The year 1909 in archaeology involved some significant events.
- Excavation of Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester Roman Town) in England by the Society of Antiquaries of London completed (begun in 1890).
- Excavations at Ritsona in Boeotia by Ronald Burrows and Percy and Annie Ure of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens begin (completed in 1922).
- Excavations at Villa of Mysteries at Pompeii begin.
- At Knap Hill in Wiltshire, England, the first excavation of a causewayed enclosure, by Ben and Maud Cunnington, is completed (begun in 1908).