Secretary of State (England)

In the Kingdom of England, the title of Secretary of State came into being near the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603), the usual title before that having been King's Clerk, King's Secretary, or Principal Secretary.

England
Secretary of State
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of England from 1603 to 1649
Member ofPrivy Council
SeatWestminster, London
AppointerThe English Monarch
Term lengthNo fixed term
Formation1253–1645
First holderJohn Maunsell
Final holderGeorge Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
Richard Foxe, King's Secretary from 1485 to 1487

From the time of Henry VIII, there were usually two secretaries of state. After the restoration of the monarchy of 1660, the two posts were specifically designated as the Secretary of State for the Northern Department and the Secretary of State for the Southern Department. Both dealt with home affairs and they divided foreign affairs between them.

HistoryEdit

 
William Cecil, Lord Burghley, a Secretary of Queen Elizabeth

The medieval kings of England had a clerical servant, at first known as their Clerk, later as their Secretary. The primary duty of this office was carrying on the monarch's official correspondence, but in varying degrees the holder also advised the Crown, and by the early fourteenth century, the position was in effect the third most powerful office of state in England, ranking after the Lord Chancellor.

Most administrative business went through the royal household, particularly the Wardrobe. The Privy Seal's warrants increased rapidly in quantity and frequency during the late Middle Ages. The Signet warrant, kept by the Keeper of the Privy Seal, could be used to stamp documents on authority of chancery and on behalf of the Chancellor.[1] During wartime, the king took his privy seal with him wherever he went. Its controller was the Secretary, who served on military and diplomatic missions; and the Wardrobe clerks assumed an even greater importance.[2]

Until the reign of King Henry VIII (1509–1547), there was usually only one such secretary at a time, but by the end of Henry's reign there was also a second secretary. At about the end of the reign of Henry's daughter Elizabeth I (1558–1603), the secretaries began to be called "Secretary of State". After the Restoration of 1660, the two posts came to be known as the Secretary of State for the Northern Department and the Secretary of State for the Southern Department. Both of the secretaries dealt with internal matters, but they also divided foreign affairs between them. One dealt with northern Europe (the mostly Protestant states) and the other with southern Europe. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the Cabinet took over the practical direction of affairs previously undertaken by the Privy Council, and the two secretaries of state gained ever more responsible powers.[3]

List of officeholdersEdit

Lancaster and YorkEdit

TudorEdit

Date One Two Third
(April 1540) Thomas Wriothesley

Wriothesley was the first secretary to share the office with a colleague.

Sir Ralph Sadler
(23 April 1543 – April 1548) Sir William Paget
(January 1544 – March 1557) Sir William Petre
(17 April 1548 – 15 October 1549) Sir Thomas Smith
(15 October 1549 – 5 September 1550) Nicholas Wotton
(5 September 1550 – July 1553) Sir William Cecil
(June 1553 – July 1553) Sir John Cheke (served as a third Secretary of State)
(July 1553 – April 1558) Sir John Bourne
(March 1557 – November 1558) John Boxall
(sole Secretary - April 1558 – November 1558) John Boxall
(November 1558 – 13 July 1572) Sir William Cecil[4]
(13 July 1572 – March 1576 - sole Secretary until 20 December 1573) Sir Thomas Smith[5]
(20 December 1573[6] – April 1590) Sir Francis Walsingham
(sole Secretary - March 1576-12 November 1577) Sir Francis Walsingham
(12 November 1577 – 16 June 1581) Sir Francis Walsingham Thomas Wilson
(sole Secretary - 16 June 1581-September 1586) Sir Francis Walsingham
(September 1586 – February 1587) Sir Francis Walsingham William Davison
(sole Secretary - February 1587-April 1590) Sir Francis Walsingham
(5 July 1590 – July 1596 - Acting-Secretary[7]) William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (formerly Sir William Cecil)

StuartEdit

Commonwealth & ProtectorateEdit

For the subsequent period see:

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Keen 2004, p. 3.
  2. ^ Keen 2004, p. 32.
  3. ^ Sainty, J. C. (1973). "Introduction". Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2 - Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782. British History Online. University of London. pp. 1–21. At the Restoration [in 1660] the practice of appointing two Secretaries of State, which was well established before the Civil War, was resumed.
  4. ^ Pollard, Albert Frederick (1911). "Burghley, William Cecil, Baron" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 816–817.
  5. ^ Archer, Ian W. "Smith, Sir Thomas (1513–1577)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25906. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ^ Adams, Simon; Bryson, Alan; Leimon, Mitchell. "Walsingham, Sir Francis (c.1532–1590)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28624. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ Croft, Pauline. "Cecil, Robert, first earl of Salisbury (1563–1612)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4980. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ Yorke, Philip Chesney (1911). "Bristol, George Digby, 2nd Earl of" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 576–577.

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit