Events from the 1250s in England.
|1230s | 1240s | 1250s | 1260s | 1270s|
- 14 January – A storm further damages the port of Winchelsea.
- 10 April – Ilkeston is granted a royal charter for a market and fair, which continue into the 21st century.
- September – Henry III receives a gift of a polar bear from Norway, which he allows to swim in the Thames.
- Gascon leaders travel to England to put their case against Simon de Montfort, who eventually resigns.
- Assize of Arms: A royal ordnance requires appointment of constables to summon men to arms, quell breaches of the peace, and to deliver offenders to the sheriff.
- 6 August – Expedition by Henry III to Gascony to repel a rumoured invasion from Castile. Eleanor of Provence is regent and de facto Lord Chancellor in England during her husband's absence.
- Simon de Montfort returns to England where he allies himself with barons who oppose Henry III.
- John Maunsell becomes England's first Secretary of State.
- 11 February – Parliament is summoned, for the first time including elected representatives; two knights from each shire.
- 1 April – Treaty of Toledo ensures peace between England and Castile.
- 26 April – A Parliament assembles which refuses to grant a subsidy to Henry III.
- 1 November – Edward Plantagenet (the future Edward I, aged 15) marries Eleanor of Castile (aged c. 13) at the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos. His father Henry III has demanded the marriage in exchange for ending the war with her brother Alfonso X of Castile.
- A survey of royal privileges in England is conducted, which is included in the Hundred Rolls.
- King Louis IX of France gifts Henry with an elephant, which he keeps in the Tower of London.
- Approximate date – Benedictine cell established on the Farne Islands.
- 13 January – Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall elected King of the Romans.
- August – A gold penny is introduced, but swiftly withdrawn when its bullion value proves greater than its twenty pence face value.
- c. September – 1257 Samalas eruption: Mount Samalas volcano erupts on Lombok Island in Indonesia; the resultant climatic changes combine with a second successive poor grain harvest this summer in Britain to produce famine, killing an estimated 17,000 in Britain (15,000 in London).
- Brothers of Penitence (Fratres Saccati, 'Brothers of the Sack') first settle in England, in London.
- 2 May – Simon de Montfort, together with six other barons, forces Henry III to accept legal reforms.
- 12 June – Provisions of Oxford enacted, creating an elected Council of barons to advise the King.
- 29 September – Consecration of the newly rebuilt Salisbury Cathedral.
- 27 October to 4 November – The Oxford Parliament assembles, with Peter de Montfort presiding.
- Irish, assisted by Scottish gallowglasses, halt the English advance westward through Ireland.
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