1957 Madras Legislative Assembly election

The second legislative assembly election to the Madras state (presently Tamil Nadu) was held on 31 March 1957. This was the first election held after the linguistic reorganization of Madras state in 1954. Indian National Congress and its leader K. Kamaraj won the election, and defeated its rival Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. In 1954, due to the resignation of C. Rajagopalachari, for his controversial Kula Kalvi Thittam, the leadership of Congress was contested, between K. Kamaraj, and C. Subramaniam (who got the support of M. Bhaktavatsalam). Eventually, K. Kamaraj, won the support of the party, was elected leader and chief minister of Madras State in 1954. In a surprise move, he appointed both M. Bhaktavatsalam and C. Subramaniam, in his cabinet, allowing great unity amongst Congress, that ruled the state of Madras, for the next decade. This election saw future DMK leaders, M. Karunanidhi and K. Anbazhagan winning their first MLA seat in the legislative assembly.[2]

1957 Madras Legislative Assembly election

← 1952 1–11 March 1957 1962 →

All 205 seats in the Legislature of Madras State
103 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  K Kamaraj 1976 stamp of India.jpg Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari 1973 stamp of India.jpg
Leader K. Kamaraj C. Rajagopalachari
Party INC CRC
Leader's seat Sattur MLC
Seats won 151 13
Seat change Increase 24 [1] New Party
Popular vote 5,046,576 Contested as Independents
Percentage 45.34% Contested as Independents
Swing Increase 10.46% Contested as Independents

Chief Minister before election

K. Kamaraj
INC

Chief Minister

K. Kamaraj
INC

Delimitation and reorganisationEdit

On 1 October 1953, a separate Andhra State consisting of the Telugu-speaking areas of the composite Madras State was formed and the Kannada-speaking area of Bellary District was merged with the then Mysore State. This reduced the strength of the Legislative Assembly to 231.

On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act 1956 took effect and consequently the constituencies in the erstwhile Malabar district were merged with the Kerala State. This further reduced the strength to 190. The Tamil-speaking area of Kerala (present day Kanyakumari district) and Shenkottah taluk were added to Madras State.[3]

According to the new Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order 1956, made by the Delimitation Commission of India under the provisions of the State Reorganisation Act, 1956, the strength of the Madras Legislative Assembly was increased to 205.[4] The 1957 elections were conducted for these 205 seats. In 1959, as result of The Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act 1959, one member from the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly was allotted to Madras increasing its Legislative Assembly strength to 206.[4]

Two member constituenciesEdit

Out of the total 167 constituencies in the state, 38 were two member constituencies 37 of which had one reserved for Scheduled caste candidates and 1 for Scheduled tribe candidate.[4] These constituencies were larger in size and had greater number of voters (more than 1,00,000)[5] when compared to general constituencies. Two separate list of candidates, a general list and a reserved list, contested in those constituencies. Each voter had to cast two votes - one for each list.

The two winners were chosen as follows:

  • Reserved Member - Candidate with the most votes among the reserved (SC/ST) list candidates
  • General Member - Candidate with the most votes among the rest of the candidates excluding the Reserved Member (including both reserved and general lists).

This system led to anomalies. In some cases like the Coimbatore - II constituency in the 1957 election, both elected members belonged to the reserved list - the candidate with second highest number of votes in reserved list secured more votes than the highest vote getter in the general list. Multiple members were elected only in the 1952 and 1957 elections as double member representation was abolished in 1961 by the enactment of Two-Member Constituencies Abolition Act (1961).[6]

Parties and issuesEdit

Indian National Congress, Communist Party of India, Forward Bloc, Praja Socialist Party, Socialist Party, Congress Reform Committee (Indian National Democratic Congress) and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) were the major parties contesting this election. This was the first election contested by the DMK since its formation in 1949. The decision to contest elections was taken in 1956 at the party's Trichy conference. The party fielded its candidates in 8 Parliamentary and 117 assembly seats as independents, since it was not an officially recognised party.[7] The increased Tamilian character of the Congress party after the appointment of K. Kamaraj, a non-Brahman as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, robbed DMK of its main electoral plank as the sole proponent of Tamil nationalism. It increasingly changed its focus to economic issues and slower industrialisation of the South as an election issue. The DMK election manifesto had a socialist image and creation of Dravida Nadu became a side issue as it had implicitly accepted the prevailing constitutional order.[8][9]

