourguignon, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. (2012). "A Bayesian approach to the modelling of alpha Cen A". MNRAS. 427 (3): 1847–1866. arXiv:1209.0222. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.427.1847B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21818.x.
- Miglio, A.; Montalbán, J. (2005). "Constraining fundamental stellar parameters using seismology. Application to α Centauri AB". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 441 (2): 615–629. arXiv:astro-ph/0505537. Bibcode:2005A&A...441..615M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20052988.
- Thoul, A.; Scuflaire, R.; Noels, A.; Vatovez, B.; Briquet, M.; Dupret, M.-A.; Montalban, J. (2003). "A New Seismic Analysis of Alpha Centauri". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 402: 293–297. arXiv:astro-ph/0303467. Bibcode:2003A&A...402..293T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030244.
- Eggenberger, P.; Charbonnel, C.; Talon, S.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Carrier, F.; Bourban, G. (2004). "Analysis of α Centauri AB including seismic constraints". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 417: 235–246. arXiv:astro-ph/0401606. Bibcode:2004A&A...417..235E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20034203.
- Kim, Y-C. (1999). "Standard Stellar Models; alpha Cen A and B". Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society. 32 (2): 119. Bibcode:1999JKAS...32..119K.
- "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". Research Consortium On Nearby Stars. Georgia State University. 7 September 2007. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "The Colour of Stars". Australia Telescope, Outreach and Education. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 21 December 2004. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Ayres, Thomas R. (March 2014). "The Ups and Downs of α Centauri". The Astronomical Journal. 147 (3): 12. arXiv:1401.0847. Bibcode:2014AJ....147...59A. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/147/3/59. 59.
- Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Favata, F. (2005). "X-rays from α Centauri – The darkening of the solar twin". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 442 (1): 315–321. arXiv:astro-ph/0508260. Bibcode:2005A&A...442..315R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053314.
- Kervella, P.; Thévenin, F.; Lovis, C. (2017). "Proxima's orbit around α Centauri". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 598: L7. arXiv:1611.03495. Bibcode:2017A&A...598L...7K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629930. ISSN 0004-6361.
- "Our Nearest Star System Observed Live". Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- Moore, Patrick, ed. (2002). Astronomy Encyclopedia. Philip's. ISBN 978-0-540-07863-9.
- Van Zyl, Johannes Ebenhaezer (1996). Unveiling the Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-76023-8.
- Hartung, E. J.; Frew, David; Malin, David (1994). "Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes". Cambridge University Press.
- Norton, A. P.; Ed. I. Ridpath (1986). Norton's 2000.0 :Star Atlas and Reference Handbook. Longman Scientific and Technical. pp. 39–40.
- Mitton, Jacquelin (1993). The Penguin Dictionary of Astronomy. Penguin Books. p. 148.
- James, Andrew. "'The '"Constellations : Part 2 Culmination Times"'". Sydney, New South Wales: Southern Astronomical Delights. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
- Benedict, G. Fritz; et al. (1998). Donahue, R. A.; Bookbinder, J. A. (eds.). Proxima Centauri: Time-resolved Astrometry of a Flare Site using HST Fine Guidance Sensor 3. ASP Conf. Ser. 154, The Tenth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun. p. 1212. Bibcode:1998ASPC..154.1212B.
- Page, A.A. (1982). "Mount Tamborine Observatory". International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry Communication. 10: 26. Bibcode:1982IAPPP..10...26P.
- "Light Curve Generator (LCG) – aavso.org". aavso.org. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- Ptolemaeus, Claudius (1984). Ptolemy's Almagest (PDF). Translated by Toomer, G. J. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. p. 368, note 136. ISBN 978-0-7156-1588-1.
- Knobel, Edward B. (1917). "On Frederick de Houtman's Catalogue of Southern Stars, and the Origin of the Southern Constellations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 77 (5): 414–32 . Bibcode:1917MNRAS..77..414K. doi:10.1093/mnras/77.5.414.
- Kameswara-Rao, N.; Vagiswari, A.; Louis, C. (1984). "Father J. Richaud and Early Telescope Observations in India". Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India. 12: 81. Bibcode:1984BASI...12...81K.
- Pannekoek, Anton (1989) . A History of Astronomy. Dover. pp. 345–346. ISBN 978-0-486-65994-7.
- "Best image of Alpha Centauri A and B". spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Herschel, J. F. W. (1847). Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834,5,6,7,8 at the Cape of Good Hope; being the completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825. Smith, Elder and Co, London. Bibcode:1847raom.book.....H.
