In German orthography, the letter ß, called Eszett (IPA: [ɛsˈtsɛt]) or scharfes S (IPA: [ˌʃaʁfəs ˈʔɛs], lit. "sharp S"), represents the /s/ phoneme in Standard German when following long vowels and diphthongs. The name Eszett combines the names of the letters of ⟨s⟩ (Es) and ⟨z⟩ (Zett) in German. The character's Unicode names in English are sharp s[1] and eszett.[1] The letter is only used in German, and can be replaced with ⟨ss⟩ if the character is unavailable or capitalized, though a capitalized version does exist officially as of 2017. In the 20th century, it was completely replaced by ⟨ss⟩ in Swiss Standard German (used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein),[2] while it remains part of the orthography of Standard German elsewhere.

ẞ ß
Latin letter eszett.svg
Usage
Writing systemLatin script
TypeAlphabetic
Language of originEarly New High German
Phonetic usage[s]
Unicode codepointU+1E9E, U+00DF
History
Development
M40,Z4
Time period~1300s to present
DescendantsNone
SistersNone
Transliteration equivalentsss, sz
Other
Other letters commonly used withss, sz
Variant forms of Eszett (from top-left to bottom-right): Cambria (2004), Lucida Sans (1985), Theuerdank blackletter (1933, based on a 1517 type), handwritten Kurrent (1865)

The letter originates as the ⟨szdigraph as used in late medieval and early modern German orthography, represented as a ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ (long s) and ⟨ʒ⟩ (tailed z) in blackletter typefaces, yielding ⟨ſʒ⟩.[a] This developed from an earlier usage of ⟨z⟩ in Old and Middle High German to represent a separate sibilant sound from ⟨s⟩; when the difference between the two sounds was lost in the thirteenth century, the two symbols came to be combined as ⟨sz⟩ in some situations.

Traditionally, ⟨ß⟩ did not have a capital form, although some type designers introduced de facto capitalized variants. In 2017, the Council for German Orthography officially adopted a capital, ⟨ẞ⟩, into German orthography, ending a long orthographic debate.[3]

⟨ß⟩ was encoded by ECMA-94 (1985) at position 223 (hexadecimal DF), inherited by Latin-1 and Unicode (U+00DF ß LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S).[4] The HTML entity ß was introduced with HTML 2.0 (1995). The capital (U+1E9E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S) was encoded by ISO 10646 in 2008.

UsageEdit

Current usageEdit

In standard German, three letters or combinations of letters commonly represent [s] (the voiceless alveolar fricative) depending on its position in a word: ⟨s⟩, ⟨ss⟩, and ⟨ß⟩. According to current German orthography, ⟨ß⟩ represents the sound [s]:

  1. when it is written after a diphthong or long vowel and is not followed by another consonant in the word stem: Straße, Maß, groß, heißen [Exceptions: aus and words with final devoicing (e.g., Haus)];[5] and
  2. when a word stem ending with ⟨ß⟩ takes an inflectional ending beginning with a consonant: heißt, größte.[6]

In verbs with roots where the vowel changes length, this means that some forms may be written with ⟨ß⟩, others with ⟨ss⟩: wissen, er weiß, er wusste.[5]

The use of ⟨ß⟩ distinguishes minimal pairs such as reißen (IPA: [ˈʁaɪsn̩], to rip) and reisen (IPA: [ˈʁaɪzn̩], to travel) on the one hand ([s] vs. [z]), and Buße (IPA: [ˈbuːsə], penance) and Busse (IPA: [ˈbʊsə], buses) on the other (long vowel before ⟨ß⟩, short vowel before ⟨ss⟩).[7]: 123 

Some proper names may use ⟨ß⟩ after a short vowel, following the old orthography; this is also true of some words derived from proper names (e.g., Litfaßsäule; advertising column, named after Ernst Litfaß).[8]: 180 

