Yelnya, Yelninsky District, Smolensk Oblast

Yelnya (Russian: Е́льня) is a town and the administrative center of Yelninsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Desna River, 82 kilometers (51 mi) from Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast. The population was 10,095 (2010 Census);[3] 10,798 (2002 Census);[9] 9,868 (1989 Census).[10]

Yelnya
Ельня
A street in Yelnya
A street in Yelnya
Flag of Yelnya
Coat of arms of Yelnya
Location of Yelnya
Yelnya is located in Russia
Yelnya
Yelnya
Location of Yelnya
Yelnya is located in Smolensk Oblast
Yelnya
Yelnya
Yelnya (Smolensk Oblast)
Coordinates: 54°35′N 33°11′E / 54.583°N 33.183°E / 54.583; 33.183Coordinates: 54°35′N 33°11′E / 54.583°N 33.183°E / 54.583; 33.183
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSmolensk Oblast[1]
Administrative districtYelninsky District[1]
Urban settlementYelninskoye[1]
First mentioned1150[2]
Town status since1776
Area
 • Total97.94 km2 (37.81 sq mi)
Elevation
230 m (750 ft)
Population
 • Total10,095
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
8,993 (−10.9%)
 • Density100/km2 (270/sq mi)
 • Capital ofYelninsky District[1], Yelninskoye Urban Settlement[1]
 • Municipal districtYelninsky Municipal District[5]
 • Urban settlementYelninskoye Urban Settlement[5]
 • Capital ofYelninsky Municipal District[5], Yelninskoye Urban Settlement[6]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
216330
Dialing code(s)+7 48146
OKTMO ID66619101001

EtymologyEdit

Yelnya's name is likely related to the Russian word "ель"('yel', lit. fir tree) or "елань" (yelan', lit. land cleared from forest).[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

It was first mentioned in the historical documents in 1150[2] when according to the order of knyaz Rostislav of Smolensk it was to pay a tax of four grivnas and a fox skin.[citation needed]

The settlement shared the history of the Smolensk lands—it paid duty to the Golden Horde, then was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was returned to Russia with the rest of the Smolensk Voivodeship at the close of the Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667. In 1776, it was granted town status and became the seat of an uyezd.[2]

 
1780 coat of arms of Yelnya

In 1812, during the French invasion of Russia, Yelnya became an important center of the partisan movement. During the counter-offensive campaign, Mikhail Kutuzov's headquarters were located here.

In October 1928, Yelninsky Uyezd was abolished and split between Smolensky, Roslavlsky, and Vyazemsky Uyezds.[11] On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and Yelninsky District with the administrative center in Yelnya was established. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On 27 September 1937 Western Oblast was abolished and split between Oryol and Smolensk Oblasts. Yelninsky District was transferred to Smolensk Oblast.[12]

During World War II, Yelnya was a place of several important battles. On 30 August 1941, it became the place of the Yelnya Offensive, the first successful offensive operation of Soviet troops in the Great Patriotic War, although they suffered heavy losses taking the town. In 1942, Yelninsky District became a part of the so-called "Dorogobuzh Partisan Krai". The German garrison in the town was not able to control the rural territories which were effectively under the partisan control. In March 1942, partisans even liberated the town, killing more than a thousand German troops, but in three days on March 18, 1942 they were forced to retreat back to the forests.

289 Jews used to live in Yelnya in 1939 but in March 1942, 230 Jews were shot by German units in a mass execution.[13]

In August 1943, Yelnya played the key part in the Battle of Smolensk. On August 30, Germans were forced to abandon Yelnya, sustaining heavy casualties. This started a full-scale German retreat from the area. By September 3, Soviet forces reached the eastern shore of the Dnieper.

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Yelnya serves as the administrative center of Yelninsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated within Yelninsky District as Yelninskoye Urban Settlement.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban settlement status and is a part of Yelninsky Municipal District.[5]

EconomyEdit

IndustryEdit

The town has a cheese factory, a large bakery, a brick factory, and a few sawmills.[14]

TransportationEdit

Yelnya railway station is on the railway connecting Smolensk and Sukhinichi via Spas-Demensk. There is infrequent passenger navigation.

Yelnya is connected by roads with Safonovo (where it has access to the M1 highway connecting Moscow and Smolensk), with Pochinok, and with Roslavl.

Culture and recreationEdit

There is a local museum in Yelnya.[15]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #261
  2. ^ a b c Историческая справка (in Russian). Yelninsky District administration. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Law #108-z
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Федеральное агентство по технологическому регулированию и метрологии. №ОК 033-2013 1 января 2014 г. «Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований. Код 66 619 101». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 66 619 101. ).
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Москалев, О.Л. История системы образования (in Russian). Museum of History of Education of Smolensk Oblast. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  12. ^ Борис Парфенов; Ольга Хоренженкова. К истории формирования Смоленской области (in Russian). Смоленск. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  13. ^ "Yahad - in Unum".
  14. ^ Предприятия и организации (in Russian). Yelninsky District Administration. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  15. ^ Туризм (in Russian). Yelninsky District administration. Retrieved June 5, 2018.

SourcesEdit

  • Администрация Смоленской области. Постановление №261 от 30 апреля 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №464 от 27 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Administration of Smolensk Oblast. Resolution #261 of April 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #464 of June 27, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast. ).
  • Смоленская областная Дума. Закон №108-з от 20 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Ельнинский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом», в ред. Закона №108-з от 23 ноября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Ельнинский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области", №13, часть II, стр. 144, 22 декабря 2004 г. (Smolensk Oblast Duma. Law #108-z of December 20, 2004 On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Yelninsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations the Territories of Which It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status, as amended by the Law #108-z of November 23, 2011 On Amending the Oblast Law "On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Yelninsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations the Territories of Which It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status". Effective as of the official publication date.).

External linksEdit