Akshamsaddin

Akshamsaddin (Muhammad Shams al-Din bin Hamzah, Turkish: Akşemseddin) (1389, Damascus – 16 February 1459, Göynük, Bolu), was an influential Ottoman Sunni Muslim scholar, poet, and mystic saint.

BiographyEdit

He was the grandson of Shahab al-Din al-Suhrawardi and a descendant of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq.[1] He was an influential tutor and adviser to Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror.[2][3] After completing his work with his master Sheikh Hacı Bayram-ı Veli, he founded the Shamsiyya-Bayramiyya Sufi order. He discovered the lost grave of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (the companion of Muhammad) in Constantinople preceding the Siege of Constantinople.[4][5][6]

In addition to his fame in religious sciences and Tasawwuf, Akshemsaddin was popular in the fields of medicine and pharmacology. There is not much reference to how he acquired this knowledge, but the Orientalist Elias John Wilkinson Gibb notes in his work History of Ottoman Poetry that Akshamsaddin learned from Haji Bayram Wali during his years with him.[7] Akshamsaddin was also knowledgeable in the treatment of psychological and spiritual disorders.[8][9][10][11][12] Akshamsaddin mentioned the microbe in his work Maddat ul-Hayat (The Material of Life) about two centuries prior to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's discovery through experimentation:

It is incorrect to assume that diseases appear one by one in humans. Disease infects by spreading from one person to another. This infection occurs through seeds that are so small they cannot be seen but are alive.[13][14]

WorksEdit

  • Risalat an-Nuriya
  • Khall-e Mushkilat
  • Maqamat-e Awliya
  • Kitab ut-Tib
  • Maddat ul-Hayat

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sheikh Aq Shams Al-Din (Akshamsaddin)". sijjada-bakria.com. Sijjada Bakria. Archived from the original on 19 May 2022.
  2. ^ A Part of the Eyoub (i.e., Uyüp) Cemetery, I, Constantinople, Turkey
  3. ^ "Sûfîlere Yöneltilen Tenkitlere Bir Cevap: Akşemseddin ve Def'U Metâini's-Sûfiyye İsimli Eseri". Archived from the original on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
  4. ^ Murtaza Gürsoy: Meşhur Eyüp Sultan (The famous Ayyub Sultan), pp. 179-180
  5. ^ Ibn Athir: Usudul Ghaba (Lions of the Jungle), v. 2, p. 90
  6. ^ Al-Istiab, v. 1, p. 151
  7. ^ Elias John Wilkinson Gibb: History of Ottoman Poetry. London, 1900-1909, v. 3, p. 138
  8. ^ Taşköprülüzâde: Şakayık-ı Nûmâniye, v. 1, p. 147.
  9. ^ Nezihe Araz: Anadolu Evliyaları
  10. ^ Nişancızâde Muhammed bin Ahmed: Mirat-ı Kâinat, p. 556
  11. ^ Emir Hüseyin Enîsî: Menâkıb-ı Akşemseddin, p. 12
  12. ^ İslam Ansiklopedisi, v. 1, p. 320
  13. ^ Taşköprülüzâde: Shaqaiq-e Numaniya, v. 1, p. 48
  14. ^ Osman Şevki Uludağ: Beş Buçuk Asırlık Türk Tabâbet Tarihi (Five and a Half Centuries of Turkish Medical History). Istanbul, 1969, pp. 35-36