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Vortex86DX

The Vortex86 is a computing system-on-a-chip (SoC) based on a core compatible with the x86 microprocessor family. It is produced by DM&P Electronics, but originated with Rise Technology.

Contents

VersionsEdit

Vortex86 originalEdit

SiS55x/Rise mP6 or simply Vortex86 – developed by SiS, three integer and MMX pipelines, branch prediction [1]

Vortex86SXEdit

300 MHz, 16 KB Data + 16 KB Instruction L1 cache, no FPU, no L2 cache. Can use both SD and DDR2 RAM [2]

Vortex86DXEdit

600 MHz to 1 GHz (2.02 W @ 800 MHz [3]), 16 KB Data + 16 KB Instruction L1 cache, FPU, 256 KB L2 cache, 6-staged pipeline. Can address up to 1 GiB DDR2 RAM[4][5] The PDX-600 is a version of the Vortex86DX that only differs in the number of RS-232 ports (3 instead of 5) and has no I²C and servo controllers, thus targeting more the embedded than the industrial market. Netbooks similar to the Belco 450R use this chip.[6]

The package is a single 581-pin BGA package.

Vortex86MXEdit

1 GHz, the CPU core itself hardly differs from the Vortex86DX, but according to several sources, the processor does appear to have implemented SIMD multi-media instructions (MMX).[7][8][9] This version drops conformance to ISA and integrates a GPU and a HD Audio controller, it also integrates a UDMA/100 IDE controller. The consumer grade version is known as the PMX-1000.[10] Current models of the Gecko Edubook use the Xcore86, a rebadge of the Vortex86MX.[10]

Vortex86MX+Edit

This has a 32KB write through 2-way L1 cache, 256KB write through/write back 4-way L2 cache, PCI rev. 2.1 32-bit bus interface at 33 MHz, DDR2, ROM controller, IPC (Internal Peripheral Controllers with DMA and interrupt timer/counter included), Fast Ethernet, FIFO UART, USB2.0 Host and ATA controller. The MX+ Adds a VGA controller on chip with shared memory.

The package is a single 720-pin BGA package.

Vortex86DX2Edit

This has a 32KB write through 4-way L1 cache (16K Instruction + 16K Data), 256KB write through/write back 4-way L2 cache, PCI rev. 2.1 32-bit bus interface at 33 MHz, DDR2, ROM controller, IPC (Internal Peripheral Controllers with DMA and interrupt timer/counter included), VGA, 100 Mbps ethernet, FIFO UART, USB2.0 Host and ATA controller. Enhancements over the DX include more COM ports (9), 2GB of RAM, and an HD Audio codec, as well as more GPIO pins.

The package is a single 720-pin BGA package.

Vortex86EXEdit

This has a 32KB write through 2-way L1 cache, 128KB write through/write back 2-way L2 cache, PCI-e bus interface, 300 MHz DDR3, ROM controller, IPC (Internal Peripheral Controllers with DMA and interrupt timer/counter included), Fast Ethernet, FIFO UART, USB2.0 Host and ATA controller.

The package is a single 288-pin TFBGA-package.

Vortex86DX3Edit

Dual-core 1.0GHz CPU which is the only i686-compatible Vortex86[11]. This has an 8 way 32K I-Cache, 8-way 32K D-Cache, 4-way 512KB L2 Cache with write through or write back policy, up to 2GB of DDR3 RAM, PCI-e bus interface, 100 Mbps Ethernet, FIFO UART, USB2.0 Host, ATA controller that has IDE controller, PATA 100 (2x HDD) or 2x SD at Primary Channel and SATA 1.5Gbit/s (1 Port) at Secondary Channel.

The package is a single 720-pin BGA-package.

[12]

Vortex86EX2Edit

EX2 model has two asymmetrical master/slave CPU cores[13]. The master core runs at 600MHz, has 16K I-Cache, 16K D-Cache, and 4-way 128KB L2 cache with write through or write back policy. The slave one operates at 400 MHz and also has 16KB I-Cache, 16KB D-Cache, but has no L2 cache. Both have built-in FPU. Maximum DDR3 RAM capacity is 2GB. It is produced using the 65nm manufacturing process[14] and uses the 19x19mm LFBGA-441 package.