In pre-1996 orthographyEdit

 
Replacement street sign in Aachen, adapted to the 1996 spelling reform (old: Kongreßstraße, new: Kongressstraße)

According to the orthography in use in German prior to the German orthography reform of 1996, ⟨ß⟩ was written to represent [s]:

  1. word internally following a long vowel or diphthong: Straße, reißen; and
  2. at the end of a syllable or before a consonant, so long as [s] is the end of the word stem: muß, faßt, wäßrig.[8]: 176 

In the old orthography, word stems spelled ⟨ss⟩ internally could thus be written ⟨ß⟩ in certain instances, without this reflecting a change in vowel length: küßt (from küssen), faßt (from fassen), verläßlich and Verlaß (from verlassen), kraß (comparative: krasser).[7]: 121–23 [9] In rare occasions, the difference between ⟨ß⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ could help differentiate words: Paßende (expiration of a pass) and passende (appropriate).[8]: 178 

Substitution and all capsEdit

 
Capitalization as SZ on a Bundeswehr crate (ABSCHUSZGERAET for Abschußgerät 'launcher')

If no ⟨ß⟩ is available, ⟨ss⟩ or ⟨sz⟩ is used instead (⟨sz⟩ especially in Hungarian-influenced eastern Austria). Until 2017, there was no official capital form of ⟨ß⟩; a capital form was nevertheless frequently used in advertising and government bureaucratic documents.[10]: 211  In June of that year, the Council for German Orthography officially adopted a rule that ⟨ẞ⟩ would be an option for capitalizing ⟨ß⟩ besides the previous capitalization as ⟨SS⟩ (i.e., variants STRASSE vs. STRAẞE would be accepted as equally valid).[11][12] Prior to this time, it was recommended to render ⟨ß⟩ as ⟨SS⟩ in allcaps except when there was ambiguity, in which case it should be rendered as ⟨SZ⟩. The common example for such a case was IN MASZEN (in Maßen "in moderate amounts") vs. IN MASSEN (in Massen "in massive amounts"), where the difference between the spelling in ⟨ß⟩ vs. ⟨ss⟩ could actually reverse the conveyed meaning.[citation needed]

Switzerland and LiechtensteinEdit

In Swiss Standard German, ⟨ss⟩ usually replaces every ⟨ß⟩. This is officially sanctioned by the reformed German orthography rules, which state in §25 E2: "In der Schweiz kann man immer „ss“ schreiben" ("In Switzerland, one may always write 'ss'"). Liechtenstein follows the same practice. There are very few instances where the difference between spelling ⟨ß⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ affects the meaning of a word, and these can usually be told apart by context.[10]: 230 

Other usesEdit

 
Use of ß (blackletter 'ſz') in Sorbian: wyßokoſcʒi ("highest", now spelled wysokosći). Text of Luke 2:14, in a church in Oßling.
 
Use of ß in Polish language, in 1599 Jakub Wujek Bible, in the word náßéy, which means our, and would be spelled naszej in modern ortography.

Occasionally, ⟨ß⟩ has been used in unusual ways:

HistoryEdit

Origin and developmentEdit

 
Use of Middle High German letter “z” for modern “ß” in the beginning of the Nibelungenlied: "grozer" = "großer".

As a result of the High German consonant shift, Old High German developed a sound generally spelled ⟨zz⟩ or ⟨z⟩ that probably was pronounced [s] and was contrasted with a sound, probably pronounced [⁠ɕ⁠] (voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative) or [ʒ] (voiced postalveolar fricative) and spelled ⟨s⟩.[19] Because ⟨z⟩ could also represent the affricate [ts], some attempts were made to differentiate the sounds by spelling [s] as ⟨zss⟩ or ⟨zs⟩: wazssar (German: Wasser), fuozssi (German: Füße), heizsit (German: heißt).[20] In Middle High German, ⟨zz⟩ simplified to ⟨z⟩ at the end of a word or after a long vowel, but was retained word internally after a short vowel: wazzer (German: Wasser) vs. lâzen (German: lassen) and fuoz (German: Fuß).[21]

 
Use of the late medieval ligature ⟨ſz⟩ in Ulrich Füetrer's Buch der Abenteuer: "uſz" (modern German aus).

