The 110s decade ran from January 1, 110, to December 31, 119.
- The Forum of Trajan is constructed in Rome, by the Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus.
- The Roman Empire has more than 75,000 kilometers (47,000 mi) of roads.
- Caravans make regular departures from Luoyang with Chinese ginger, cassia (a type of cinnamon), and silk to be bartered in Central Asia for gold, silver, glassware, pottery, cloth, and intaglio gems from Rome.
Art and ScienceEdit
- Suetonius, Roman historian, publishes Viris Illustribus ("On Famous Men" – in the field of literature).
- Indian Emperor Senguttuvan invades the Kushan Empire, and defeats Kanishka and his brother Vijaya at Quilaluvam (near Mathura).
- Emperor Trajan and Titus Sextius Cornelius Africanus become Roman consuls.
- August 29 – Salonina Matidia receives the title of Augusta upon the death of Marciana.
- Publius Cornelius Tacitus becomes governor of the Roman province of Asia.
- Hadrian succeeds Gaius Julius Cassius Steirieus as archon of Athens.
- Tacitus is named proconsul of the Roman province of Asia (112–113).
- Trajan's Column near the Colosseum in Rome is completed to commemorate the Emperor's victory over the Dacians in the Second Dacian War.
- Osroes I of Parthia violates the treaty with Rome by installing a puppet ruler in Armenia. Emperor Trajan marches east, without first attempting to use diplomacy to resolve the disagreement.
- Emperor Trajan sails from Rome to begin his expedition against Parthia. He arrives in Athens where Parthian envoys greets him with olive branches, a sign of peace.
- Trajan declares Armenia to be annexed and it becomes a Roman province.
- Basilica Ulpia is dedicated.
- Last (7th) year of Yongchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
- "Pattini dheivam" worship is inaugurated in Kannagi Temple in the Chera Kingdom in India, by Emperor Cenkuttuvan; the function is attended by GajaBahu, king of Central Sri Lanka (Mahavamso).
- Construction begins on the Arch of Trajan in Benevento.
- The kingdom of Osroene becomes a vassal kingdom of the Roman Empire.
- Emperor Trajan defeats the Parthians and overruns Armenia and northern Mesopotamia.
- A monument to Philopappos, prince-in-exile of old Commagene (a buffer-state between Rome and Parthia) is erected in Athens.
- First year of Yuanchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
- Emperor Trajan is cut off in southern Mesopotamia after his invasion of that region.
- Trajan captures the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon.
- Jews in Egypt and Cyrene ignite a revolt (Kitos War) against the rule of the Roman Empire, which spreads to Cyprus, Judea, and the Roman province of Mesopotamia.
- Alexandria in Egypt is destroyed during the Jewish-Greek civil wars. Marcus Rutilius Lupus, the Roman governor, sends Legio XXII Deiotariana to protect the inhabitants of Memphis.
- A revolt breaks out in Britain; the garrison at Eboracum (York) is massacred.
- The Pantheon of Agrippa is reconstructed in Rome.
- Lusius Quietus, Trajan's governor of Judea, begins a brutal campaign to maintain the peace in the region.
- An earthquake destroys Apamea and Antioch in Syria. The local bishop is held responsible (he will be martyred and remembered as St. Ignatius).
- Pope Sixtus I succeeds Alexander I as the seventh pope of Rome (this according to Catholic biographies).
- Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Babylon, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empire's eastern expansion.
- Trajan makes Syria a province of Rome and crosses the Tigris to annex Adiabene. He proceeds with his army to the Persian Gulf and conquers territory that becomes the province of Parthia.
- Trajan removes Osroes I as king of Parthia, and appoints his son Parthamaspates in his place. Parthamaspates Romanizes his name to Parthicus.
- Trajan sends two expeditionary forces. One, consisting of elements of Legio III Cyrenaica, to suppress the revolt in Judea and the other Legio VII Claudia to restore order on Cyprus.
- Trajan sends laureatae to the Roman Senate on account of his victories and being conqueror of Parthia.
- Quintus Marcius Turbo sails to Alexandria and defeats the Jews in several pitched battles.
- Jewish uprising against Rome fails.
