This article is a summary of the literary events and publications of 1631.
- January 9 – Love's Triumph Through Callipolis, a masque written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones, is staged at Whitehall Palace.
- January 11 – The Master of the Revels in England refuses to license Philip Massinger's new play, Believe as You List, because of its seditious content; it is first performed in a revised version on May 7.
- February 5 – Puritan minister and theologian Roger Williams emigrates from England to Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
- February 22 – Chloridia, the year's second Jonson/Jones masque, is performed.
- June 10 – The King's Men perform Pericles, Prince of Tyre (c.1607/8) at the Globe Theatre.
- The young Blaise Pascal moves with his family to Paris.
- Thomas Hobbes is employed as a tutor by the Cavendish family, to teach the future Earl of Devonshire.
- Publication of the "Wicked Bible" by Robert Barker and Martin Lucas, the royal printers in London, an edition of the King James Version of the Bible in which a typesetting erratum leaves the seventh of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:14) with the word not omitted from the sentence "Thou shalt not commit adultery". Copies are withdrawn and about a year later the publishers are called to the Star Chamber, fined £300 and have their licence to print revoked.
- February 7 – Gabriel Harvey, English poet and author (born c. 1545)
- March 31 – John Donne, English poet and Dean of St Paul's (born 1572)
- May 6 – Robert Bruce Cotton, English antiquary and founder of Cotton Library (born 1570)
- May 25 – Samuel Harsnett, English religious writer and archbishop (born 1561)
- May 26 – Enrico Caterino Davila, Italian historian, murdered (born 1576)
- July 28 – Guillén de Castro y Bellvis, Spanish dramatist (born 1569)
- September 22 – Cardinal Federico Borromeo, Italian archbishop and founder of Biblioteca Ambrosiana (born 1564)
- October 26 – Lewis Bayly, Welsh or Scottish-born religious writer and bishop writing in English (unknown year of birth)
- November 29 – Edmond Richer, French theologian (born 1559)
- December 23 – Michael Drayton, English poet (born 1563)
- ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (August 2006). "Étienne Pascal". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2010-02-05.
- ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (November 2002). "Thomas Hobbes". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
- ^ Thomas Heywood, The Fair Maid of the West Parts I and II, edited by Robert K. Turner Jr.; Regents Renaissance Drama series, Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1967.