In the thirteenth century, the phonetic difference between ⟨z⟩ and ⟨s⟩ was lost at the beginning and end of words in all dialects except for Gottscheerish.[19] Word internally, Old and Middle High German ⟨s⟩ came to be pronounced [z] (the voiced alveolar sibilant), while Old and Middle High German ⟨z⟩ continued to be pronounced [s]. This produces the contrast between modern standard German reisen and reißen. The former is pronounced IPA: [ˈʁaɪzn̩] and comes from Middle High German: reisen, while the latter is pronounced IPA: [ˈʁaɪsn̩] and comes from Middle High German: reizen.[22]

In the late medieval and early modern periods, [s] was frequently spelled ⟨sz⟩ or ⟨ss⟩. The earliest appearance of ligature resembling the modern ⟨ß⟩ is in a fragment of a manuscript of the poem Wolfdietrich from around 1300.[10]: 214 [22] In the Gothic book hands and bastarda scripts of the late medieval period, ⟨sz⟩ is written with long s and the Blackletter "tailed z", as ⟨ſʒ⟩. A recognizable ligature representing the ⟨sz⟩ digraph develops in handwriting in the early 14th century.[23]: 67–76 

 
An early modern printed rhyme by Hans Sachs showing several instances of ß as a clear ligature of ⟨ſz⟩: "groß", "stoß", "Laß", "baß" (= modern "besser"), and "Faß".

By the late 1400s, the choice of spelling between ⟨sz⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ was usually based on the sound's position in the word rather than etymology: ⟨sz⟩ (⟨ſz⟩) tended to be used in word final position: uſz (Middle High German: ûz, German: aus), -nüſz (Middle High German: -nüss(e), German: -nis); ⟨ss⟩ (⟨ſſ⟩) tended to be used when the sound occurred between vowels: groſſes (Middle High German: grôzes, German: großes).[24]: 171  While Martin Luther's early 16th-century printings also contain spellings such as heyße (German: heiße), early modern printers mostly changed these to ⟨ſſ⟩: heiſſe. Around the same time, printers began to systematically distinguish between das (the, that [pronoun]) and daß (that [conjunction]).[24]: 215 

In modern German, the Old and Middle High German ⟨z⟩ is now represented by either ⟨ss⟩, ⟨ß⟩, or, if there are no related forms in which [s] occurs intervocalically, with ⟨s⟩: messen (Middle High German: mezzen), Straße (Middle High German: strâze), and was (Middle High German: waz).[21]

Standardization of useEdit

The pre-1996 German use of ⟨ß⟩ was codified by the eighteenth-century grammarians Johann Christoph Gottsched (1748) and Johann Christoph Adelung (1793) and made official for all German-speaking countries by the German Orthographic Conference of 1901. In this orthography, the use of ⟨ß⟩ was modeled after the use of long and "round"-s in Fraktur. ⟨ß⟩ appeared both word internally after long vowels and also in those positions where Fraktur required the second s to be a "round" or "final" s, namely the ends of syllables or the ends of words.[10]: 217–18  In his Deutsches Wörterbuch (1854) Jacob Grimm called for ⟨ß⟩ or ⟨sz⟩ to be written for all instances of Middle and Old High German etymological ⟨z⟩ (e.g., instead of es from Middle High German: ez); however, his etymological proposal could not overcome established usage.[24]: 269 

In Austria-Hungary prior to the German Orthographic Conference of 1902, an alternative rule formulated by Johann Christian August Heyse in 1829 had been officially taught in the schools since 1879, although this spelling was not widely used. Heyse's rule matches current usage after the German orthography reform of 1996 in that ⟨ß⟩ was only used after long vowels.[10]: 219 

