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The Admiral of the North and West [1] or Admiral of the North and Western Fleets was a former senior appointment of the English Navy. The post holder was Commander-in-Chief of the English navy's North and Western Fleets operating in the North Sea, the English Channel, the Southern Irish Sea and Atlantic from 1364 to 1414.

Office of the Admiral of the North and West
Flag of England.svg
Admiralty North and West
Reports toPrivy Council of England
NominatorMonarch of England
AppointerMonarch of England
Subject to formal approval by the King-in-Council
Term lengthNot fixed , (usually for life)
Inaugural holderSir Ralph Spigurnell
Formation1364-1414

Contents

HistoryEdit

The origins of the office Admiral of the North and West dates back to 7 July 1364 with appointment of Sir Ralph Spigurnell, originally styled Admiral of the North and West Sea.[2] The office was styled by different names from its establishment such as Admiral of the North and West Stations. From 28 April 1369 to 24 November 1377 there was no further appointments until the post was revived with the appointment of Michael, Lord Wingfield he held the office very briefly until December 1377 when it once again ceased. On 10 December 1386 it was revived again with the appointment of Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel he held the post until 18 May 1389. There would be a further four appointments from May 1389 to April 1400 before the office ceased again. It was established for the final time on 23 December 1406 the command being given to John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset. The last Commander-in-Chief was Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset, from 1408 until 1414. It was considered one the English Navy's most important Naval Commands from the mid-14th century until the beginning of the 15th century.

Two of the office holders Sir John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset both retained the title for life. The first royal commission as Admiral to a naval officer was granted in 1303. By 1344 it was only used as a rank at sea for a captain in charge of a fleet or fleets.[3]

Rank and Role

The naval defence of England from the end of the 13th century was divided into regional commands or 'admiralties' until the end of the fourteenth Century.[4] The appointment of an admiral was not regarded by the English government at the time as an honourary post subordinate to a military rank, their importance attached to their office can be confirmed by the recording of their allowances paid recorded in the Calendar of Patent Rolls.[5] In the fourteenth Century Admirals were paid a respectable salary which was only granted because the position was viewed as substantially important. In addition the rank of admiral was only granted to men of high prestige within feudal hierarchy, most recipients of the office were usually knights but more often earls.[6] The Admirals duties usually consisted of assembling fleets for naval expeditions undertaken by the monarch on campaign, maintaining order and discipline and supervising the work of the Admiralty Courts for each region. On major military expeditions the Admiral would go to sea with their fleets and accompany the overall Commander-in-Chief of both sea and land forces usually the King himself but sometimes a nobleman of higher rank than the admiral. Their role was to observe and direct naval battles but not necessarily taking part in them, themselves.[7] However from 1344 onward their role was moving from primarily administrative role to that of a sea of a seagoing command.[8]

In 1337 the first known record of the appointment of a "vice-admiral' was granted to a Nicholas Ususmaris, a Genoese, he was made Vice-Admiral of the King's fleet of galleys, and all other ships of Aquitaine. However these appointments were far and few between. There was two further instances of the appointment of Vice-Admirals to Sir Thomas Drayton as Vice-Admiral of the Northern Fleet and Sir Peter Bard Vice-Admiral of the Western Fleet both on 28 July 1338.[9]

Special assistants were appointed to handle two important sub-divisions of the admirals powers. The first was the admiral's lieutenant, or deputy, refereed to as sub-admirals, who handled administrative and legal duties and each of these admirals had one and often retained more knowledge than the Admiral himself in relation to the sea and coastal communities.[10] It would not be until the early 15th century that they would appointed on a more regular basis however they were referred to at this time as the admirals Lieutenant-General this office eventually became known as the Lieutenant of the Admiralty.[11]

The second was the Wardens of the Coast for each region who were responsible for the direction and co-ordination of the fleet, the equipping of boats and processing payments to sailors and superintendence of the Sea Guard Militia assigned to each coastal county.[12]. From the mid fourteenth century there was move to centralise these regional naval authority's as seen with the appointment of the Admiral of the Southern, Northern and Western fleets sometimes refereed to as Admiral of the Fleet or Admiral of England and the Admiral of the North and West this tendency towards unifying regional naval authorities under one admiral eventually led to the creation of the office of the Lord-Admiral of England[13]

