World Rugby Sevens Series

The World Rugby Sevens Series is an annual series of international rugby sevens tournaments run by World Rugby featuring national sevens teams. Organised for the first time in the 1999–2000 season as the IRB World Sevens Series,[1] the competition was formed to promote an elite-level of international rugby sevens and develop the game into a viable commercial product. The competition has been sponsored by banking group HSBC since 2014.[2]

HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2019–20 World Rugby Sevens Series
World Rugby Sevens Series logo.png
Logo since 2016
FormerlyIRB Sevens World Series (1999-2014)
Sevens World Series (2014–15 only)
SportRugby sevens
Founded1999; 21 years ago (1999)
No. of teams15 core teams
Most recent
 New Zealand (2019–20)
Most titles New Zealand (13 titles)
TV partner(s)List of broadcasters
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toChallenger Series

The season's circuit consists of 10 tournaments that generally begin in November or December and last until May. The venues are held across 10 countries, and visits five of the six populated continents. The United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, France and England each host one event. Each tournament has 16 teams – 15 core teams that participate in each tournament and one regional qualifier.

Teams compete for the World Rugby Series title by accumulating points based on their finishing position in each tournament. The lowest placed core team at the end of the season is dropped, and replaced by the winner of the Hong Kong Sevens. New Zealand had originally dominated the Series, winning each of the first six seasons from 1999–2000 to 2004–05, but since then, Fiji, South Africa and Samoa have each won season titles. England, Australia and the United States have placed in the top three for several seasons but have not won the series title.

The International Olympic Committee's decision in 2009 to add rugby sevens to the Summer Olympics beginning in 2016 has added a boost to rugby sevens and to the World Sevens Series; this boost has led to increased exposure and revenues, leading several of the core teams to field fully professional squads.


International sevensEdit

The first international rugby sevens tournament was held in 1973 in Scotland, which was celebrating a century of the Scottish Rugby Union.[3] Seven international teams took part, with England defeating Ireland 22–18 in the final to take the trophy. The Hong Kong Sevens annual tournament began in 1976.[4] Over the next two decades the number of international sevens competitions increased. The most notable was the Rugby World Cup Sevens with Scotland hosting the inaugural event in 1993,[5] along with rugby joining the Commonwealth Games program in 1998.

World Series early yearsEdit

Former series logos: 1999 (top);
pre–2010 (middle); 2011–2015 (bottom).

The first season of the World Sevens Series was the 1999–2000 season. At the Series launch, the chairman of the International Rugby Board, Vernon Pugh, described the IRB's vision of the role of this new competition: "this competition has set in place another important element in the IRB’s drive to establish rugby as a truly global sport, one with widespread visibility and steadily improving standards of athletic excellence."[6] New Zealand and Fiji dominated the first series, meeting in the final in eight of the ten season tournaments, and New Zealand narrowly won, overtaking Fiji by winning the last tournament of the series.[6]

New Zealand won the first six seasons in a row from 1999–2000 to 2004–05,[7] led by players such as Karl Te Nana and Amasio Valence. The number of stops in the series varied over the seasons, but experienced a contraction from 11 tournaments in 2001–02 to 7 tournaments in 2002–03 due to the global recession. In the 2005–06 season Fiji clinched the season trophy on the last tournament of the season finishing ahead of England.[8] New Zealand regained the trophy in 2006–07 season in the last tournament of the season.[9]

South Africa was the next team to win the series after taking home the 2008–09 title.[10] In the 2009–10 season, Samoa who finished seventh the previous year shocked the world – led by 2010 top try-scorer and World Rugby Sevens Player of the Year Mikaele Pesamino – by winning four of the last five tournaments to overtake New Zealand and win the series.[11]

Olympic era and professionalismEdit

The 2011–12 season was the last to have 12 core teams as the 2011–12 series expanded to 15 teams that had core status. Qualification for these places was played out at the 2012 Hong Kong Sevens. Canada (returning to core status for the first time since 2008),[12] Spain and Portugal joined the 12 core teams for the next season. The Japan event also made a return for the first time since 2001 (lasting until 2015). New Zealand continued their dominance by finishing on top.