Use in Roman typeEdit

 
The ſs ligature used for Latin in 16th-century printing (utiliſsimæ)
 
Essen with ſs-ligature reads Eßen (Latin Blaeu atlas, text printed in Antiqua, 1650s)
 
French usage as a ligature for ⟨ss⟩ in 1784 from Gallerie des Modes

Although there are early examples in Roman type (called Antiqua in a German context) of a ⟨ſs⟩-ligature that looks like the letter ⟨ß⟩, it was not commonly used for ⟨sz⟩.[25][26] These forms generally fell out of use in the eighteenth century and were used in Italic text only;[23]: 73  German works printed in Roman type in the late 18th and early 19th centuries such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre did not provide any equivalent to the ⟨ß⟩. Jacob Grimm began using ⟨ß⟩ in his Deutsche Grammatik (1819), however it varied with ⟨ſſ⟩ word internally.[23]: 74  Grimm eventually rejected the use of the character; in their Deutsches Wörterbuch (1838), the Brothers Grimm favored writing it as ⟨sz⟩.[26]: 2  The First Orthographic Conference in Berlin (1876) recommended that ß be represented as ⟨ſs⟩ - however, both suggestions were ultimately rejected.[24]: 269 [10]: 222  In 1879, a proposal for various letter forms was published in the Journal für Buchdruckerkunst. A committee of the Typographic Society of Leipzig chose the "Sulzbacher form". In 1903 it was proclaimed as the new standard for the Eszett in Roman type.[26]: 3–5 

Until the abolition of Fraktur in 1941, it was nevertheless common for family names to be written with ⟨ß⟩ in Fraktur and ⟨ss⟩ in Roman type. The formal abolition resulted in inconsistence in how names such as Heuss/Heuß are written in modern German.[8]: 176 

Abolition and attempted abolitionsEdit

The Swiss and Liechtensteiners ceased to use ⟨ß⟩ in the twentieth century. This has been explained variously by the early adoption of Roman type in Switzerland, the use of typewriters in Switzerland that did not include ⟨ß⟩ in favor of French and Italian characters, and peculiarities of Swiss German that cause words spelled with ⟨ß⟩ or ⟨ss⟩ to be pronounced with gemination.[10]: 221–22  The Education Council of Zurich had decided to stop teaching the letter in 1935, whereas the Neue Zürcher Zeitung continued to write ⟨ß⟩ until 1971.[27] Swiss newspapers continued to print in Fraktur until the end of the 1940s, and the abandonment of ß by most newspapers corresponded to them switching to Roman typesetting.[28]

When the Nazi German government abolished the use of blackletter typesetting in 1941, it was originally planned to also abolish the use of ⟨ß⟩. However, Hitler intervened to retain ⟨ß⟩, while deciding against the creation of a capital form.[29] In 1954, a group of reformers in West Germany similarly proposed, among other changes to German spelling, the abolition of ⟨ß⟩; their proposals were publicly opposed by German-language writers Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, and Friedrich Dürrenmatt and were never implemented.[30] Although the German Orthography Reform of 1996 reduced the use of ⟨ß⟩ in standard German, Adrienne Walder writes that an abolition outside of Switzerland appears unlikely.[10]: 235 

Development of a capital formEdit

 
Uppercase ß on a book cover from 1957
 
Logo of Gießener Zeitung [de] ("GIEẞENER ZEITUNG", 2008 design)
 
Street sign with Versal-Eszett ("MÜHLFELDSTRAẞE") in Heiligkreuzsteinach (2011 photograph)

Because ⟨ß⟩ had been treated as a ligature, rather than as a full letter of the German alphabet, it had no capital form in early modern typesetting. There were, however, proposals to introduce capital forms of ⟨ß⟩ for use in allcaps writing (where ⟨ß⟩ would otherwise usually be represented as either ⟨SS⟩ or ⟨SZ⟩). A capital was first seriously proposed in 1879, but did not enter official or widespread use.[31] Historical typefaces offering a capitalized eszett mostly date to the time between 1905 and 1930. The first known typefaces to include capital eszett were produced by the Schelter & Giesecke foundry in Leipzig, in 1905/06. Schelter & Giesecke at the time widely advocated the use of this type, but its use nevertheless remained very limited.

