The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Line across the Earth
60th parallel north

Although it lies approximately twice as far away from the Equator as from the North Pole, the 60th parallel is half as long as the Equator line, due to the cosine of 60 degrees being 0.5. This is where the Earth bulges halfway as much as on the Equator.

At this latitude, the Sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the June solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the December solstice.[1] The maximum altitude of the Sun is 53.44° on 21 June and 6.56° on 21 December. The maximum altitude of the Sun is > 15.00º in October and > 8.00º in November. [2]

The lowest latitude where white nights can be observed is approximately on this parallel.

During the summer solstice, nighttime does not get beyond nautical twilight, a condition which lasts throughout the month of June. It is possible to view both astronomical dawn and dusk every day between August 22 and April 21.

Around the world edit

Malachy Tallack wrote a book, Sixty Degrees North: Around the World in Search of Home, about his travels along the general line of the parallel, starting and finishing at Shetland.[3][4]

Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 60° north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or ocean Notes
60°0′N 0°0′E / 60.000°N 0.000°E / 60.000; 0.000 (Prime Meridian) Atlantic Ocean North Sea
60°0′N 5°3′E / 60.000°N 5.050°E / 60.000; 5.050 (Norway)   Norway Islands of Stolmen and Selbjørn, Hordaland
60°0′N 5°12′E / 60.000°N 5.200°E / 60.000; 5.200 (Prime Meridian) Atlantic Ocean Bekkjarviksundet, Selbjørnsfjorden, North Sea
60°0′N 5°15′E / 60.000°N 5.250°E / 60.000; 5.250 (Norway)   Norway Island of Huftarøy, Hordaland
60°0′N 5°17′E / 60.000°N 5.283°E / 60.000; 5.283 (Prime Meridian) Atlantic Ocean Langenuen, North Sea
60°0′N 5°22′E / 60.000°N 5.367°E / 60.000; 5.367 (Norway)   Norway Islands of Reksteren, Tysnesøy and the mainland Hordaland
60°0′N 5°52′E / 60.000°N 5.867°E / 60.000; 5.867 (Prime Meridian) Atlantic Ocean Hardangerfjorden, North Sea
60°0′N 5°59′E / 60.000°N 5.983°E / 60.000; 5.983 (Norway)   Norway Mainland: Folgefonna glacier, Telemark, Buskerud, Akershus, Oslo, Hedmark, Østfold
Passing just north of the capital Oslo
60°0′N 12°23′E / 60.000°N 12.383°E / 60.000; 12.383 (Sweden)   Sweden Passing through Fagersta
Passing just north of Uppsala
60°0′N 18°53′E / 60.000°N 18.883°E / 60.000; 18.883 (Baltic Sea) Atlantic Ocean Baltic Sea
60°0′N 20°8′E / 60.000°N 20.133°E / 60.000; 20.133 (Åland Islands)   Finland Högskär, Bäckö and several smaller islands,   Åland Islands
60°0′N 20°58′E / 60.000°N 20.967°E / 60.000; 20.967 (Baltic Sea) Atlantic Ocean Baltic Sea
60°0′N 23°30′E / 60.000°N 23.500°E / 60.000; 23.500 (Finland)   Finland Passing through Ekenäs
60°0′N 23°58′E / 60.000°N 23.967°E / 60.000; 23.967 (Baltic Sea) Atlantic Ocean Baltic Sea
60°0′N 24°26′E / 60.000°N 24.433°E / 60.000; 24.433 (Finland)   Finland Porkkala peninsula
60°0′N 24°30′E / 60.000°N 24.500°E / 60.000; 24.500 (Baltic Sea) Atlantic Ocean Baltic Sea, Gulf of Finland
Passing just south of Helsinki,   Finland and the island of Gogland,   Russia
60°0′N 27°48′E / 60.000°N 27.800°E / 60.000; 27.800 (Russia)   Russia Moshchny Island
60°0′N 27°54′E / 60.000°N 27.900°E / 60.000; 27.900 (Baltic Sea) Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea
60°0′N 29°44′E / 60.000°N 29.733°E / 60.000; 29.733 (Russia)   Russia Island of Kotlin (city of Kronstadt)
60°0′N 29°47′E / 60.000°N 29.783°E / 60.000; 29.783 (Baltic Sea) Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea
60°0′N 30°5′E / 60.000°N 30.083°E / 60.000; 30.083 (Russia)   Russia Passing through Saint Petersburg, Lake Ladoga
60°0′N 154°30′E / 60.000°N 154.500°E / 60.000; 154.500 (Sea of Okhotsk) Pacific Ocean Shelikhov Gulf, Sea of Okhotsk
60°0′N 161°28′E / 60.000°N 161.467°E / 60.000; 161.467 (Russia)   Russia Kamchatka Peninsula
60°0′N 165°14′E / 60.000°N 165.233°E / 60.000; 165.233 (Bering Sea) Pacific Ocean Bering Sea
60°0′N 166°10′E / 60.000°N 166.167°E / 60.000; 166.167 (Russia)   Russia Pylgin Range
60°0′N 166°33′E / 60.000°N 166.550°E / 60.000; 166.550 (Bering Sea) Pacific Ocean Olyutor Gulf, Bering Sea
60°0′N 170°9′E / 60.000°N 170.150°E / 60.000; 170.150 (Russia)   Russia Olyutor Peninsula
60°0′N 170°26′E / 60.000°N 170.433°E / 60.000; 170.433 (Bering Sea) Pacific Ocean Bering Sea
60°0′N 167°8′W / 60.000°N 167.133°W / 60.000; -167.133 (United States)   United States Alaska - Nunivak Island
60°0′N 165°39′W / 60.000°N 165.650°W / 60.000; -165.650 (Etolin Strait) Pacific Ocean Etolin Strait, Bering Sea
60°0′N 164°9′W / 60.000°N 164.150°W / 60.000; -164.150 (United States)   United States Alaska
60°0′N 152°38′W / 60.000°N 152.633°W / 60.000; -152.633 (Cook Inlet) Pacific Ocean Cook Inlet, Gulf of Alaska
60°0′N 151°44′W / 60.000°N 151.733°W / 60.000; -151.733 (United States)   United States Alaska - Kenai Peninsula, Evans Island, Elrington Island, Latouche Island and Montague Island
60°0′N 147°24′W / 60.000°N 147.400°W / 60.000; -147.400 (Pacific Ocean) Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska
60°0′N 144°24′W / 60.000°N 144.400°W / 60.000; -144.400 (United States)   United States Alaska - Wingham Island, Kayak Island and a small section of mainland
60°0′N 143°50′W / 60.000°N 143.833°W / 60.000; -143.833 (Pacific Ocean) Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska
60°0′N 141°53′W / 60.000°N 141.883°W / 60.000; -141.883 (United States)   United States Alaska
60°0′N 139°3′W / 60.000°N 139.050°W / 60.000; -139.050 (Canada)   Canada Yukon / British Columbia border
Northwest Territories / British Columbia border
Northwest Territories / Alberta border - passes through Wood Buffalo National Park and beside Fort Smith, NT
Northwest Territories / Saskatchewan border
Nunavut / Manitoba border
60°0′N 94°49′W / 60.000°N 94.817°W / 60.000; -94.817 (Hudson Bay) Arctic Ocean Hudson Bay
Passing just north of the Ottawa Islands, Nunavut,   Canada
60°0′N 77°17′W / 60.000°N 77.283°W / 60.000; -77.283 (Canada)   Canada Quebec
Passing just south of Puvirnituq, Quebec
60°0′N 69°46′W / 60.000°N 69.767°W / 60.000; -69.767 (Ungava Bay) Arctic Ocean Ungava Bay
Passing just south of Kangirsuk, Quebec,   Canada
60°0′N 65°7′W / 60.000°N 65.117°W / 60.000; -65.117 (Canada)   Canada Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador
60°0′N 64°9′W / 60.000°N 64.150°W / 60.000; -64.150 Atlantic Ocean Border between the Davis Strait (to the north) and the Labrador Sea (to the south)[5]
60°0′N 44°52′W / 60.000°N 44.867°W / 60.000; -44.867 (Greenland)   Greenland Passing just south of Narsaq
60°0′N 43°9′W / 60.000°N 43.150°W / 60.000; -43.150 (Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean
60°0′N 1°21′W / 60.000°N 1.350°W / 60.000; -1.350 (United Kingdom)   United Kingdom Islands of Mainland and Mousa, Shetland Islands,   Scotland
60°0′N 1°11′W / 60.000°N 1.183°W / 60.000; -1.183 (North Sea) Atlantic Ocean North Sea