The Admirals were logistically supported by the Clerk of the Kings Ships who looked after all the navy's finances whilst victualling of the navy was handled by another one of Kings Clerks.[14]

Admirals of the North and WestEdit

Includes:[15]

  • Admiral Sir Ralph de Spigurnell, Baron Spigurnell — 7 July 1364 - 28 April 1369. [1]
No appointments
No appointments
No appointments
Note: The office was amalgamated into a single office of the High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine in 1414.[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Beatson, Robert (1788). A Political Index to the Histories of Great Britain and Ireland: Or, A Complete Register of the Hereditary Honours, Public Offices, and Persons in Office, from the Earliest Periods to the Present Time. G. G. J. & J. Robinson. pp. 259–263.
  2. ^ Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris (1847). A History of the Royal Navy, from the Earliest Times to the Wars of the Roses. Richard Bentley. p. 529.
  3. ^ "History of Naval Ranks and Rates". www.navymuseum.co.nz. National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  4. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). "Captains and Admirals: Social History 1204 to 1455". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain. Vol 1., 660-1649. London: Penguin. pp. 131–142. ISBN 9780140297249.
  5. ^ Bell, Adrian R.; Curry, Anne; King, Andy; Simpkin, David (2013). The Soldier in Later Medieval England. Oxford: OUP Oxford. p. 45. ISBN 9780199680825.
  6. ^ Rodger pp. 131-142
  7. ^ Rodger pp. 131-142
  8. ^ National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy
  9. ^ Tucker, St George (2004). "Introduction". Blackstone's commentaries : with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union. Vol. 1 (5 ed.). Clark, New Jersey, United States: Lawbook Exchange Ltd. p. xxxii. ISBN 9781886363168.
  10. ^ Gorski, Richard (2012). "The Admirals". Roles of the Sea in Medieval England. Woodbridge, Engalnd: Boydell Press. p. 82. ISBN 9781843837015.
  11. ^ Blomfield, R. Massie (January 1912). "NAVAL EXECUTIVE RANKS". The Mariner's Mirror. 2 (4): 106–112. doi:10.1080/00253359.1912.10654589.
  12. ^ Rodger pp. 131-142
  13. ^ Rodger pp. 131-142
  14. ^ Rodger pp. 131-142
  15. ^ Haydn, Joseph (1851). The Book of Dignities: Containing Rolls of the Official Personages of the British Empire ... from the Earliest Periods to the Present Time ... Together with the Sovereigns of Europe, from the Foundation of Their Respective States; the Peerage of England and Great Britain ... Longmans, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 151–155.
  16. ^ "ROCHES, Sir John (c.1333-1400), of Bromham, Wilts. | History of Parliament Online". historyofparliamentonline.org. The History of Parliament Trust 1964-2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  17. ^ Everingham, Kimball G. ed. (2011). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families, 2nd Edition, 2011. Douglas Richardson. p. 349. ISBN 9781461045137.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Durston, Gregory (2017). The Admiralty Sessions, 1536-1834: Maritime Crime and the Silver Oar. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9781443873611.

Sources

  • Beatson, Robert (1788). A Political Index to the Histories of Great Britain and Ireland: Or, A Complete Register of the Hereditary Honours, Public Offices, and Persons in Office, from the Earliest Periods to the Present Time. G. G. J. & J. Robinson.
  • Durston, Gregory (2017). The Admiralty Sessions, 1536-1834: Maritime Crime and the Silver Oar. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443873611.
  • Everingham, Kimball G. ed. (2011). Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families, 2nd Edition. Douglas Richardson. ISBN 9781461045137.
  • Haydn, Joseph (1851). The Book of Dignities: Containing Rolls of the Official Personages of the British Empire ... from the Earliest Periods to the Present Time ... Together with the Sovereigns of Europe, from the Foundation of Their Respective States; the Peerage of England and Great Britain ... Longmans, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
  • Houbraken, Jacobus; Thoyras, Paul de Rapin; Vertue, George (1747). The History of England, A List of Admirals of England, 1228-1745. J. and P. Knapton.

External linksEdit