The preface to the 1925 edition of the Duden dictionary expressed the desirability of a separate glyph for capital ⟨ß⟩:

Die Verwendung zweier Buchstaben für einen Laut ist nur ein Notbehelf, der aufhören muss, sobald ein geeigneter Druckbuchstabe für das große ß geschaffen ist.[32]

The use of two letters for a single phoneme is makeshift, to be abandoned as soon as a suitable type for the capital ß has been developed.

The Duden was edited separately in East and West Germany during the 1950s to 1980s. The East German Duden of 1957 (15th ed.) introduced a capital ⟨ß⟩, in its typesetting without revising the rule for capitalization. The 16th edition of 1969 still announced that an uppercase ⟨ß⟩ was in development and would be introduced in the future. The 1984 edition again removed this announcement and simply stated that there is no capital version of ⟨ß⟩.[33]

In the 2000s, there were renewed efforts on the part of certain typographers to introduce a capital, ⟨ẞ⟩. A proposal to include a corresponding character in the Unicode set submitted in 2004[34] was rejected.[35][36] A second proposal submitted in 2007 was successful, and the character was included in Unicode version 5.1.0 in April 2008 (U+1E9E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S).[37] The international standard associated with Unicode (UCS), ISO/IEC 10646, was updated to reflect the addition on 24 June 2008. The capital was finally adopted as an option in standard German orthography in 2017.[12]

RepresentationEdit

Graphical variantsEdit

The recommendation of the Sulzbacher form (1903) was not followed universally in 20th-century printing. There were four distinct variants of ⟨ß⟩ in use in Antiqua fonts:

 
Four forms of Antiqua Eszett: 1. ſs, 2. ſs ligature, 3. ſʒ ligature, 4. Sulzbacher form
  1. ⟨ſs⟩ without ligature, but as a single type, with reduced spacing between the two letters;
  2. the ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ and ⟨s⟩ inherited from the 16th-century Antiqua typefaces;
  3. a ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ and ⟨ʒ⟩, adapting the blackletter ligature to Antiqua; and
  4. the Sulzbacher form.

The first variant (no ligature) has become practically obsolete. Most modern typefaces follow either 2 or 4, with 3 retained in occasional usage, notably in street signs in Bonn and Berlin. The design of modern ⟨ß⟩ tends to follow either the Sulzbacher form, in which ⟨ʒ⟩ (tailed z) is clearly visible, or else be made up of a clear ligature of ⟨ſ⟩ and ⟨s⟩.[26]: 2 

 
Three contemporary handwritten forms of 'ß' demonstrated in the word , "(I/he/she/it) ate"

Use of typographic variants in street signs:

 
Capital ß in a web application

The inclusion of a capital ⟨ẞ⟩ in ISO 10646 in 2008 revived the century-old debate among font designers as to how such a character should be represented. The main difference in the shapes of ⟨ẞ⟩ in contemporary fonts is the depiction with a diagonal straight line vs. a curved line in its upper right part, reminiscent of the ligature of tailed z or of round s, respectively. The code chart published by the Unicode Consortium favours the former possibility,[38] which has been adopted by Unicode capable fonts including Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Courier New, Dejavu Serif, Liberation Sans, Liberation Mono, Linux Libertine and Times New Roman; the second possibility is more rare, adopted by Dejavu Sans. Some fonts adopt a third possibility in representing ⟨ẞ⟩ following the Sulzbacher form of ⟨ß⟩, reminiscent of the Greek ⟨β⟩ (beta); such a shape has been adopted by FreeSans and FreeSerif, Liberation Serif and Verdana.[39]

