Addictive behavior

An addictive behavior is a behavior, or a stimulus related to a behavior (e.g., sex or food), that is both rewarding and reinforcing, and is associated with the development of an addiction. Apart from the aforementioned addictive behaviors the most common one would be substance addiction (including alcohol, tobacco, drugs and cannabis).[5] There is a medical model which perceives addictive behavior as a disease that is caused by uncontrollable and recessive drug use overtimes and the addict barely has control of it.[6] The other view is from the moral standpoint which regards addictive behavior as an intentional choice was freely made by the addict.[6] Addictions involving addictive behaviors are normally referred to as behavioral addictions.

Addiction and dependence glossary[1][2][3][4]
  • addiction – a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by persistent use of drugs (including alcohol) despite substantial harm and adverse consequences
  • addictive drug – psychoactive substances that with repeated use are associated with significantly higher rates of substance use disorders, due in large part to the drug's effect on brain reward systems
  • dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake)
  • drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
  • drug withdrawal – symptoms that occur upon cessation of repeated drug use
  • physical dependence – dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens)
  • psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)
  • reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them
  • rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive and desirable or as something to approach
  • sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it
  • substance use disorder – a condition in which the use of substances leads to clinically and functionally significant impairment or distress
  • tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose

Compulsion vs addictionEdit

Compulsions and addictions are intertwined and reward is one major distinction between an addiction and a compulsion (as it is experienced in obsessive-compulsive disorder). An addiction is, by definition, a form of compulsion, and both addictions and compulsions involve operant reinforcement. In addition, dopamine is released in the brain's reward system and is a motive for behaviour (i.e. the compulsions in addiction development through positive reinforcement).[7]

There are two main differences when it comes to compulsion versus addiction. Compulsion is the need and desire to do something or carry out a task regardless of the individual being aware of what they are doing is incorrect. Whereas addiction is often the following step after compulsion where an individual needs to do a task or take a substance to feel pleasure and satisfaction. The main differences are that compulsion does not necessarily include pleasure for the individual but addiction does.

In contrast, someone who experiences a compulsion as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder may not perceive anything rewarding from acting on the compulsion. Often, it is a way of dealing with the obsessive part of the disorder, resulting in a feeling of relief (i.e., compulsions may also arise through negative reinforcement).[8]

Deep brain stimulation to the nucleus accumbens, a region in the brain involved heavily in addiction and reinforcement learning, has proven to be an effective treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder.[9]

Correlation between different personality traits and addictive behaviors onlineEdit

The study indicates that there is a difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors that is associated with distinctive online tasks.[10] Namely, higher neuroticism and less conscientiousness have a correlation with internet addiction overall;[10] less conscientiousness and low openness to experience are connected with addiction to video games,[10] neuroticism and extraversion were linked with social networking addiction.[10]

Development of addictive behaviors in adolescentsEdit

The expansion of addictive behaviors in adolescence contains different phases.[11] In the first stage, one has the ability to control appetitive motivational tendencies, but they do not have the motivation to do so.[11] Once enough drug or alcohol-related problems emerged, individuals tend to have more encouragement to adjust appetitive desires.[11] In this circumstance, personal willingness and ability are hindered.[11] there are a more powerful appetitive stimulation and a weaker ability to balance this response desire.[11] The shortcoming between these aspects are the essence of addictive behaviors in adolescents.[11]

Therapy for addictionsEdit

Addictions might give an individual a sense of power, confidence, endorsement, or other feelings that they might not attain in their real life.[12] Psychotherapy is a way to help people distinguish rough feelings and distress factors to adapt and grow.[12] People that have trouble with addictive behaviors are unlikely to regulate those actions by themselves unless someone leads them to work on addressing the root of their addictive behaviors, such as trauma, stress, anxiety, and so on.[12] There are a lot of types of therapy that can help people address the addictive behaviors which they want to alter.[12] An individual who has an addictive behavior would most likely have the biggest advantage from consulting with a therapist that is recognized by the medical institution or organization to be the expert in the particular area of addiction or compulsion in terms of potential causes.[12]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681. PMID 24459410. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement ... Another ΔFosB target is cFos: as ΔFosB accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is selectively induced in the chronic drug-treated state.41 ... Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict.
  2. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274.
  3. ^ "Glossary of Terms". Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  4. ^ Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". New England Journal of Medicine. 374 (4): 363–371. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. PMC 6135257. PMID 26816013. Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
    Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.
  5. ^ "Top 10 Most Common Addictions in the U.S." Addiction Center. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  6. ^ a b Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen (2013). "Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 4: 77. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00077. ISSN 1664-0640. PMC 3736117. PMID 23966955.
  7. ^ Solinas, Marcello (January 30, 2020). "Dopamine and addiction: What have we learned from 40 years of research". Journal of Neural Transmission. 126 (4).
  8. ^ "NIMH » Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts or Repetitive Behaviors Take Over". www.nimh.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  9. ^ "Deep brain stimulation as OCD treatment: New guideline". 23 September 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T.H.; Chan, Cecilia L.W.; Tse, Samson (March 2015). "Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: Trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction". Addictive Behaviors. 42: 32–35. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.039. ISSN 0306-4603. PMID 25462651.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Wiers, Reinout W.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; van den Wildenberg, Esther; Thush, Carolien; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Grenard, Jerry; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W. (February 2007). "Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: A review and a model". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 86 (2): 263–283. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.09.021. ISSN 0091-3057. PMID 17116324. S2CID 18979706.
  12. ^ a b c d e Chabert, Catherine (2015-03-04), "Obsessions, addictions, compulsions : contraintes narcissiques et fantasme d'inceste", Les travaux forcés de la répétition, Petite bibliothèque de psychanalyse, Presses Universitaires de France, pp. 19–40, doi:10.3917/puf.andre.2015.03.0019, ISBN 9782130653455, retrieved 2022-04-22

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