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy issued a statement in support of K. Kamaraj before the commencement of the election. In October 1956, the central executive of Dravidar Kazhagam resolved to support K. Kamaraj.[10]

Since Mr. Kamaraj has done his best to serve the Tamilians, since he has changed Acharyar's educational system designed to perpetuate the caste system, since he has conferred many jobs and many benefits on Tamilians in the educational and other spheres and since the Brahman and DMK people are trying to oust him from power, it has become the duty of all Tamilians to support Mr. Kamaraj and his followers in the election[10][11]

K. Kamaraj accepted the support of Dravidar kazhagam and said if the Kazhagam canvassed vote for him out of their own free will, he could not possibly tell them he did not want their votes. He also made it clear that Congress party can not support a party which is communal in nature and he did not in any way share E. V. Ramasamy's views.[10][12]

K. Kamaraj's decision to accept the support and provide candidacy to some former members of Dravidar Kazhagam caused division within Congress resulting in a new party called, Congress Reform Committee (CRC). Though the party was created in the last moment, it fielded candidates in 12 parliamentary and 55 assembly seats.[13]

Voting and resultsEdit

Source: Election Commission of India[14]

Summary of results of the 1957 Madras Legislative Assembly election[14]
 
Political party Flag Seats
Contested
Won % of
Seats
Votes Vote % Change in
vote %
Indian National Congress 204 151 ( 1) 73.66 50,46,576 45.34   10.46
Communist Party of India   58 4 ( 58) 1.95 8,23,582 7.40   5.78
Praja Socialist Party 23 2 (New) 0.98 2,93,778 2.64 New
Independent 602 48 (  14) 23.41 49,67,060 44.62 N/A
Total Seats 205 ( 170) Voters 2,39,05,575 Turnout 1,11,30,996 (46.56%)

DMK was not officially recognized as a party by the Election commission of India until 1962, so they were registered as an Independent party. Congress Reform Committee was the second and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was the third party in the assembly. Congress won 45% vote share, CRC 8% and DMK 14%.[13]