Argentina was originally planned to begin hosting a tenth event with Mar Del Plata the venue in the 2012–13 season, giving the tour an event on each continent, but when Argentina joined the Rugby Championship those plans were shelved.[13][14] With the same schedule, New Zealand again were the winners over South Africa. They took it again in 2013–14 with Spain the first team to be relegated after finishing last during that season with Japan replacing them.[15]

Heading into the 2014–15 season, the top four teams qualifying to the 2016 Summer Olympics, with Fiji, South Africa, New Zealand and Great Britain all qualifying through.[16] The 2014–15 season and 2015–16 season were won by Fiji – the first time a team other than New Zealand won back-to-back season titles – led by 2015 and 2016 season Dream Team nominee Osea Kolinisau The two seasons also yielded teams winning their first tournaments – the United States won the 2015 London Sevens to finish the season in sixth overall;[17] Kenya won the 2016 Singapore Sevens, and Scotland won the 2016 London Sevens.[18][19] Prior to the 2015–16 season World Rugby did a comprehensive review of all nine tournament hosts and adjusted the schedule, dropping two sites (Japan and Scotland), and adding three sites (France, Singapore and Canada) to the calendar.[citation needed]

In the 2016–17 series, a dominant and consistent display by South Africa saw them reach the finals of the 2016–17 series rounds on eight occasions, winning five of these. As a result, South Africa were series champions with victory in the penultimate round in Paris. The season was a qualifier for the 2018 with the top four teams that hadn't already qualified, coming from this season.[20] The teams that made it through to the World Cup via this method were Canada, Argentina, Scotland and Samoa.[21]

Tournament hostsEdit

For a list of previous hosts, see World Rugby Sevens Series hosts

The World Series has consisted of 10 tournament stops since the 2015–16 season. They generally fall in the following order and in the following timeframes:

Event Venue City Joined series [a] Scheduled Ref
  Dubai The Sevens Dubai 1999–2000 December [22]
  South Africa Cape Town Stadium Cape Town 1999–2000 December [23]
  New Zealand Waikato Stadium Hamilton 1999–2000 January
  Australia Bankwest Stadium Sydney 1999–2000 February [24][25]
  USA Dignity Health Sports Park Los Angeles 2003–04 March [26]
  Canada BC Place Vancouver 2015–16 March [27]
  Singapore National Stadium Singapore 2015–16 April [28]
  Hong Kong Hong Kong Stadium Hong Kong 1999–2000 April [4]
  England Twickenham London 2000–01 May
  France Stade Jean-Bouin Paris 2015–16 June [29]


  1. ^ Most of these tournaments were established when added to the World Series, with certain exceptions. The oldest are the Dubai and Hong Kong events which date back to 1970 and 1976 respectively.[22][4] Others include the Australia Sevens (which ran from 1986 to 1989 and then returned in 2000 as a leg on the Series) and the France Sevens which began in 1996.

Core teams, promotion and relegationEdit

Core teamsEdit

A group of 15 "core teams" is announced for each season, based on performances in the previous season, and each core team has a guaranteed place in all of that season's events. The core teams have been selected through a designated promotion/relegation process since the 2012–13 season. The core teams for the 2019–20 season are:

2020–21 Core Teams
Team Core since Best Series
Finish (Last)
1   New Zealand 1999–2000 1st (2019–20)
2   South Africa 1999–2000 1st (2017–18)
3   Fiji 1999–2000 1st (2018–19)
4   Australia 1999–2000 2nd (2000–01)
5   England 1999–2000 2nd (2016–17)
6   France 1999–2000 6th (2019–20)
7   United States 2008–09 2nd (2018–19)
8   Canada 2012–13 6th (2013–14)
9   Argentina 1999–2000 3rd (2003–04)
10   Ireland 2019–20 10th (2019–20)
11   Scotland 1999–2000 7th (2016–17)
12   Kenya 2002–03 5th (2012–13)
13   Samoa 1999–2000 1st (2009–10)
14   Spain 2017–18 11th (2017–18)
15   Wales 2006–07 6th (2006–07)
P   Japan 2020–21 15th (2018–19)
Former core teams
Team Last season
as core team
Best Series
finish (Last)
  Portugal 2015–16 14th (2014–15)
  Russia 2017–18 14th (2016–17)

Through the 2011–12 series, the number of core teams was 12,[30] but the number of core teams was expanded to 15 for 2012–13.[31] The three extra teams were determined by a 12-team qualifying tournament held as part of the 2012 Hong Kong Sevens.[32] The increase in the number of core teams did not directly lead to an increase in the size of the existing tournaments.