- "Sixth Catalogue of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars : Ephemeris (2008)". U.S. Naval Observatory. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
- Clavin, Whitney; Harrington, J. D. (25 April 2014). "NASA's Spitzer and WISE Telescopes Find Close, Cold Neighbor of Sun". NASA. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- ESA: Hipparcos Site. "High-Proper Motion Stars (2004)".
- Aristotle. "De Caelo (On the Heavens): Book II. Part 11. (2004)".
- Arthur Berry (6 February 2018). A Short History of Astronomy. Creative Media Partners, LLC. pp. 357–358. ISBN 978-1-376-81951-9.
- Henderson, H. (1839). "On the parallax of α Centauri" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 4 (19): 168–169. Bibcode:1839MNRAS...4..168H. doi:10.1093/mnras/4.19.168.
- Astronomical Society of South Africa. "Henderson, Thomas [FRS] (2008)". Archived from the original on 9 September 2012.
- Anton Pannekoek (1989). A History of Astronomy. Courier Corporation. p. 333. ISBN 978-0-486-65994-7.
- Maclear, M. (1851). "Determination of Parallax of α1and α2 Centauri". Astronomische Nachrichten. 32 (16): 243–244. Bibcode:1851MNRAS..11..131M. doi:10.1002/asna.18510321606.
- N.L., de La Caillé (1976). Travels at the Cape, 1751–1753: an annotated translation of Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne-Espérance. Translated by Raven-Hart, R. Cape Town. ISBN 978-0-86961-068-8.
- Kervella, Pierre; et al. (2016). "Close stellar conjunctions of α Centauri A and B until 2050 An mK = 7.8 star may enter the Einstein ring of α Cen A". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 594 (107): A107. arXiv:1610.06079. Bibcode:2016A&A...594A.107K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629201.
- Hartung, E.J.; Frew, D.; Malin, D. (1994). Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes. Melbourne University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-522-84553-2.
- Matthews, R.A.J. (1994). "The Close Approach of Stars in the Solar Neighbourhood". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 35: 1–8. Bibcode:1994QJRAS..35....1M.
- C.A.l., Bailer-Jones (2015). "Close encounters of the stellar kind". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 575: A35–A48. arXiv:1412.3648. Bibcode:2015A&A...575A..35B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425221.
- Sky and Telescope, April 1998 (p60), based on computations from HIPPARCOS data.
- Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Barnes, John; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Butler, R. Paul; Coleman, Gavin A. L.; de la Cueva, Ignacio; Dreizler, Stefan; Endl, Michael; Giesers, Benjamin; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Jenkins, James S.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Kiraga, Marcin; Kürster, Martin; López-González, María J.; Marvin, Christopher J.; Morales, Nicolás; Morin, Julien; Nelson, Richard P.; Ortiz, José L.; Ofir, Aviv; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Reiners, Ansgar; Rodríguez, Eloy; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Sarmiento, Luis F.; Strachan, John P.; Tsapras, Yiannis; et al. (2016). "A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri". Nature. 536 (7617): 437–440. arXiv:1609.03449. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..437A. doi:10.1038/nature19106. PMID 27558064.
- Wenz, John (29 October 2015). "It Turns Out the Closest Exoplanet to Us Doesn't Actually Exist". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Poof! The Planet Closest To Our Solar System Just Vanished". National Geographic News. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Rajpaul, Vinesh; Aigrain, Suzanne; Roberts, Stephen J. (19 October 2015), "Ghost in the time series: no planet for Alpha Cen B", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 456 (1): L6–L10, arXiv:1510.05598, Bibcode:2016MNRAS.456L...6R, doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slv164.
- Demory, Brice-Olivier; et al. (June 2015). "Hubble Space Telescope search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet Alpha Centauri Bb". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 450 (2): 2043–2051. arXiv:1503.07528. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.450.2043D. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv673.
- Aron, Jacob. "Twin Earths may lurk in our nearest star system". New Scientist. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Why Haven't Planets Been Detected around Alpha Centauri". Universe Today. 19 April 2008. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2008.
- Stephens, Tim (7 March 2008). "Nearby star should harbor detectable, Earth-like planets". News & Events. UC Santa Cruz. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2008.
- Thebault, P.; Marzazi, F.; Scholl, H. (2009). "Planet formation in the habitable zone of alpha centauri B". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 393 (1): L21–L25. arXiv:0811.0673. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.393L..21T. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00590.x.
- Quintana, E. V.; Lissauer, J. J.; Chambers, J. E.; Duncan, M. J. (2002). "Terrestrial Planet Formation in the Alpha Centauri System". Astrophysical Journal. 576 (2): 982–996. Bibcode:2002ApJ...576..982Q. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.528.4268. doi:10.1086/341808.
