Open main menu

Admiral of the West

The Admiral of the West,[1] also known as Admiral of the Western Seas[2] or Admiral of the Western Fleet,[1] was formerly an English Navy appointment. The postholder was chiefly responsible for the command of the English navy's fleet based at Portsmouth, which operated in the English Channel, Irish Sea and Atlantic Ocean,[3] from 1294 to 1412.

Office of the Admiral of the West
Flag of England.svg
Admiralty of the West
Reports toPrivy Council of England, Lord High Admiral of England
NominatorMonarch of England
AppointerMonarch of England
Subject to formal approval by the King-in-Council
Term lengthNot fixed (usually for life)
Inaugural holderSir William de Leybourne, Baron de Leybourne
Formation1294–1412

Contents

HistoryEdit

The origin of the office of Admiral of the West[4] dates back to 1294, with the appointment of Sir William, Baron de Leybourne, originally styled Admiral of the West and Irish Sea. He also jointly held the title of Admiral of the South until 1306, when that post was left vacant; it resumed very briefly in 1325. In 1326, the post of Admiral of the South and its command duties were merged with that of Admiral of the West. The office was styled by different names from its establishment, such as Admiral of the West and Irish Sea and Admiral on the Western Station (1294-1306),[5] Admiral of the Western Squadron and Admiral West, of the mouth of the Thames (1306-1406). With the exception of the periods for the creation of the offices of the Admiral of the North and West from 18 July 1360 to 16 January 1361, and the office of Admiral of all the Fleets about England from 16 January 1361 to 28 April 1362, no further official appointments were made.[5] The office resumed again until the creation of the office of the Admiral of England from April 1385 to 18 March 1388,[5] when once more appointments ceased. The post was revived in 1388, and lasted until the creation of the office of High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine some time between 1406 and 1412.[6]

This command, along with that of Admiral of the North, was regarded as one of the most senior posts in the English navy from the end of the 13th century until the beginning of the 15th century.[7]

Admirals of the WestEdit

Includes:[8]

Admiral of the West and Irish Sea
Admiral of the West
  • Admiral Gervase Alard, 1306 - 1314[9]
  • Admiral William Cranis, 1314 - 1316[5][5]
  • Admirals Sir Robert Leyburn & Nicholas Crioill, 1316 - 1318 (jointly)[8][5]
  • Admiral John Athey, 1318 - 1322[8][5]
  • Admiral Sir Robert de Leyburn, 1322 - 1323[8][5]
  • Admiral Robert Battail (alias Battall), 1323 - 1324[8][5]
  • Admiral Robert Bendon, 1324 - 1325[8][5]
  • Admiral Sir John de Felton, 1325[8][5]
  • Admiral Nicholas Crioill, 1325 - 1327[8][5]
Note: In 1326, the office of Admiral of the Southern Fleet was amalgamated with this command.
No appointments: see Admiral of all the Fleets, 16 January 1361 – 28 April 1362[8][5]
No Appointments: see Admiral of the North and West, 17 July 1364 - 28 April 1369[5]
No appointments: see Admiral of the North and West, 24 November 1377 - 5 December 1377
No appointments: see Admiral of England, April 1385 – 18 March 1388[5]
No appointments: see Admiral of the North and West, 29 January 1391 – 21 April 1400[5]
Note: The office, although vacant, was amalgamated within a single office of the Lord High Admiral of England in 1412.[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations

  1. ^ a b Bothwell, J.S. (2004). Edward III and the English peerage : royal patronage, social mobility and political control in fourteenth-century England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. p. 97. ISBN 9781843830474.
  2. ^ authors, Various (2015). The Nautical Magazine for 1872. Cambridge University Press. p. 782. ISBN 9781108056519.
  3. ^ Bell, Adrian R.; Curry, Anne; King, Andy; Simpkin, David (2013). The Soldier in Later Medieval England. OUP Oxford. p. 45. ISBN 9780199680825.
  4. ^ Exton, John (2004). The Maritime Dicaeologie, Or, Sea-jurisdiction of England: In Three Books : the First Setting Forth the Antiquity of the Admiralty in England, the Second Proving the Ports, Havens, and Creeks of the Sea to be Within the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty, the Third Shewing that All Contracts Concerning Maritime Affairs are Within the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty, and There Cognoscible. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 56. ISBN 9781584774808.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax Houbraken, Jacobus; Thoyras, Paul de Rapin; Vertue, George (1747). The History of England, A List of Admirals of England, 1228-1745. J. and P. Knapton. pp. 271–273.
  6. ^ Ehrman, John (2012). The Navy in the War of William III 1689-1697: Its State and Direction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 9781107645110.
  7. ^ Ehrman, John (2012). The Navy in the War of William III 1689-1697: Its State and Direction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 9781107645110.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Godolphin, John (1661). Synēgoros thalassios, A view of the admiral jurisdiction wherein the most material points concerning that jurisdiction are fairly and submissively discussed : as also divers of the laws, customes, rights, and priviledges of the high admiralty of England by ancient records, and other arguments of law asserted : whereunto is added by way of appendix an extract of the ancient laws of Oleron / by John Godolphin ... University of Michigan, An Arbour, MI, USA: W. Godbid for Edmund Paxton and John Sherley. pp. 197–207.
  9. ^ Spence, Keith (1999). The Companion Guide to Kent and Sussex. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 135. ISBN 9781900639262.
  10. ^ Ehrman, John (2012). The Navy in the War of William III 1689-1697: Its State and Direction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 9781107645110.

Sources

  • Bothwell, J.S. (2004). Edward III and the English peerage : royal patronage, social mobility and political control in fourteenth-century England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.ISBN 9781843830474
  • Ehrman, John (2012). The Navy in the war of William III, 1689-1697 : its state and direction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107645110.
  • Godolphin, John (1661). Synēgoros thalassios, A view of the admiral jurisdiction where in the most material points concerning that jurisdiction are fairly and submissively discussed: as also divers of the laws, customs, rights, and privileges of the high admiralty of England by ancient records, and other arguments of law asserted : where unto is added by way of appendix an extract of the ancient laws of Oleron / by John Godolphin ... University of Michigan, An Arbour, MI, USA: W. Godbid for Edmund Paxton and John Sherley.http://quod.lib.umich.edu/Full text: Godolphin, John, 1617-1678: Synēgoros Thalassios.
  • Houbraken, Jacobus; Rapin-Thoyras, Paul de; Vertue, George (1747). "A List of Admirals of England, 1228–1745". The History of England. London: J. and P. Knapton.

External linksEdit