Keyboards and encodingEdit

 
The ß key (as well as Ä, Ö, and Ü) on a 1964 German typewriter

In Germany and Austria, a 'ß' key is present on computer and typewriter keyboards, normally to the right-hand end on the number row. The German typewriter keyboard layout was defined in DIN 2112, first issued in 1928.[40]

In other countries, the letter is not marked on the keyboard, but a combination of other keys can produce it. Often, the letter is input using a modifier and the 's' key. The details of the keyboard layout depend on the input language and operating system: on some keyboards with US-International (or local 'extended') setting, the symbol is created using AltGrs (or CtrlAlts) in Microsoft Windows, Linux and Chrome OS; in MacOS, one uses ⌥ Options on the US, US-Extended, and UK keyboards. In Windows, one can use Alt+0223. On Linux Composess works, and ComposeSS for uppercase.

Some modern virtual keyboards show ß when the user presses and holds the 's' key.

The HTML entity for ⟨ß⟩ is ß. Its code point in the ISO 8859 character encoding versions 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16 and identically in Unicode is 223, or DF in hexadecimal. In TeX and LaTeX, \ss produces ß. A German language support package for LaTeX exists in which ß is produced by "s (similar to umlauts, which are produced by "a, "o, and "u with this package).[41]

In modern browsers, "ß" will be converted to "SS" when the element containing it is set to uppercase using text-transform: uppercase in Cascading Style Sheets. The JavaScript in Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox will convert "ß" to "SS" when converted to uppercase (e.g., "ß".toUpperCase()).[citation needed]


Character information
Preview ß
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 7838 U+1E9E 223 U+00DF
UTF-8 225 186 158 E1 BA 9E 195 159 C3 9F
Numeric character reference ẞ ẞ ß ß
Named character reference ß
ISO 8859[b] and Windows-125x[c] 223 DF
Mac OS script encodings[d] 167 A7
DOS code page 437,[66] 850[67] 225 E1
EUC-KR[68] / UHC[69] 169 172 A9 AC
GB 18030[70] 129 53 254 50 81 35 FE 32 129 48 137 56 81 30 89 38
EBCDIC 037,[71] 500,[72] 1026[73] 89 59
ISO/IEC 6937 251 FB
Shift JIS-2004[74] 133 116 85 74
EUC-JIS-2004[75] 169 213 A9 D5
KPS 9566-2003[76] 174 223 AE DF
LaTeX[77] [e] \ss

See alsoEdit

  • β – Second letter of the Greek alphabet
  •  – Element used in Chinese Kangxi writing
  • Sz – A digraph of the Latin script