Promotion and relegationEdit

In 2019, World Rugby announced a plan to create a second tier competition that would allow the best thirteen sevens teams, with the addition of three invited teams, from their region to compete in a similar style format to the Sevens Series for the potential of gaining promotion to the World Rugby Sevens Series and becoming a core team.[33] This breaks from the usual format of promotion and relegation in the sevens series.

The proposal was well received from the Tongan rugby sevens team, whom will be one of the sixteen teams competing in the tournament. Coach Tevita Tu'ifua said about the news, "We are so excited and very happy and it is a blessing for us to get involved in any tournament for the sake of the rugby sevens programme back home."[34]

From 2013–14 series to 2018–19 the promotion/relegation was as follows:[15]

  • One team is relegated and one team is promoted each year.
  • The core team that finishes bottom of the table at the end of the season series is relegated.
  • The team that wins the 12-team qualifying tournament at the Hong Kong Sevens is promoted.

From 2020 onwards the style of promotion/relegation will be as such:

  • One team is relegated and one team is promoted each year.
  • The core team that finishes bottom of the table at the end of the season series is relegated to the Challenger Series.
  • Eight teams will compete for promotion in the Hong Kong Sevens event after qualifying through the Challenger Series.
Season Core Teams Promoted Relegated
2007–08 12   United States   Canada
2008–09 12
2009–10 12
2010–11 12
2011–12 12   Canada,   Portugal,   Spain
2012–13 15
2013–14 15   Japan   Spain
2014–15 15   Russia   Japan
2015–16 15   Japan   Portugal
2016–17 15   Spain   Japan
2017–18 15   Japan   Russia
2018–19 15   Ireland   Japan
2019–20 15   Japan

Other qualifyingEdit

The World Series results are sometimes used as a qualifier for other tournaments. For example, the top four teams of the 2014–15 series automatically qualified for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Similarly, certain teams from the 2016–17 series qualified for the 2018 Rugby World Cup Sevens.

Historical resultsEdit

Results by seasonEdit

Summary of the top six placegetters for each series:

Series Season Rds Champion Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Ref
I 1999–00 10  
New Zealand

(186 pts)
South Africa
II 2000–01 9  
New Zealand

(162 pts)
South Africa
III 2001–02 11  
New Zealand

(198 pts)
South Africa
IV 2002–03  7 [a]  
New Zealand

(112 pts)
South Africa
V 2003–04 8  
New Zealand

(128 pts)
South Africa
VI 2004–05 7  
New Zealand

(116 pts)
South Africa
VII 2005–06 8  

(144 pts)
South Africa
New Zealand
VIII 2006–07 8  
New Zealand

(130 pts)
South Africa
IX 2007–08 8  
New Zealand

(154 pts)
South Africa
X 2008–09 8  
South Africa

(132 pts)
New Zealand
XI 2009–10 8  

(164 pts)
New Zealand
South Africa
XII 2010–11 8  
New Zealand

(166 pts)
South Africa
XIII 2011–12 9  
New Zealand

(167 pts)
South Africa
XIV 2012–13 9  
New Zealand

(173 pts)
South Africa
XV 2013–14 9  
New Zealand

(180 pts)
South Africa
XVI 2014–15 9  

(164 pts)
South Africa
New Zealand
United States
XVII 2015–16 10  

(181 pts)
South Africa
New Zealand
United States
XVIII 2016–17 10  
South Africa

(192 pts)
New Zealand
United States
XIX 2017–18 10  
South Africa

(182 pts)
New Zealand
United States
XX 2018–19 10  

(186 pts)
United States
New Zealand
South Africa
XXI 2019–20  6 [b]  
New Zealand

