Opisthosporidia

  (Redirected from Zoosporia)

Opisthosporidia is a superphylum of intracellular parasites with amoeboid vegetative stage, defined as a common group of eukaryotic groups Microsporidia, Cryptomycota (also known as Rozellida, Rozellomycota, or Rozellosporidia) and Aphelidea.[1] They have been considered to represent a monophyletic lineage with shared ecological and structural features, being a sister clade of the Fungi.[1][2] Together with the Fungi they represent a sister clade of the Cristidiscoidea, together forming the Holomycota.

Opisthosporidia
Sporoblast of "Fibrillanosema crangonycis" (Microsporidian)
Sporoblast of Fibrillanosema crangonycis (Microsporidian)
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Amorphea
(unranked): Obazoa
(unranked): Opisthokonta
(unranked): Holomycota
(unranked): Zoosporia
(unranked): Opisthosporidia
Karpov et al., 2014[1]
Groups

Several other basal groups of the freshwater, marine and soil-inhabiting Holomycota were identified in recent studies, as the 'basal clone group 1' (BCG1=NCLC1), 'basal clone group 2' (BCG2), 'basal marine group' (NAMAKO-37), 'basal group GS01', the inner relationships of Opisthosporidia were clarified and their monophyly questioned: Cryptomycota and Microsporidia were proposed to join the phylum Rozellomycota, while Aphelidea were considered as a separate, though related phylum and all these groups were considered basal lineages of the kingdom Fungi.[3][4][2][5]

Instead of probably paraphyletic Opisthosporidia, the phylla Rozellomycota and Aphelidiomycota (or monotypic subkingdoms Rozellomyceta and Aphelidiomyceta) are recently applied in some taxonomical systems of the kingdom Fungi for the basal lineages, and the other fungal lineages are grouped into a clade of True Fungi (Eumycota).[6] However, the taking up of the name Rozellomycota in such a broad sense can be considered premature, especially as the structure and biological features of a larger part of these organisms are unclear as they are known only from environmental sequences. The borders between Fungi and Protista are therefore unstable and final delimitation of taxa is problematic due to poor coverage of molecular data for the representatives of the basal groups.[6]

Opisthokonts
Holomycota
Cristidiscoidea

Fonticulida

Nucleariida Nuclearia sp Nikko.jpg

Fungi

BCG2 + GS01

BCG1

Rozellomyceta

Namako-37

Microsporidia

Chytridiopsidea

Metchnikovellea

Opisthosporidia

Microsporea Fibrillanosema spore.jpg

Cryptomycota = Rozellosporidia Rozella allomycis2.jpg

Aphelidiomyceta

Aphelida

True Fungi Asco1013.jpg

Holozoa

Ichthyosporea Abeoforma whisleri-2.jpg

Pluriformea

Corallochytrium Corallochytrium limacisporum.png

Syssomonas

Filozoa

Filasterea Ministeria vibrans.jpeg

Choanozoa

Choanoflagellatea Desmarella moniliformis.jpg

Animalia Comb jelly.jpg

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Karpov, Sergey; Mamkaeva, Maria A.; Aleoshin, Vladimir; Nassonova, Elena; Lilje, Osu; Gleason, Frank H. (2014-01-01). "Morphology, phylogeny, and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum Opisthosporidia". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 112. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112. PMC 3975115. PMID 24734027.
  2. ^ a b Torruella, Guifre; Grau-Bove, Xavier; Moreira, David; Karpov, Sergey A.; Burns, John; Sebe-Pedros, Arnau; Volcker, Eckhard; Lopez-Garcia, Purificacion (2018-05-25). "The transcriptome of Paraphelidium tribonemae illuminates the ancestry of Fungi and Opisthosporidia". bioRxiv: 233882. doi:10.1101/233882.
  3. ^ Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Puusepp, Rasmus; Nilsson, R.Henrik; James, Timothy Y. (2017). "Novel soil-inhabiting clades fill gaps in the fungal tree of life". Microbiome. 5 (42). doi:10.1186/s40168-017-0259-5. ISSN 2049-2618.
  4. ^ Tedersoo, Leho; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Kõljalg, Urmas; Bahram, Mohammad; Döring, Markus; Schigel, Dmitry; May, Tom; Ryberg, Martin; Abarenkov, Kessy (2018). "High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses". Fungal Diversity. 90 (1): 135–159. doi:10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0. ISSN 1560-2745.
  5. ^ Bass, David; Czech, Lucas; Williams, Bryony A. P.; Berney, Cédric; Dunthorn, Micah; Mahé, Frederic; Torruella, Guifré; Stentiford, Grant D.; Williams, Tom A. (2018-04-28). "Clarifying the Relationships between Microsporidia and Cryptomycota". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 65 (6): 773–782. doi:10.1111/jeu.12519. ISSN 1066-5234. PMC 6282948. PMID 29603494.
  6. ^ a b Wijayawardene, NN; Hyde, KD; Al-Ani, LKT; Tedersoo, L; Haelewaters, D; Rajeshkumar, KC; Zhao, RL (18 March 2020). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa". Mycosphere. 11 (1: 8): 1060–1456. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8. ISSN 2077-7019.