Notable cities and towns on 60°N edit

Canada edit

The 60th parallel north in Canada, marking the southern borders of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and the Nunavut mainland.

In Canada, the 60th parallel forms the southern mainland boundary of the northern territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut with the western provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

Accordingly, "north of 60" is an expression often used for the territories, although parts of Nunavut (the islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay) are located south of the 60th parallel, and parts of Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador are located north, to the east of Hudson Bay. A 1990s TV show on CBC about life in the Northwest Territories was called North of 60.

The 60th Parallel Territorial Park is on Mackenzie Highway between Alberta and Northwest Territories and it has a visitor centre there in the homeland of the Yellowknives Dene First Nation and the North Slave Métis Alliance.[6]

Canada's only four corners are located at the intersection of the 60th parallel and the 102nd meridian west, between the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

Greenland edit

Between 1776 and 1950, the 60th parallel formed the southern limit of the Royal Greenland Trade Department's exclusive monopoly on trade near the Dano-Norwegian and later Danish colonies of Greenland (1776–1782) and South Greenland (1782–1950).[7]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Duration of Daylight/Darkness Table for One Year". U.S. Naval Observatory. 2019-09-24. Archived from the original on 2019-10-12. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  2. ^ NASA. "Earth Fact Sheet". Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  3. ^ Self, Will (8 July 2015). "60 Degrees North by Malachy Tallack review – around the world in search of home". The Guardian.
  4. ^ Tallack, Malacky (2017). Sixty Degrees North: Around the World in Search of Home. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781681774619.
  5. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  6. ^ "60th Parallel Visitor Information Centre". Spectacular NWT. Northwest Territories Tourism. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  7. ^ Marquardt, Ole. "Change and Continuity in Denmark's Greenland Policy" in The Oldenburg Monarchy: An Underestimated Empire?. Verlag Ludwig (Kiel), 2006.