- Trajan subdues a Jewish revolt (the Kitos War), then falls seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east.
- On his death bed, Trajan adopts Hadrian and designates him as his successor.
- August 9 – Emperor Trajan dies of a stroke at Selinus in Cilicia, age 63, while en route from Mesopotamia to Italy, leaving the Roman Empire at its maximal territorial extent.
- Hadrian, who will reign until 138, succeeds him.
- Hadrian, a Spaniard like Trajan, as Emperor inaugurates a policy of retrenchment and cultural integration, giving up the policy of conquest of his predecessor in order to consolidate the empire.
- Hadrian returns large parts of Mesopotamia to the Parthians as part of a peace settlement.
- Construction begins on the Pantheon in Rome.
- The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.
- The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 87 percent under emperor Hadrian, down from 93 percent in the reign of Trajan.
- Trajan's Forum commissioned by the late Emperor Trajan is completed with triumphal arches, columns, a market complex, and an enormous basilica, all of which replace hundreds of dwellings.
- Emperor Hadrian is also a Roman Consul.
- Rome has a population exceeding 1 million, making it the largest city in the world.
- Osroene is returned to native rule by the Roman Empire.
- Plot of the consuls: Hadrian executes four senators, all former consuls, who had been shown to have plotted against him. His relations with the Senate are strained.
- Pantheon, in Rome, starts to be built (approximate date).
- 118–128 – Battle of Centaurs and Wild Beasts, from Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, Italy, is made (approximate date). It may be a copy of a painting done by the late 5th century BC Greek artist Zeuxis. It is now kept at Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Antikensammlung.
- The north-south feud between the Hun Dynasty ends.
- The oldest known painted depiction of a wheelbarrow is found in a Chinese tomb of Chengde, Sichuan province, dated to this year.
- Emperor Hadrian stations Legio VI Victrix in Roman Britain, to assist in quelling the resistance of a local rebellion. The legion is key in securing the victory, and eventually replaces Legio IX Hispana at Eboracum.
- Hadrian also visits Britain in this year at the request of governor of Britain Quintus Pompeius Falco.
- Salonina Matidia (a niece of former Emperor Trajan) dies. Hadrian delivers her funeral oration and grants her a temple in Rome.
- Trajan, Roman Emperor
- Hegesippus of Nazarene, Christian chronicler and writer (d. 180)
- Qiao Xuan (or Gongzu), Chinese official and chancellor (d. 184)
- Adrianus, Greek sophist philosopher (d. 193)
- Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus, Roman senator and philosopher (d. after 176)
- Pausanias, Greek historian and geographer (d. 180)
- Shun of Han, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (d. 144)
- Duan Xi, Chinese Protector General of the Western Regions
- Pacorus II, ruler (King of Kings ) of the Parthian Empire
- Alexander I, bishop of Rome (approximate date)
- Dio Chrysostom, Greek philosopher and historian (b. AD 40)
- March 30 – Quirinus of Neuss, Roman Christian martyr
- Abgar VII, ruler of Osroene (approximate date)
- Ban Zhao, female Chinese historian (b. AD 49)
- Philopappos, prince of Commagene (b. AD 65)
- Zacchaeus of Jerusalem, bishop of Jerusalem
- August 8 – Trajan, Roman emperor (b. AD 53)
- Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, Roman historian (b. AD 56)
- Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus, Roman general in Judea (b. AD 70)
- Hermione of Ephesus, Maurus, Pantalemon and Sergius, Astius and several other Christian martyrs in persecution by Trajan
- August 8 – Primus, patriarch of Alexandria
- Aulus Cornelius Palma, Roman politician
- Bassus of Lucera, Roman bishop and martyr
- Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, Roman politician
- Lucius Publilius Celsus, Roman politician
- Lusius Quietus, Roman general and governor
- Ren Shang, Chinese general of Han Dynasty
- Terentian, Roman bishop and martyr
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Seniority brought him the governorship of the province of Asia as proconsul in 112-13.
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- Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 9781438129181.
- Thompson, Bruce D. (2018). Echoes of Contempt: A History of Judeophobia and the Christian Church. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 9781532655111.
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- "Plutarch | Biography, Works, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 January 2020.