By constituencyEdit

* Elected as Chief Minister of Madras State
** DMK Candidates contesting as independents
S.No Constituency Winner Party Runner Up Party
79 Adiramapattinam A. R. Marimuthu PSP N. Sunderasa Thevar INC
73 Aduthurai Ramamirtha Thondaiman INC Mohammed Amirdeen IND
83 Alangudi 1) Arunachala Thevar
2) Chinniah
INC
INC
Subbiah
Balakrishnan
IND
123 Alangulam Veluchamy Thevar IND Nallasivan CPI
120 Ambasamudram Gomathisankara Deekshidar INC Challapandian IND
27 Ambur 1) V. K. Krishnamurthy
3) S. R. Munusami
INC
IND
2) Sampangi Naidu
4) A. R. Rathnasamy
IND
INC
84 Andanallur Annamalai Muthuraja INC E. P. Mathuram IND
19 Arakkonam S. C. Sadayappa Mudaliar INC Thomas IND
81 Arantangi S. Ramasami Thevar IND Muthuvel Ambalam INC
95 Aravakurichi S. Sadasivam INC N. Rathinam IND
23 Arcot S. Khader Sheriff INC Lachaumanan IND
91 Ariyalur Ramalinga Padayachi INC Narayanan IND
28 Arni P. Doraisamy Reddiar IND V. K. Kannan INC
107 Aruppukottai M. D. Ramasami IND A. V. Thiruppathi INC
145 Atoor M. A. B. Arumugasamy Chettiar INC V. S. S. Mani Chettiyar IND
52 Attur 1) Irusappan
2) M. P. Subramaniam
IND
IND
3) A. Sambasiva Reddiar
4) M. Arumugham
INC
IND
164 Avanashi K. Marappa Gounder INC Karuppa Gounder IND
3 Basin Bridge T. N. Anandanayaki INC N. V. Natarajan IND
156 Bhavani 1) G. G. Gurumurthi
2) P. G. Manickam
INC
INC
3) K. Komarasami Gounder
4) A. Subramanian
IND
IND
65 Bhuvanagiri Samikannu Padayachi INC R. Balagurusamy IND
132 Bodinayakkanur A. S. Subbaraj INC M. Muthiala IND
61 Cuddalore Seenivasa Padayachi INC Sambandan IND
11 Chengalpattu 1) Muthuswamy Naicker
2) Appavu
INC 3) Ramachandran
4) Rathinam
IND
32 Chengam T. Karia Goundar INC R. Venkatachala Mudaliar IND
153 Chennimalai K. P. Nallasivam IND A. Thengappa Gounder INC
21 Cheyyar P. Ramachandran INC V. Darmalinga Nayagar IND
66 Chidambaram 1) G. Vagheesam Pillai
2) Swami Sahajananda
INC
INC
3) Chokalingam
4) Sivasubramaniam
IND
IND
161 Coimbatore - I Savitri Shanmugam INC Bupathy CPI
162 Coimbatore - II 1) Marudachalam
2) Palaniswamy
CPI
INC
3) Kuppuswamy
4) P. Veluswamy
INC
PSP
127 Colachel Lourdammal INC S. Doraiswamy IND
166 Coonoor J. Matha Gowder INC H. B. Ari Gowder IND
151 Dharapuram A. Sanapathi Gounder INC P. S. Govindasamy Gounder IND
40 Dharmapuri M. Kandasami Kandar INC R. S. Veerappa Chetty IND
144 Dindigul M. J. Jamal Mohideen INC A. Balasubramaniam CPI
6 Egmore Anbazhagan IND Radhakrishnan INC
154 Erode V. S. Manickasundaram INC K. T. Raju CPI
78 Gandarvakottai Krishnasami Gopalar INC Ramachandra Dorai IND
56 Gingee M. Jangal Reddiar IND V. Gopal Gounder IND
157 Gobichettipalayam P. G. Karuthiruman INC Mariappan CPI
25 Gudiyatham 1) V. K. Kothandaraman
2) T. Manavalan
CPI
INC
3) Venkatachalam
4) M. Krishnasami
INC
IND
14 Gummidipundi Kamalambuiammal INC Venugopal Reddy IND
2 Harbour U. Krishna Rao INC G. Rajamannar Chettiar PSP
35 Harur 1) P. M. Munusami Gounder
2) M. K. Mariappan
INC
INC
3) T. Ponnusamy
4) C. Theerthagiri
IND
IND
38 Hosur K. Appavoo Pillai IND N. Ramachandra Reddy INC
90 Jayankondam K. R. Viswanathan INC Jayaramulu Chettiar IND
112 Kadambur 1) K. Ramasubbu
2) Sangili
INC
INC
3) S. Arunachala Nadar
4) V. Suppayan
IND
IND
121 Kadayam D. S. Athimoolam IND A. Balagan INC
53 Kallakurichi 1) Nataraja Odayar
3) M. Anandan
IND
IND
2) Parthasarathy
4) L. Anandan
INC
INC
18 Kancheepuram C. N. Annadurai[15] IND P. S. Srinivasan INC
152 Kangayam K. G. Palanisamy Gounder INC P. Muthuswamy Gounder IND
125 Kanyakumari T. S. Ramaswamy Pillai IND Natarajan INC
100 Karaikudi M. A. Muthiah Chettiar INC Ganesan Saw IND
94 Karur T. M. Nallaswamy INC K. S. Ramasami CPI
129 Killiyur A. Nesamony INC Uncontested Uncontested
133 Kodaikanal M. Alagirisamy INC Gurusamy IND
150 Kovilpalayam C. Subramaniam INC C. Guruswamy Naidu PSP
111 Kovilpatti V. Suppaya Naicker IND Selvaraj INC
36 Krishnagiri S. Nagaraja Manigar INC N. Mohanram IND
96 Kulithalai M. Karunanidhi IND K. A. Dharmalingam INC
74 Kumbakonam T. Sambath INC Neelamegham IND
88 Lalgudi S. Lazar INC Anbil P. Dharmalingam IND
138 Madurai Central V. Sankaran INC S. Muthu IND
137 Madurai East P. K. R. Lakshmi Kanthan INC N. Sankaraiah CPM
10 Maduranthakam 1) O. Venkatasubba Reddy
4) Ellappan
INC
IND
2) O.N. Doraibabu
3) V.L. Raja
IND
IND
103 Manamadurai R. Chidambara Bharathi INC S. Alagu IND
98 Manapparai N. P. M. Chinnaya Kavundar INC A. Rajagopal Pillai IND
72 Mannargudi T. S. Swaminatha Odayar INC S. K. Sivanada Saluvar IND
68 Mayuram 1) G. Narayanasami Naidu
2) P. Jayaraj
INC
INC
3) M. Kathamuthu
4) A. R. Marianathan
CPI
CPI
141 Melur 1) P. Kakkan
2) M. Periyakaruppan Ambalam
INC
INC
3) K. Paramasivam Ambalan
4) P. Vadivel
IND
IND
165 Mettupalayam D. Raghubadhi Devi INC Madhannan IND
46 Mettur K. S. Ardhanareeswara Gounder INC Surendiran PSP
8 Mylapore C. R. Ramaswamy INC Kumari S. Vijayalakshmi PSP
106 Mudukulathur 1) U. Muthuramalinga Thevar
2) A. Perumal
IND
IND
3) Chinniah
4) A. Krishnan
INC
INC
93 Musiri 1) V. A. Muthaiya
2) T. V. Sannasi
INC
INC
3) M. P. Muthukaruppan
4) Durairaj
IND
IND
70 Nagapattinam N. S. Ramalingam INC P. Jeevanandam CPI
126 Nagercoil Chidambaranatha Nadar INC C. Sankar CPI
63 Nallur Vedamanickam IND K. S. Venkatakrishna Reddiar IND
49 Namakkal 1) P. Kolanda Gounder
3) M. P. Periasami
INC
INC
2) V. Kaliappan
4) Marudaveeran
IND
IND
158 Nambiyur K. L. Ramaswamy INC Uncontested Uncontested
118 Nanguneri M. G. Sankar Reddiar INC S. Madasamy IND
69 Nannilam 1) M. D. Thiagaraja Pillai
2) M. C. Muthukumaraswami
INC
INC
3) S. Arunachalam Pillai
4) P. Appaswamy
CPI
CPI
62 Nellikuppam 1) Sivachidambara Ramasamy Padayachi
3) S. Thangavelu
INC
INC
2) Krishnamoorthy Gounder
4) Rajaangam
IND
IND
140 Nilakkottai 1) W. P. A. R. Chandrasekaran
2) A. S. Ponnammal
INC
INC
3) T. G. Krishnamoorthy
4) M. Vadivel
IND
IND
146 Oddanchatram Karuthappa Gounder INC Angamuthu Naicker IND
128 Padmanabhapuram Thompson Dharmaraj Daniel INC S. Muthukaruppa Pillai IND
147 Palani Lakshmipathiraj INC Venkitasami Gounder IND
160 Palladam P. S. Chinnadurai PSP Kumarasami Gounder INC
97 Papanasam 1) Venkitachala Nattar
2) R. Subramaniam
INC
INC
3) Haritharanathan
4) Tajudeen
IND
IND
75 Panjapatti Karunagiri Muthaiah INC P. Poonambala Gounder IND
104 Paramakudi K. Ramachandran IND G. Govindan INC
80 Pattukottai R. Srinivasa Ayyar INC V. Arunachala Thevar IND
39 Pennagaram Hemalatha Devi INC D. K. Gorunatha Chettiar IND
92 Perambalur 1) Krishnasami
3) K. Periyannan
INC
INC
2) Raja Chidambaram
4) Adimoolam
IND
IND
4 Perambur 1) Pakkiriswami Pillai
3) Satyavani Muthu
IND
IND
2) T. S. Govindaswamy
4) T. Rajagopal
INC
INC
155 Perundurai N. K. Palanisami CPI Manicka Mudaliar INC
149 Pollachi 1) N. Mahalingam
2) K. Ponniah
INC
INC
3) P. Thangavel Gounder
4) V. K. Rangaswamy
PSP
CPI
29 Polur S. M. Annamalai IND T. B. Kesava Reddiar IND
13 Ponneri 1) V. Govindasami Naidu
2) T. P. Elumalai
INC
INC
3) T. Shanmugam
4) Changam Pillai
IND
IND
117 Radhapuram A. V. Thomas INC Kartheesan IND
105 Ramanathapuram R. Shanmuga Rajeshwara Sethupathi IND G. Mangalasamy CPI
24 Ranipet Chandrasekara Naicker INC R. A. Subhaan IND
51 Rasipuram A. Raja Gounder INC K. V. K. Ramaswamy IND
12 Saidapet A. S. Doraiswami Reddiar INC N. P. Loganathan IND
42 Salem I A. Mariappan Mudaliar INC V. R. Nedunchezhiyan IND
43 Salem II A. Rathnavel Gounder INC S. M. Ramiah CPI
124 Sankarankoil 1) P. Urkavalan
2) A. R. Subbiah Mudaliar
INC
INC
3) Adinamilagi
4) S. Uthaman
IND
PSP
47 Sankari K. S. Subramanya Gounder INC R. Thandavan IND
116 Sathankulam S. P. Adithanar IND S. Kandasamy INC
55 Satyamangalam K. Gopal Gounder IND K. Aranganathan INC
108 Sattur K. Kamaraj INC Jayarama Reddiar IND
50 Sendamangalam T. Sivagnanam Pillai INC Somasundara Gounder IND
