Xionites, Chionites, or Chionitae (Middle Persian: Xiyōn or Hiyōn; Avestan: Xiiaona; Sogdian xwn; Pahlavi Xyon) are Romanisations of the ethnonym of a nomadic people who were prominent in Transoxania, Bactria and Iran during the 4th and 7th centuries CE.
The Xionites appear to be synonymous with the Huna peoples of classical/medieval India, and possibly also the Huns of European late antiquity. It is unclear whether the Xionites were connected to a people named in Ancient China as the Xunyu (Hünyü 獯鬻; Wade–Giles Hsünyü), Xianyun 猃狁 (Wade–Giles Hsien-yün) and Xiongnu (匈奴 Wade–Giles Hsiung-nu). (While some sources use names such as Hunas, Huns and Xiongnu interchangeably, this remains controversial.)
They were first described by the Roman historian, Ammianus Marcellinus, who was in Bactria during 356-57 CE; he described the Chionitæ as living with the Kushans. Ammianus indicates that the Xionites had previously lived in Transoxiana and, after entering Bactria, became vassals of the Kushans, were influenced culturally by them and had adopted the Bactrian language. They had attacked the Sassanid Empire, but later (led by a chief named Grumbates), served as mercenaries in the Sassanian army.
Within the Xionites, there seem to have been two main subgroups, which were known in the Iranian languages by names such as Karmir Xyon and Spet Xyon. The prefixes karmir ("red") and speta ("white") likely refer to Central Asian traditions in which particular colours symbolised the cardinal points. The Karmir Xyon were known in European sources as the Kermichiones or "Red Huns", and some scholars have identified them with the Kidarites and/or Alchon. The Spet Xyon or "White Huns" appear to have been the known in India by the cognate name Sveta-huna, and are often identified, controversially, with the Hephtalites.
Origins and cultureEdit
The original culture of the Xionites and their geographical urheimat are uncertain. They appear to have originally followed animist religious beliefs, which mixed later with varieties of Buddhism and Shaivism. It is difficult to determine their ethnic composition.
Ancient Greek and Roman sources, such as Simocatta, Menander and Priscus, appear to distinguish between the Xionites and the Hephthalites. However, some modern scholars, such as Richard Nelson Frye (1991), believe that the Hepthalites were a prominent subgroup of Xionites.
The theory that the Xionites were a proto-Turkic or para-Turkic people was expressed by Sir Harold Walter Bailey (1932). Bailey wrote that the "Xyon" mentioned in "Pahlavi and Avestan texts... would appear to be... an enemy of the Iranian people in Avestan times, transferred later to the Huns owing to similarity of sound, as Tur was adapted to Turk in Pahlavi". Bailey suggested that "three divisions" of the "Xyon ... seem to be recognized", namely "the Turks, the Karmir (Red) Xyon, and the White Xyon."
Differences between the Xionites, the Huns who invaded Europe in the 4th century, and the Turks were emphasised by Carlile Aylmer Macartney (1944), who suggested that the name "Chyon", originally that of an unrelated people, was "transferred later to the Huns owing to the similarity of sound". The Chyon who appeared in the 4th century, in the steppes on the northeastern frontier of Persia were probably a branch of the Huns that appeared shortly afterwards in Europe. The Huns appear to have attacked and conquered the Alans, then living between the Urals and the Volga about 360 AD, and the first mention of the Chyon was in 356 AD. Macartney also considered that the name Chyon was later "replaced by that of the... Kidarite Huns". (However, he also claimed, erroneously, that "the Kidarites were... identical with the Kushan", when the Kushan Empire had been destroyed by the Xionites and/or Hunas in the mid-4th Century.) Macartney also considered the question of the identity of the Karmir Xyon or Kermichiones, saying that that they could not have been "the true Turks" (the Gokturks, who appear to have entered history on the western steppe, when "their embassy reached Constantinople... in 568". Macartney adds that the Khagan of the Turks at the time was Silzabul, Dizabul or Istämi, but the ruler of the Karmir Xyon was Askílt (Aσκήλτ, often romanised as Scultor). "Neither can they have been the Juan Juan [Rouran]... nor the Epthalites [Hephthalites], who were well known to the Byzantines and would not have been described in this way. Moreover, the Epthalites were [sometimes] known as White Huns, and... Karmir Xyon, meaning Red Chyon, occurs in a Pahlavi text in juxtaposition with Spet Xyon, White Chyon".
At least some Turkic tribes were involved in the formation of the Xionites, despite their later character as an Eastern Iranian people, according to Richard Nelson Frye (1991): "Just as later nomadic empires were confederations of many peoples, we may tentatively propose that the ruling groups of these invaders were, or at least included, Turkic-speaking tribesmen from the east and north, although most probably the bulk of the people in the confederation of Chionites... spoke an Iranian language.... This was the last time in the history of Central Asia that Iranian-speaking nomads played any role; hereafter all nomads would speak Turkic languages".
The proposition that the Xionites probably originated as an Iranian tribe was put forward by Wolfgang Felix in Encyclopedia Iranica (1992).
The Xionites may have originated as a confederation of Proto-Turkic and/or Proto-Mongolian tribes that collectively adopted Eastern Iranian languages and cultural practices, according to Peter B. Golden (2005).
The defeat of the Xiongnu in 89 CE by Chinese forces at the Battle of Ikh Bayan and subsequent Chinese campaigns against them, led by Ban Chao may have been a factor in the ethnogenesis of the Xionites and their migration into Central Asia.