- Guedes, Javiera M.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Davis, Erica; Laughlin, Gregory; Quintana, Elisa V.; Fischer, Debra A. (2008). "Formation and Detectability of Terrestrial Planets Around Alpha Centauri B". Astrophysical Journal. 679 (2): 1582–1587. arXiv:0802.3482. Bibcode:2008ApJ...679.1582G. doi:10.1086/587799.
- Dumusque, X.; Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.; Ségransan, D.; Sahlmann, J.; Benz, W.; Bouchy, F.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N.; Udry, S. (17 October 2012). "An Earth mass planet orbiting Alpha Centauri B" (PDF). Nature. 490 (7423): 207–11. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..207D. doi:10.1038/nature11572. PMID 23075844. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- Billings, Lee. "Miniature Space Telescope Could Boost the Hunt for 'Earth Proxima' [Video]". Scientific American.
- Zhao, L.; Fischer, D.; Brewer, J.; Giguere, M.; Rojas-Ayala, B. (January 2018). "Planet Detectability in the Alpha Centauri System". Astronomical Journal. 155 (1): 12. arXiv:1711.06320. Bibcode:2018AJ....155...24Z. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa9bea. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- M. Barbieri; F. Marzari; H. Scholl (2002). "Formation of terrestrial planets in close binary systems: The case of α Centauri A". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 396 (1): 219 , – 224. arXiv:astro-ph/0209118. Bibcode:2002A&A...396..219B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021357.
- Lissauer, J. J.; E. V. Quintana; J. E. Chambers; M. J. Duncan & F. C. Adams (2004). "Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems". Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias). 22: 99–103. arXiv:0705.3444. Bibcode:2004RMxAC..22...99L.
- Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J. (2007). Haghighipour, Nader (ed.). Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems. Planets in Binary Star Systems. Springer. pp. 265–284. ISBN 978-90-481-8687-7.
- Croswell, Ken (April 1991). "Does Alpha Centauri Have Intelligent Life?". Astronomy. Vol. 19 no. 4. pp. 28–37. Bibcode:1991Ast....19d..28C.
- Gilster, Paul (5 July 2006). "Proxima Centauri and Habitability". Centauri Dreams. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader (2013). "Calculating the Habitable Zone of Binary Star Systems. I. S-Type Binaries". The Astrophysical Journal. 777 (2): 165. arXiv:1306.2889. Bibcode:2013ApJ...777..165K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/2/165.
- "Planet Hunting by Numbers" (Press release). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 18 October 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2007.
- Mullen, Leslie (2 June 2011). "Rage Against the Dying of the Light". Astrobiology Magazine. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- Wiegert, J.; Liseau, R.; Thébault, P.; et al. (March 2014). "How dusty is α Centauri? Excess or non-excess over the infrared photospheres of main-sequence stars". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 563. A102. arXiv:1401.6896. Bibcode:2014A&A...563A.102W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321887.
- Boffin, Henri M. J.; et al. (4 December 2013). "Possible astrometric discovery of a substellar companion to the closest binary brown dwarf system WISE J104915.57–531906.1". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 561: L4. arXiv:1312.1303. Bibcode:2014A&A...561L...4B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322975.
- Martin Rees (17 September 2012). Universe: The Definitive Visual Guide. DK Publishing. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-4654-1114-3.
- James B. Kaler (7 May 2006). The Hundred Greatest Stars. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-387-21625-6.
- Fred Schaaf (31 March 2008). The Brightest Stars: Discovering the Universe through the Sky's Most Brilliant Stars. Wiley. p. 122. Bibcode:2008bsdu.book.....S. ISBN 978-0-470-24917-8.
- Baily, Francis (1843). "The Catalogues of Ptolemy, Ulugh Beigh, Tycho Brahe, Halley, Hevelius, Deduced from the Best Authorities. With Various Notes and Corrections, and a Preface to Each Catalogue. To Which is Added the Synonym of each Star, in the Catalogues or Flamsteed of Lacaille, as far as the same can be ascertained". Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 13: 1. Bibcode:1843MmRAS..13....1B.
- Kunitzsch, P. (1976). "Naturwissenschaft und Philologie: Die arabischen Elemente in der Nomenklatur und Terminologie der Himmelskunde". Die Sterne. 52: 218. Bibcode:1976Stern..52..218K.
- Hermelink, H.; Kunitzsch, Paul (1961). "Reviewed work: Arabische Sternnamen in Europa, Paul Kunitzsch". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 81 (3): 309–312. doi:10.2307/595661. JSTOR 595661.
- Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Fargānī; Jakob Golius (1669). Muhammedis fil. Ketiri Ferganensis, qui vulgo Alfraganus dicitur, Elementa astronomica, Arabicè & Latinè. Cum notis ad res exoticas sive Orientales, quae in iis occurrunt. Opera Jacobi Golii. apud Johannem Jansonium à Waasberge, & viduam Elizei Weyerstraet. pp. 76–.
- Elijah Hinsdale Burritt (1850). Atlas: Designed to Illustrate the Geography of the Heavens. F. J. Huntington.
- (in Chinese) [ AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 27 日]
- Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J. (2010). "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae". Journal of Astronomical History & Heritage. 13 (3): 220–234. arXiv:1010.4610. Bibcode:2010JAHH...13..220H.
- Stanbridge, W. M. (1857). "On the Astronomy and Mythology of the Aboriginies of Victoria". Transactions Philosophical Institute Victoria. 2: 137–140.
- "VLT to Search for Planets in Alpha Centauri System – ESO Signs Agreement with Breakthrough Initiatives". European Southern Observatory. 9 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Overbye, Dennis (12 April 2016). "A Visionary Project Aims for Alpha Centauri, a Star 4.37 Light-Years Away". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- O'Neill, Ian (8 July 2008). "How Long Would it Take to Travel to the Nearest Star?". Universe Today.
- Domonoske, Camila (12 April 2016). "Forget Starships: New Proposal Would Use 'Starchips' To Visit Alpha Centauri". NPR. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Starshot". Breakthrough Initiatives. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Overbye, Dennis (12 April 2016). "Reaching for the Stars, Across 4.37 Light-Years". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Chang, Kenneth (24 August 2016). "One Star Over, a Planet That Might Be Another Earth". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Klesman, Alison (9 January 2017). "ESO and the Breakthrough Initiatives team up to search for extrasolar planets next door". Astronomy Magazine. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Henderson, T. (1842). "The Parallax of α Centauri, deduced from Mr. Maclear's Observations at the Cape of Good Hope, in the Years 1839 and 1840". Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 12: 370–371. Bibcode:1842MmRAS..12..329H.
- Maclear, T. (1851). "Determination of the Parallax of α 1 and α2 Centauri, from Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, in the Years 1842-3-4 and 1848". Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 20: 98. Bibcode:1851MmRAS..20...70M.
- Moesta, C. G. (1868). "Bestimmung der Parallaxe von α und β Centauri" [Determining the parallax of α and β Centauri]. Astronomische Nachrichten (in German). 71 (8): 117–118. Bibcode:1868AN.....71..113M. doi:10.1002/asna.18680710802.
- Gill, David; Elkin, W.L. (1885). "Heliometer-Determinations of Stellar Parallax in the Southern Hemisphere". Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 48: 188. Bibcode:1885MmRAS..48....1G.
- Roberts, Alex W. (1895). "Parallax of α Centauri from Meridian Observations 1879–1881". Astronomische Nachrichten. 139 (12): 189–190. Bibcode:1895AN....139..177R. doi:10.1002/asna.18961391202.
- Woolley, R.; Epps, E. A.; Penston, M. J.; Pocock, S. B. (1970). "Woolley 559". Catalogue of Stars within 25 Parsecs of the Sun. 5: ill. Bibcode:1970ROAn....5.....W. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Gliese, W.; Jahreiß, H. (1991). "Gl 559". Preliminary Version of the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars. Astronomische Rechen-Institut. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Van Altena, W. F.; Lee, J. T.; Hoffleit, E. D. (1995). "GCTP 3309". The General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes (Fourth ed.). Yale University Observatory. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Perryman; et al. (1997). "HIP 71683". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Perryman; et al. (1997). "HIP 71683". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Perryman; et al. (1997). "HIP 71681". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Perryman; et al. (1997). "HIP 71681". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Söderhjelm, Staffan (1999). "HIP 71683". Visual binary orbits and masses post Hipparcos. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- van Leeuwen, Floor (2007). "HIP 71683". Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction.
- van Leeuwen, Floor (2007). "HIP 71681". Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alpha Centauri.|
- SIMBAD observational data
- Sixth Catalogue of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars U.S.N.O.
- The Imperial Star – Alpha Centauri
- Alpha Centauri – A Voyage to Alpha Centauri
- Immediate History of Alpha Centauri
- eSky : Alpha Centauri
Hypothetical planets or explorationEdit
- "A Family Portrait of the Alpha Centauri System". SpaceRef.com: 5. 2003. Bibcode:2003eso..pres....5. Retrieved 21 March 2003.
- Alpha Centauri System
- O Sistema Alpha Centauri (Portuguese)
- Alpha Centauri – Associação de Astronomia (Portuguese)
- Thompson, Andrea (7 March 2008). "Nearest Star System Might Harbor Earth Twin". SPACE.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.