(115 pts)
South Africa

Season placings by teamEdit

Tally of top six placings in the series for each team, updated after the 2019–20 season:[c]

Team Champ­ion Runner​-up Third Fourth Top-3 Apps Top-6 Apps
  New Zealand 13 1 4 3 18 21
  Fiji 4 6 6 5 16 21
  South Africa 3 8 1 4 12 21
  Samoa 1 2 4 3 13
  England 4 5 2 9 18
  Australia 1 2 3 3 14
  United States 1 1 5
  Argentina 1 1 7
  Canada 2
  Kenya 2
  France 1
  Wales 1


  1. ^ Due to concerns in 2003 about the spread of respiratory virus SARS, tournaments scheduled for China, Malaysia, and Singapore were cancelled.[57] Further concern also resulted in two nations – Italy and France – foregoing the opportunity to compete at the Hong Kong Sevens.[58]
  2. ^ Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the four remaining rounds of the HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series 2020, scheduled for London, Paris, Singapore, and Hong Kong, were cancelled.[55]
  3. ^ Tally results are obtained by summing the placings of each team as recorded in the above table of results by season.


Rugby sevens is a fast-paced version of rugby union with seven players each side on a full-sized rugby field. Games are much shorter, lasting seven minutes each half. The game is quicker and faster-scoring than 15-a-side rugby, which explains part of its appeal. It also gives players the space for superb feats of individual skill. Sevens is traditionally played in a two-day tournament format. Currently, in a normal event, 16 teams are entered.

World Rugby operates satellite tournaments in each continent alongside the Sevens World Series which serve as qualifiers for Series events;[12] in 2012–13 they also determined the entrants in the World Series Pre-Qualifier,[59] and from 2013–14 determine the entrants in the Core Team Qualifier.[15]

In each tournament, the teams are divided into pools of four teams, who play a round-robin within the pool. Points are awarded in each pool on a different schedule from most rugby tournaments—3 for a win, 2 for a draw, 1 for a loss, 0 for a no-show. In case teams are tied after pool play, the tiebreakers are:[60]

  1. Head-to-head result between the tied teams.
  2. Difference in points scored and allowed during pool play.
  3. Difference in tries scored and allowed during pool play.
  4. Points scored during pool play.
  5. Coin toss.

As of the 2009–10 series, four trophies are awarded in each tournament. In descending order of prestige, they are the Cup, whose winner is the overall tournament champion, Plate, Bowl and Shield. Each trophy is awarded at the end of a knockout tournament.

In a normal event, the top two teams in each pool advance to the Cup competition. The four quarterfinal losers drop into the bracket for the Plate. The Bowl is contested by the third and fourth-place finishers in each pool, while the Shield is contested by the losing quarterfinalists of the Bowl.

A third-place match is now conducted between the losing Cup semifinalists in all tournaments; this was introduced for the 2011–12 series.[61]

In 2012–13, the season-ending London Sevens expanded to 20 teams, with 12 competing for series points and eight involved in the Core Team Qualifier.[59] With the promotion place now determined at the Hong Kong Sevens, the London Sevens returned to the traditional 16-team format in 2013–14.

Hong Kong 7sEdit

The Hong Kong Sevens (an anomaly as a three-day event) is the most famous sevens tournament. The Hong Kong Sevens had 24 teams through the 2011–12 series, but has featured 28 teams since 2012–13, with 15 core teams and the winner of the HSBC Asian Sevens Series competing for series points. At the 2013 event, the remaining 12 teams were those in the World Series Pre-Qualifier;[59] from 2014 forward, the remaining 12 teams are those in the Core Team Qualifier.[15] In Hong Kong, the Shield was awarded for the first time in 2010.[62]

Originally, the six pool winners of the Hong Kong Sevens, plus the two highest-finishing second-place teams, advanced to the Cup.

In 2010 and 2011, a different system was used:[63]

  • The losing quarterfinalists in the Cup competition contested the Plate competition.
  • The four remaining second-place teams and the four best third-place teams, which contested the Plate in previous years, competed for the Bowl.
  • The remaining eight teams in the competition, which contested the Bowl in previous years, competed for the Shield.

