.kp is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). It was created on 24 September 2007.[2]

.kp
Introduced24 September 2007
TLD typeCountry code top-level domain
StatusActive
RegistryStar Joint Venture
SponsorStar Joint Venture (Korea Computer Center until 2011)
Intended useEntities connected with  North Korea
Actual useUsed mainly by the DPRK government
Registered domains38 (As of 14 November 2021)[1][verification needed]
Registration restrictionsMust be a company, organization, or government entity based in the DPRK
StructureNames can be registered directly at the second level, or at the third level within generic second-level domains
Registry websiteRegistry website address published on IANA Delegation Record is no longer accessible
(Archive page)

HistoryEdit

The DPRK applied for the .kp Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) in 2004. ICANN, however, refused because the DPRK did not meet some of the requirements.[specify] Another attempt was later made via the Korea Computer Center (KCC) Europe in 2006. The main body of KCC and the DPRK Ambassador to the United Nations petitioned ICANN again. They were refused again for providing insufficient information. A new application was sent in January 2007, and an ICANN delegation visited the country in May. This time, ICANN finally agreed to assign .kp to the DPRK.[3]

One of the first organizations to adopt a .kp domain was the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) in 2009.[4]

Previously, the .kp domain was managed by the Korea Computer Center (KCC) Europe. A large number of .kp websites were also hosted by KCC Europe in Germany. However, in 2011, management was transferred to the Pyongyang-based Star Joint Venture.[5]

Second-level domainsEdit

Neither the DPRK government agencies nor the central registry have published the second-level domain registration rules. However, according to the using practices shown by the currently existing and accessible DPRK domains and websites, while regarding the worldwide country code second-level domain distribution rules, the second-level domain rules in the DPRK can be interpreted as below.

  • aca.kp : Academic and research institutes
  • com.kp : Generally commercial organizations and sometimes government information agencies as well
  • edu.kp : Institutions of higher education
  • law.kp : Legal firms
  • org.kp : Industrial associations, civil organizations, and public funds
  • gov.kp : Government departments
  • rep.kp : Information agencies of the Workers' Party of Korea
  • net.kp : Internet service providers and email service providers
  • sca.kp : Affiliated institutes under the Ministry of Culture (cf. Cabinet of North Korea)

The following are externally accessible domain name examples of the use of second-level domain names:

  • aca.kp : mirae.aca.kp,
  • com.kp : airkoryo.com.kp, knic.com.kp, friend.com.kp
  • edu.kp : ryongnamsan.edu.kp, kut.edu.kp, gpsh.edu.kp
  • law.kp : fia.law.kp
  • org.kp : cooks.org.kp, koredufund.org.kp, kass.org.kp
  • gov.kp : mfa.gov.kp, moph.gov.kp, tourismdprk.gov.kp
  • rep.kp : rodong.rep.kp, vok.rep.kp, gnu.rep.kp
  • net.kp : [Usually appears as the extension for email addresses published elsewhere on other DPRK websites: e.g. @star-co.net.kp]
  • sca.kp : korart.sca.kp

Existing and externally accessible domain listEdit

As of 2017, at least nine .kp top level domains[6] and more than 30 domains are accessible to the global Internet. These are as follows:[7]

Some .kp addresses are used by the North Korean Internet only,[15][16] and some of them are only accessible in the Kwangmyong network, alongside regularly-used 24-bit block IPv4 private addresses.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Coldewey, Devin (20 September 2016). "North Korea accidentally lets slip all its .KP domains — and there aren't many". TechCrunch. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Preliminary Report for Special Meeting of the ICANN Board of Directors". 11 September 2007.
  3. ^ Seliger, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan (2010). The Hermit Kingdom Goes Online: Information Technology, Internet Use and Communication Policy in North Korea. Jefferson: McFarland. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4766-1770-1.
  4. ^ Hoare, James E. (2012). "Korean Central News Agency (KCNA)". Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. London: Scarecrow Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-8108-7987-4.
  5. ^ ".kp domain assigned to Star JV". North Korea Tech. 3 May 2011.
  6. ^ "North Korea's DNS files reveal few Internet websites". North Korea Tech. September 2016.
  7. ^ Bryant, Matthew (21 September 2016). "NorthKoreaDNSLeak". GitHub. TL;DR Project. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  8. ^ Williams, Martyn (13 September 2017). "North Korean cultural websites". North Korea Tech. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  9. ^ Williams, Martyn (30 December 2020). "North Korean stamps website appears". North Korea Tech.
  10. ^ Williams, Martyn (9 August 2018). "Kim Chaek University of Technology launches Internet web site". North Korea Tech. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  11. ^ Williams, Martyn (27 September 2018). "Manmusang website appears on the Internet". North Korea Tech. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  12. ^ Williams, Martyn (13 September 2017). "North Korean government and NGO websites". North Korea Tech. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  13. ^ Williams, Martyn (14 September 2017). "The Pyongyang Times has a new address". North Korea Tech. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  14. ^ Williams, Martyn (19 July 2017). "North Korea's tourism agency is online". North Korea Tech. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  15. ^ Kyungmin Ko; Seungkwon Jang; Heejin Lee (2008). ".kp North Korea". Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2007/2008. IDRC. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-7619-3674-9.
  16. ^ Chen, Cheng; Ko, Kyungmin; Lee, Ji-Yong (18 November 2010). "North Korea's Internet strategy and its political implications". The Pacific Review. 23 (5): 649–670. doi:10.1080/09512748.2010.522249. ISSN 0951-2748.

External linksEdit