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The IPA symbol ezh (ʒ) is the most similar to the Blackletter z ( ) and is used in this article for convenience despite its technical inaccuracy.
  2. ^ Parts 1,[42]2,[43]3,[44]4,[45]9,[46]10,[47]13,[48]14,[49]15[50] and 16.[51]
  3. ^ Code pages 1250,[52]1252,[53]1254,[54]1257[55] and 1258.[56]
  4. ^ Mac OS Roman,[57]Icelandic,[58]Croatian,[59]Central European,[60]Celtic,[61]Gaelic,[62]Romanian,[63]Greek[64] and Turkish.[65]
  5. ^ The \SS macro exists as the uppercase counterpart of \ss, but displays as a doubled capital S.[77]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Unicode Consortium (2018), "C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement, Range 0080–00FF" (PDF), The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0, retrieved 2018-08-09.
  2. ^ Leitfaden zur deutschen Rechtschreibung ("Guide to German Orthography"), 3rd edition (2007) (in German) from the Swiss Federal Chancellery, retrieved 22-Apr-2012
  3. ^ Ha, Thu-Huong. "Germany has ended a century-long debate over a missing letter in its alphabet". Retrieved 9 August 2017. According to the council’s 2017 spelling manual: When writing the uppercase [of ß], write SS. It’s also possible to use the uppercase ẞ. Example: Straße — STRASSE — STRAẞE.
  4. ^ C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement glossed 'uppercase is "SS" or 1E9E ; typographically the glyph for this character can be based on a ligature of 017F ſ, with either 0073 s or with an old-style glyph for 007A z (the latter similar in appearance to 0292 ʒ). Both forms exist interchangeably today.'
  5. ^ a b "Deutsche Rechschreibung: 2.3 Besonderheiten bei [s] § 25". Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  6. ^ Duden: Die Grammatik (9 ed.). 2016. p. 84.
  7. ^ a b Augst, Gerhard; Stock, Eberhard (1997). "Laut-Buchstaben-Zuordnung". In Augst, Gerhard; et al. (eds.). Zur Neuregelung der deutschen Rechtschreibung: Begründung und Kritik. Max Niemeyer. ISBN 3-484-31179-7.
  8. ^ a b c d Poschenrieder, Thorwald (1997). "S-Schreibung - Überlieferung oder Reform?". In Eroms, Hans-Werner; Munske, Horst Haider (eds.). Die Rechtschreibreform: Pro und Kontra. Erich Schmidt. ISBN 3-50303786-1.
  9. ^ Munske, Horst Haider (2005). Lob der Rechtschreibung: Warum wir schreiben, wie wir schreiben. C. H. Beck. p. 66. ISBN 3-406-52861-9.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Walder, Adrienne (2020). "Das versale Eszett: Ein neuer Buchstabe im deutschen Alphabet". Zeitschrift für Germanitische Linguistik. 48 (2). doi:10.1515/zgl-2020-2001. S2CID 225226660.
  11. ^ 3. Bericht des Rats für deutsche Rechtschreibung 2011–2016 (2016), p. 7.
  12. ^ a b "Deutsche Rechtschreibung Regeln und Wörterverzeichnis: Aktualisierte Fassung des amtlichen Regelwerks entsprechend den Empfehlungen des Rats für deutsche Rechtschreibung 2016" (PDF). §25, E3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-07-06. Retrieved 29 June 2017. E3: Bei Schreibung mit Großbuchstaben schreibt man SS. Daneben ist auch die Verwendung des Großbuchstabens ẞ möglich. Beispiel: Straße – STRASSE – STRAẞE. [When writing in all caps, one writes SS. It is also permitted to write ẞ. Example: Straße – STRASSE – STRAẞE.]
  13. ^ "Code Page (CPGID): 00437". IBM software FTP server. IBM. 1984. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  14. ^ Zinkevičius, Zigmas (1996). The History of the Lithuanian Language. Vilnius: Science and Encyclopedia Publishers. p. 230-236. ISBN 9785420013632.
  15. ^ Black, J.A.; Cunningham, G.; Fluckiger-Hawker, E.; Robson, E.; Zólyomi, G. (1998–2021). "ETCSL display conventions". The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. Oxford University. Retrieved 11 April 2021.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  16. ^ "Skąd się wzięły znaki diakrytyczne?". 2plus3d.pl (in Polish).
  17. ^ "Bon ton Ę-Ą. Aby pismo było polskie". idb.neon24.pl (in Polish).
  18. ^ "Tłumaczenia ksiąg biblijnych na język polski". bibliepolskie.pl (in Polish).
  19. ^ a b Salmons, Joseph (2018). A History of German: What the past reveals about today's language (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-872302-8.
  20. ^ Braune, Wilhelm (2004). Althochdeutsche Grammatik I. Max Niemeyer. p. 152. ISBN 3-484-10861-4.
  21. ^ a b Paul, Hermann (1998). Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik (24 ed.). Max Niemeyer. p. 163. ISBN 3-484-10233-0.
  22. ^ a b Penzl, Herbert (1968). "Die mittelhochdeutschen Sibilanten und ihre Weiterentwicklung". Word. 24 (1–3): 344, 348. doi:10.1080/00437956.1968.11435536.
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