In the transitional year of 2012, the Hong Kong Sevens was split into two separate competitions. The 12 core teams competed for the Cup, Plate and Bowl under a format similar to that of a regular event. The 12 invited teams all competed for the Shield, with the top three sides in that competition also earning core status for 2012–13.

From 2013 on, the four trophies in Hong Kong will be contested under the same format used in regular 16-team tournaments. Only the 15 core teams, plus the winner of the HSBC Asian Sevens Series, now compete in the main draw of that event although from 2017 the number of trophies was reduced to just the main Cup with the showpiece final being reduced from 20 to 14 minutes and the Challenge Trophy which were in line with changes which began at the start of the 2016–17 World Rugby Sevens Series.

Points scheduleEdit

The season championship is determined by points earned in each tournament. World Rugby introduced a new scoring system for the 2011–12 series, in which all teams participating in a tournament are guaranteed points. Initially, World Rugby announced the new points schedule only for the standard 16-team events; the allocations for the Hong Kong Sevens were announced later.[61] A new scoring system was introduced in 2019-20 requiring teams to play for 7th, 11th and 15th places, previously teams had tied for 7th-8th 11th-12th and 15th-16th places.

The current points schedule used at each standard event is summarised below.

Place Status Points
  Cup winner, gold medalist 22
  Cup runner-up, silver medalist 19
  3rd-place winner, bronze medalist 17
4 3rd-place loser 15
5 5th-place winner 13
6 5th-place loser 12
7 7th-place winner 11
8 7th-place loser 10
9 9th-place winner 8
10 9th-place loser 7
11 11th-place winner 6
12 11th-place loser 5
13 13th-place winner 4
14 13th-place loser 3
15 15th-place winner 2
16 15th-place loser 1

Tie-breaking: If two or more teams are level on overall series points, the following tie-breakers are used:[60]

  1. Overall difference in points scored and allowed during the season.
  2. Total try count during the season.
  3. If neither of the above produces a winner, the teams are considered tied.


TV and mediaEdit

The tour received 1,147 hours of air time in 2005–06; 530 of which was live, and was broadcast to 136 countries.[64] By 2008–09, the hours of air time had increased to over 3,300, with 35 broadcasters airing the series in 139 countries and 15 languages.[65] Broadcast time increased further in 2009–10, with 3,561 hours of air time (1,143 hours live) carried by 34 broadcasters in 141 countries and 16 languages.[66] In 2010–11, 3,657 hours of coverage were aired (1,161 hours live), with the same number of broadcasters as the previous season but six new countries added. For that season, Sevens World Series programming was available in 332 million homes worldwide, with a potential audience of 760 million.[67]


The International Rugby Board reached a 5-year deal with HSBC in October 2010 that granted them status as the first-ever title sponsor of the Sevens World Series. Through the agreement, HSBC acquired title naming rights to all tournaments in the World Series, beginning with the Dubai Sevens on 3 December 2010.[2] HSBC has since sub-licensed the naming rights to individual tournaments, while retaining its name sponsorship of the overall series. A renewed, 4-year deal was announced before the 2015–16 Series, this deal was also expanded to include the World Rugby Women's Sevens Series.[68]

Crowd cheering at the 2009 Hong Kong Sevens.
Tournament Naming Rights
Tournament Sponsor
Sydney HSBC
Dubai Emirates Airline
South Africa Cell C/Nelson Mandela Bay
New Zealand Hertz
USA No named sponsor
Hong Kong Cathay Pacific/HSBC
Japan No named sponsor
Scotland Emirates Airline
London Marriott

Player contracts and salariesEdit

In the year after the International Olympic Committee announced in 2009 that rugby sevens would return to the Olympics in 2016, most of the "core teams" on the Series began offering full-time contracts to their players. These annual salaries can range from €18,000 to €100,000. England offers among the more generous salaries, ranging from an estimated €25,000 to over €100,000. New Zealand has a graded system with salaries ranging from €23,000-plus to about €52,500 for its four top earners. The basic salary for Scottish sevens players ranges from €22,500 to €40,000. The Australian sevens players are estimated to be on a basic salary of about €27,000-plus. Toward the bottom end of the scale is Ireland, offering its players a €18,000 to €23,750 development contract, less than minimum wage.[69]

