Ying (state)

Ying (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Yīng) was a minor kingdom in eastern China that existed from circa 1030 BCE to 646 BCE. Sometime after its establishment it became a vassal state of the Western Zhou, which extended into the Spring and Autumn period. Ying briefly became a vassal state of Chu in the early-600s BCE, but was annexed by the Chu in 646 BCE. Ying was in modern-day Pingdingshan, Henan province, where many artifacts from the state have been unearthed.[1]

State of Ying

c.1030 BCE–646 BCE
Ying 應 is located to the north of Chu and southeast of Zhou; it is not to be confused with Ying 英, a different state to the east of Chu.
Ying 應 is located to the north of Chu and southeast of Zhou; it is not to be confused with Ying 英, a different state to the east of Chu.
StatusVassal state
CapitalPingdingshan
Common languagesOld Chinese
Religion
Chinese folk religion
Ancestor veneration
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraZhou dynasty
• Established
c.1030 BCE
• Conquered by Chu
646 BCE
Today part ofChina

HistoryEdit

The state of Ying was founded around 1030 BCE by Ying Hou, a younger brother of King Cheng of Zhou.[2]:312

Partial list of rulersEdit

(Unknown intermediary king[s])

  • Ying Ligong (or Xigong, 應釐公)[4]

(Unknown intermediary king[s])

  • Ying Houcheng (應侯爯)[4]

(Unknown later king[s])

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Shaughnessy, Edward L. (2001). "New Sources of Western Zhou History: Recent Discoveries of Inscribed Bronze Vessels". Early China. 26/27: 73–98. doi:10.1017/S0362502800007240. ISSN 0362-5028. JSTOR 23354199.
  2. ^ Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999-03-13). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521470308.
  3. ^ Wang, Longzheng (2009). "新见应侯见工簋铭文考释" [Explanation of the New Discoveries of Ying Hou Xiangong's gui Inscription]. Central Plains Historical Relics (in Chinese). 5: 54–58 – via Ai Xueshu.
  4. ^ a b "应侯簋考释" [Examination of Ying Hou's gui Inscription]. Cultural Sinology Reports (in Chinese). 15: 1–5 – via Baidu.

Further readingEdit

  • Liu, Yuan (Spring 2005). "读《西周封国考疑》" [Commentary on Verifying Western Zhou Vassals]. Chinese Historical Research Trends (in Chinese): 28–29
  • Ying, Weiqiang 古应国文明史 [Ancient History of the Ying Civilization]. (in Chinese)