20 Sholinghur B. Bhakthavatsalu Naidu INC M. Subramanian Naicker IND
67 Sirkazhi 1) C. Muthia Pillai
2) K. B. S. Mani
INC
INC
3) K. Sami Durai Annangar
4) V. Velayutham
CPI
CPI
101 Sivaganga D. Subramania Rajkumar IND Saminathan INC
109 Sivakasi S. Ramasami Naidu INC P. Muthuramanuja Thevar IND
16 Sriperumbudur M. Bhaktavatsalam INC C. V. M. Annamalai IND
87 Srirangam K. Vasudevan INC Chitrambalam IND
114 Srivaikuntam A. P. C. Veerabahu INC Y. Perumal IND
110 Srivilliputhur 1) R. Krishnasami Naidu
2) A. Chinnasami
INC
INC
3) S. Alagarsamy
4) Gurusami
CPI
IND
163 Sulur Kulanthai Ammal INC K. Ramani CPI
45 Taramangalam N. S. Soundararajan INC Chinnappan IND
122 Tenkasi K. Sattanatha Karayalar IND I. A. Chidambaram Pillai INC
77 Thanjavur A. Y. S. Parisutha Nadar INC R. Gopalakrishnan IND
134 Theni 1) N. R. Thiagarajan
3) N. M. Velappan
INC
INC
2) S. S. Rajendran
4) A. Ayyanar
IND
IND
136 Thirumangalam A. V. P. Periavala Guruya Reddi IND K. Rajaram INC
82 Thirumayam V. Ramiah INC Muthuvairava Ambalagarar IND
139 Thirupparankundram S. Chinnakaruppa Thevar INC K. P. Janaki CPI
5 Thousand lights A. V. P. Asaithambi IND K. Venkatasamy Naidu INC
30 Thuriniapuram M. A. Manickavelu INC S. Murugan IND
57 Tindivanam 1) P. Veerappa Gounder
2) M. Jagannathan
IND
IND
3) Venugopal Gounder
4) Pichaikuppan
INC
INC
115 Tiruchendur M. S. Selvaraj INC M. R. Meganathan IND
48 Tiruchengode 1) T. M. Kaliannan
2) R. Kandasami
INC
INC
3) Rangasamy Gounder
4) Komaran
IND
PSP
85 Tiruchirappalli - I E. P. Mathuram IND T. Durairaj Pillai INC
86 Tiruchirappalli - II M. Kalyanasundaram CPI Subburethinam INC
54 Tirukoilur 1) S. A. M. Annamalai Odayar
3) Kuppusami
IND
INC
2) Lakshmi Narasamma
4) Muthusami
INC
IND
99 Tirukoshtiyur N. V. Chockalingam INC S. Shanmugam CPI
34 Tiruppattur R. C. Samanna Gounder INC Natesa Pillai IND
31 Tiruvannamalai 1) P. U. Shanmugham
2) C. Santhanam
IND
IND
3) V. K. Annamalai Gounder
4) A. Arumugam
INC
76 Tiruvayur R. Swaminatha Merkondar INC D. Pakshiraja Moovarayar IND
119 Tirunelveli 1) Rajathi Kunchithapatham
2) Somasundaram
INC
INC
3) Kandish
4) Ponnusami
IND
PSP
159 Tiruppur K. N. Palanisamy INC V. Ponnulinga Gounder CPI
71 Tiruthuraipundi 1) V. Vedayyan
2) A. Vedaratnam
INC
INC
3) C. Kandasamy
4) S. Vadivelu
CPI
CPI
102 Tiruvadanai KR. RM. Kariamanickamambalam IND S. Ramakrishnathevar INC
15 Tiruvallur 1) Eakambara Mudaly
2) V. S. Arunachalam
INC
INC
3) N. Govindasamy Naidu
4) M. Dharmalingam
IND
IND
9 T. Nagar K. Vinayakam INC A. S. Jesupatham IND
89 T Palur Subbiah INC Ramasamy IND
7 Triplicane K. S. G. Haja Sheriff INC Appadurai IND
113 Tuticorin Ponnusami Nadar INC M. S. Sivamani IND
167 Udagamandalam B. K. Linga Gowder INC K. Bhojan IND
37 Uddanapalli Muni Reddi IND Venkatakrishna Desai INC
148 Udumalpet S. T. Subbaya Gounder IND N. Mounaguruswamy Naidu INC
60 Ulundurpet Kandasami Padayachi INC Manonmani Ammal IND
135 Usilampatti MUTHU IND P. V. Raj -
131 Uthamapalayam K. Pandiaraj INC P. T. Rajan IND
17 Uthiramerur V. K. Ramaswamy Mudaliar IND K. Duraiswamy Nayagar INC
142 Vadamadurai Thiruvenkatasamy Naicker IND S. Chiinasamy Naidu INC
58 Valavanur A. Govindasami Nayagar IND K. M. Krishna Gounder INC
22 Vandavasi 1) M. Ramachandra Reddy
3) D. Dasarathan
INC
INC
2) A. Dharma Gounder
4) S. Muthulingam
IND
IND
33 Vaniyambadi A. A. Rasheed INC M. P. Vadivelu Gounder IND
143 Vedasandur T. S. Soundaram Ramachandran INC Madanagopal CPI
44 Veerapandy M. R. Kandasamy Mudaliar INC Chelliah IND
26 Vellore M. P. Sarathy IND Sundara Gounder CPI
130 Vilavancode M. William INC Uncontested Uncontested
59 Villupuram Sarangapani Gounder INC Shanmuga Udayar IND
64 Vridhachalam M. Selvaraj IND G. Rajavelu Padayachi INC
1 Washermanpet M. Mayandi Nadar INC N. Jeevarathnam IND
41 Yercaud 1) S. Andi Goundan
2) S. Lakshmana Goundar
INC
INC
3) Raja Paul David
4) Kuppusami Goundan
IND
IND