CPUEdit

Vortex86 CPUs implement the i586 architecture. But the early versions of Vortex86 original and Vortex86SX do not have a floating point unit (FPU). Any code that runs on an i486SX CPU without a 487 will run on Vortex86, as will any code that runs on i586 but does not use floating point instructions. Any i586 code will run on Vortex86DX and later. Some Linux kernels (by build-time option) emulate the FPU on any CPU that is missing one, so a program that uses i586-level floating point instructions will work on any Vortex86 family CPU under such a kernel, albeit more slowly on a model with no FPU.

The more advanced models have FPUs that have i686-level instructions, such as fucomi.

Code intended for i686 may fail because the CPU lacks a Conditional Move (CMOV) instruction. This is an instruction that combines the effect of a conditional branch and a move instruction. Compilers asked to optimize code for a more advanced CPU (for example the GNU Compiler with its -march=i686 option) generate code that uses CMOV. Linux systems intended to run on i686 are generally not runnable on Vortex86 because the GNU C Library, when built for i686, uses a CMOV instruction in its assembly language strcmp function, which its dynamic loader (ld.so) uses. Hence, no program that uses shared libraries can even start up.

Technically, CMOV is optional in the i686 architecture. But Intel's i686 product, the Pentium Pro, had it, and consequently things that generate code typically consider CMOV to be available when you ask them to generate code for i686.

Products that use Vortex86DX3 can run Fedora 17 (i686) Live CD successfully, unlike some products that use other versions of Vortex86, and this implies that Vortex86DX3 implements more i686 features than others.[15]

Here is what the Linux kernel reports (via /proc/cpuinfo) about the properties of a Vortex86 original CPU. Note that this is a later version with an FPU.

processor       : 0
vendor_id       : SiS SiS SiS
cpu family      : 5
model           : 0
model name      : 05/00
stepping        : 5
cpu MHz         : 199.978
fdiv_bug        : no
hlt_bug         : no
f00f_bug        : no
coma_bug        : no
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 1
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu tsc cx8 mmx up
bogomips        : 399.95
clflush size    : 32
cache_alignment : 32
address sizes   : 32 bits physical, 32 bits virtual
power management:

Compatible ComponentsEdit

DM&P provides an embedded Linux distribution customized to use the SoCs features.[16]

NetBSD/i386 is able to boot on at least the DX3.[17]

HistoryEdit

Vortex86 previously belonged to SiS, which got the basic design from Rise Technology.[18] SiS sold it to DM&P Electronics[19] in Taiwan.

Before adopting the Vortex86 series, DM&P manufactured the M6117D, an Intel 386SX compatible, 25–40 MHz SoC.[20][21]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vortex86 Data Sheet[dead link]
  2. ^ Vortex86SX Data Sheet (archived copy)
  3. ^ Vortex86DX overview (archived copy)
  4. ^ Vortex86DX documentation
  5. ^ Vortex86DX Data Sheet
  6. ^ engadget - "The world's cheapest laptop"
  7. ^ Thomas, Alexander (November 2012). "BTplug Review". Dr. Lex' Site. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
  8. ^ Kauler, Barry (2010-01-16). "Xcore86 CPU in Gecko Edubook". Barry's Blog. Archived from the original on 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-02-13.See blog comments for more information.
  9. ^ LoneRifle (2010-01-22). "CPU Features". Flickr. Retrieved 2015-02-13.
  10. ^ a b Angel, Jonathan (2008-12-11). "X86 system-on-chip adds VGA graphics". LinuxForDevices. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  11. ^ Vortex86DX Linux Support list
  12. ^ http://www.cnx-software.com/2015/04/09/vortex86dx3-is-a-new-x86-soc-for-embedded-systems/
  13. ^ Vortex86EX2 product overview
  14. ^ ICOP Vortex86 SoC website
  15. ^ Vortex86DX Linux Support list
  16. ^ X-Linux
  17. ^ "NYC*BUG". dmesgd.nycbug.org. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  18. ^ Cebit 2007: x86 Minisystem mit Vortex86SX[permanent dead link] (german)
  19. ^ Vortex86 Envision Embedded Design with Windows Embedded Technologies (archived copy)
  20. ^ M6117D Data Sheet[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "M6117D overview". Archived from the original on 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2009-04-09.