Xionite tribes reportedly organised themselves into four main hordes: "Black" or northern (beyond the Jaxartes), "Blue" or eastern (in Tianshan), "White" or western (possibly the Hephthalites), around Khiva, and the "Red" or southern (Kidarites and/or Alchon), south of the Oxus. Artefacts found from the area they inhabited dating from their period indicate their totem animal seems to have been the (rein)deer. An inscription on the walls of the royal palace in Persepolis about Darius's empire calls them Hunae.
The Xionites are best documented in southern Central Asia from the late 4th century AD until the mid-5th century AD.
Sometime between 194 and 214, according to the Armenian historian Moses of Khorene (5th century), Hunni (probably the Kidarites) captured the city of Balkh (Armenian name: Kush) . According to Armenian sources, Balkh became the capital of the Hunni.
Clashes with the SasaniansEdit
Early confrontations between the Sasanian Empire of Shapur II with the Xionites were described by Ammianus Marcellinus: he reports that in 356 CE, Shapur II was taking his winter quarters on his eastern borders, "repelling the hostilities of the bordering tribes" of the Xionites and the Euseni, a name often amended to Cuseni (meaning the Kushans).
Shapur made a treaty of alliance with the Chionites and the Gelani in 358 CE.
At the end of the 5th century the Alchon invaded North India where they were known as the Huna. In India the Alchon were not distinguished from their immediate Hephthalite predecessors, and both are known as Sveta-Hunas there. Perhaps complimenting this term, Procopius (527-565) wrote that they were white skinned, had an organized kingship, and that their life was not wild/nomadic and they lived in cities.
The Alchon were noted for their distinctive coins, minted in Bactria in the 5th and 6th centuries. The name Khigi, inscribed in Bactrian script on one of the coins, and Narendra on another, have led some scholars[who?] to believe that the Hephthalite kings Khingila and Narana were of the AlChoNo tribe.[vague] They imitated the earlier style of their Hephthalite predecessors, the Kidarite Hun successors to the Kushans. In particular the Alchon style imitates the coins of Kidarite Varhran I (syn. Kushan Varhran IV).
The earliest coins of the Alchon have several distinctive features: 1) the king’s head is presented in an elongated form to reflect the Alchon practice of head binding; 2) The characteristic bull/lunar tamgha of the Alchon is represented on the obverse of the coins.
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Although the power of the Huna in Bactria was shattered in the 560s by a combination of Sassanid and proto-Turkic forces, the last Hephthalite king Narana/Narendra managed to maintain some kind of rule between 570 and 600 AD over the nspk, napki or Nezak tribes that remained.
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Identity of the Karmir Xyon and White XyonEdit
H. W. Bailey argues that the Pahlavi name Xyon may be read as the Indian Huna owing to the similarity of sound.In the Avestan tradition (Yts. 9.30-31, 19.87) the Xiiaona were characterized as enemies of Vishtaspa, the patron of Zoroaster.
In the later Pahlavi tradition, the Karmir Xyon ("Red Xyon") and Spet Xyon ("White Xyon") are mentioned. The Red Xyon of the Pahlavi tradition (7th century) have been identified by Bailey as the Kermichiones or Ermechiones.
According to Bailey, the Hara Huna of Indian sources are to be identified with the Karmir Xyon of the Avesta. Similarly he identifies the Sveta Huna of Indian sources with the Spet Xyon of the Avesta. While the Hephthalite are not mentioned in Indian sources, they are sometimes also linked to the Spet Xyon (and therefore possibly to the Sveta Huna).
More controversially, the names Karmir Xyon and Spet Xyon are often rendered as "Red Huns" and "White Huns", reflecting speculation that the Xyon were linked to Huns recorded simultaneously in Europe.
- Felix, Wolfgang. "CHIONITES". Encyclopædia Iranica Online Edition. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- Hyun Jin Kim, 2013, The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe, Cambridge UK/New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 5, 36–38.
- Original reports on the "Chionitae" by Ammianus Marcellinus:
Mention with the Euseni/ Cuseni : 16.9.4.
Mention with the Gelani: 17.5.1.
Mention with Shapur II: 18.7.21
Mention at the siege of Amida: 19.2.3 and 19.1.7-19.2.1
- Shapur Shahbazi, A. "SASANIAN DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica Online Edition. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- British Museum notice
- Richard Nelson Frye; "Emperor Ardeshir and the cycle of history"
- Harold Walter Bailey, Iranian Studies, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. BSOAS, vol. 6, No. 4 (1932)
- Macartney, C. A. (1944). "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies. 11 (2): 266–75. ISSN 1474-0699. JSTOR 609313 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
- Richard Nelson Frye, "Pre-Islamic and early Islamic cultures in Central Asia" in "Turko-Persia in historical perspective", edited by Robert L. Canfield, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 49.
- Peter B. Golden, 2005 "Turks and Iranians: a cultural sketch", in: Lars Johanson and Christiane Bulut (ed.), Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects, Turcologica 62, Wiesbaden, p. 19.
- CNG Coins
- Nomads of the Steppe Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Scheers, Simone; Quaegebeur, Jan (1982). Studia Paulo Naster Oblata: Orientalia antiqua (in French). Peeters Publishers. p. 55. ISBN 9789070192105.
- Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman History. London: Bohn (1862) XVI-IX
- Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman History. London: Bohn (1862) XVII-V
- The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.286
- Notes on the Evolution of Alchon Coins, Pankaj Tandon, http://coinindia.com/Alchon.pdf
- "BAHMAN YAŠT" in Encyclopædia Iranica by W. Sundermann
- (Bailey, 1954, pp.12-16; 1932, p. 945),