Kamaraj's second cabinetEdit

Kamaraj's council of ministers during his second tenure as chief minister (1 April 1957 – 1 March 1962)[16]

Minister Portfolios
K. Kamaraj Chief Minister, Public, Planning and Development (including Local development Works, Women's Welfare, Community Projects and Rural Welfare), National Extension Scheme
M. Bhaktavatsalam Home
C. Subramaniam Finance
R. Venkataraman Industries
M. A. Manickavelu Naicker Revenue
P. Kakkan Works
V. Ramaiah Electricity
Lourdhammal Simon Local Administration

See alsoEdit

Footnotes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.assembly.tn.gov.in/archive/1st_1952/Review_1-52-57.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ Tamil Nadu Government website
  3. ^ "Reorganisation of States, 1955" (PDF). The Economic Weekly. 15 October 1955. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b c The State Legislature - Origin and Evolution Archived 13 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Constituent Assembly of India Debates Vol IV, Friday 18 July 1947" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  6. ^ Hasan, Zoya; Sridharan, Eswaran; Sudharshan, R (2005). India's living constitution: ideas, practices, controversies. Anthem Press. pp. 360–63. ISBN 978-1-84331-136-2.
  7. ^ Kohli, Atul (2001). The success of India's democracy. Cambridge University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-521-80530-9.
  8. ^ Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. (1964–1965). "The DMK and the Politics of Tamil Nationalism". Pacific Affairs. 37 (4): 396–411. doi:10.2307/2755132. JSTOR 2755132.
  9. ^ Manivannan, R. (25 January 1992). "1991 Tamil Nadu Elections: Issues, Strategies and Performance". Economic and Political Weekly. 27 (4): 164–170. JSTOR 4397536.
  10. ^ a b c Lloyd I. Rudolph (May 1961). "Urban Life and Populist Radicalism: Dravidian Politics in Madras". The Journal of Asian Studies. 20 (3): 283–297. doi:10.2307/2050816. JSTOR 2050816.
  11. ^ The Hindu (10 October 1956)
  12. ^ The Hindu (6 March 1957)
  13. ^ a b James R. Roach (May 1957), "India's 1957 elections", Far Eastern Survey, 26 (5): 65–78, doi:10.1525/as.1957.26.5.01p1110h, JSTOR 3024537
  14. ^ a b "Statistical Report on General Election, 1957 : To the Legislative Assembly of Madras" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  15. ^ 1957 Madras State Election Results, Election Commission of India '
  16. ^ Kandaswamy. P (2008). The political Career of K. Kamaraj. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 62–64. ASIN B00069WY4K. OCLC 46929395.

External linksEdit