Al-Qadr (surah)

Al-Qadr[1] (Arabic: القدر‎, "Power, Fate") is the 97th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 5 verses (āyāt). It is a Meccan surah[2] which celebrates the night when the first revelation of what would become the Qur'an was sent down. The chapter has been so designated after the word al-qadr in the first verse. It is mainly about power.

Iranians observing Qadr Night in Imam Reza shrine
Sura 97 of the Quran
القدر
Al-Qadr
The Abundant Portion (or) The Abundant Blessings
ClassificationMeccan
Other namesFate, The Majesty, Destiny
PositionJuzʼ 30
No. of verses5

SummaryEdit

  • 1 The Quran or a divine illumination vouchsafed to Muhammad on the night of al Qadr
  • 2-5 The night of al Qadr described and lauded [3]

Laylat al-QadrEdit

 
Iranians observing Qadr Night in Jamkaran Mosque

Quran 97 describes Laylat al-Qadr, the "Night of the abundant portion of blessings" in Ramadan on which Muslims believe the Qur'an was first revealed. The night is not comparable to any others in view of Muslims[4] and according to a tradition, the blessings due to the acts of worship during this night cannot be equaled even by worshipping throughout an entire lifetime. The reward of acts of worship done in this one single night is more than the reward of around 83 years (1000 months) of worship.[5] Laylat al-Qadr is referenced in the Quran:[6][4]

VERILY we sent down the Koran in the night of al Kadr.s
And what shall make thee understand how excellent the night of al Kadr is?
The night of al Kadr is better than a thousand months.
Therein do the angels descend, and the spirit of Gabriel also, by the permission of their LORD, with his decrees concerning every matter.t
It is peace until the rising of the morn.[7]

The "Spirit" mentioned in verse 4 is commonly interpreted as referring to the angel Jibreel (Gabriel). The "peace" referred to is called by Mujahid "security in which Shaytan (Iblis) cannot do any evil or any harm", while Ibn Kathir quotes Ash-Sha'bi as saying that it refers to the angels greeting the people in the mosques throughout the night.

Laylat al-Qadr occurs during an odd-numbered night within the last ten days of Ramadan, but its exact date is uncertain; due to the promises made in the chapter and in various hadith. Muslims consider it a particularly good time for prayer, supplication, and repentance to God. This event marks the descent of the first revelation of the Quran to Earth. The official Islamic teaching is that Muhammad received the revelations that formed the Quran piecemeal for the next twenty-three years of his life up until the time of his death. Shia Muslims believe that Ali (the first Shia Imam, and the fourth caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate to Sunnis) had special insight and intimacy with God on this night.[8] The prominent Shia thinker Nasir Khusraw interprets verse stating that “the night of power (laylat al-qadr) is better than a thousand months” (Quran 97:3) to refer to the proof (ḥujjat) of the Lord of the Resurrection (Qāʾim al-Qiyāma) whose knowledge is superior to that of a thousand Imams, though their rank, collectively, is one. [9]

TextEdit

بِسْمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
1. إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَٰهُ فِى لَيْلَةِ ٱلْقَدْرِ
2. وَمَآ أَدْرَىٰكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ ٱلْقَدْرِ
3. لَيْلَةُ ٱلْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ
4. تَنَزَّلُ ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ وَٱلرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ
5. سَلَٰمٌ هِىَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ ٱلْفَجْرِ

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ George Sale translation: Al Kadr
  2. ^ Quran Verses in Chronological Order
  3. ^ Wherry, Elwood Morris (1896). A Complete Index to Sale's Text, Preliminary Discourse, and Notes. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ a b Ysuf, Imtiyaz. "Laylat al-Qadr". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World.
  5. ^ Halim, Fachrizal A. (20 November 2014). Legal Authority in Premodern Islam: Yahya B Sharaf Al-Nawawi in the Shafi'i School of Law. Routledge. ISBN 9781317749189. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  6. ^ A. Beverley, James (2011). "Laylat al-Qadr". In Melton, J. Gordon (ed.). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. Volume two L-Z. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 517. ISBN 9781598842067.
  7. ^ Q97:1-5 George Sale translation
  8. ^ Tafsir "al-Burhan", vol. 4, p. 487
  9. ^ Virani, Shafique. "The Days of Creation in the Thought of Nasir Khusraw". Nasir Khusraw: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow.

External linksEdit