Player awards by seasonEdit

Season Rounds Most points Most tries[70] Player of the Year
1999–00 10   Vilimoni Delasau (83) No Award
2000–01 9   Karl Te Nana (42) No Award
2001–02 11   Brent Russell (46) No Award
2002–03 7   Nasoni Roko (39) No Award
2003–04 8   Fabian Juries &
  Rob Thirlby (39)
  Simon Amor
2004–05 7   David Lemi (46)   Orene Ai'i
2005–06 8   Ben Gollings (343)   Timoteo Iosua (40)   Uale Mai
2006–07 8   William Ryder (416)   Mikaele Pesamino (43)   Afeleke Pelenise
2007–08 8   Tomasi Cama Jr. (319)   Fabian Juries (41)   DJ Forbes
2008–09 8   Ben Gollings (260)   Collins Injera (42)   Ollie Phillips
2009–10 8   Ben Gollings (332)   Mikaele Pesamino (56)   Mikaele Pesamino
2010–11 8   Cecil Afrika (381)   Cecil Afrika (40)   Cecil Afrika
2011–12 9   Tomasi Cama Jr. (390)   Matt Turner (38)   Tomasi Cama Jr.
2012–13 9   Dan Norton (264)   Dan Norton (52)   Tim Mikkelson
2013–14 9   Tom Mitchell (358)   Samisoni Viriviri (52)   Samisoni Viriviri
2014–15 9   Osea Kolinisau (312)   Seabelo Senatla (47)   Werner Kok
2015–16 10   Madison Hughes (331)   Seabelo Senatla (66)   Seabelo Senatla
2016–17 10   Perry Baker (285)   Perry Baker (57)   Perry Baker
2017–18 10   Nathan Hirayama (334)   Carlin Isles (49)   Perry Baker
2018–19 10   Andrew Knewstubb (307)   Carlin Isles (52)   Jerry Tuwai
2019–20 6   Napolioni Bolaca (159)   Jordan Conroy (30)

Player recordsEdit

Players in bold are still active.


Updated 15 March 2020


Updated: 15 March 2020


Source: World Rugby, 15 March 2020.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "The Official World Sevens Series Website". 1999. Archived from the original on 14 February 2003. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b "HSBC first Sevens World Series title sponsor" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  3. ^ " – September 2007 Try and Try again". Archived from the original on 19 October 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
  4. ^ a b c "How it all began: A jewel discovered", South China Morning Post, 6 March 2015.
  5. ^ "The first Melrose Sevens match 1883", BBC
  6. ^ a b "New Zealand take maiden Series crown", World Rugby, 31 August 2000.
  7. ^ "Sevens: NZ lose semi, but still claim world title", New Zealand Herald, 6 June 2005.
  8. ^ "2005–06 Season Overview". Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  9. ^ "2006–07 Season Overview". Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  10. ^ "The secret to South Africa Sevens' success", Telegraph, Kate Rowan, 9 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Caucau, Pesamino Team Up", Fiji Sun, 20 October 2013.
  12. ^ a b "USA Rugby receives major Sevens boost" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 22 September 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
  13. ^ "Argentina Sevens World Series round postponed". International Rugby Board. 16 August 2012.
  14. ^ "HSBC Sevens World Series expands to 10 rounds". 26 June 2012.
  15. ^ a b c d "One up one down for HSBC World Sevens Series" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  16. ^ "Rio 2016: Fiji beat Samoa in sevens to lead race for Olympics". BBC Sport. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), USA Rugby, 17 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Kenya win sensational HSBC Singapore Sevens". World Rugby. International Rugby Board. 17 April 2016.
  19. ^ "Kenya win sensational HSBC Singapore Sevens". World Rugby. International Rugby Board. 22 May 2016.
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Four men's teams qualify for RWC Sevens 2018". World Rugby. World Rugby. 21 May 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Dubai Rugby Sevens: History".
  23. ^ "Sport briefs". Newcastle Herald. Fairfax. 8 December 1999. p. 89. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  24. ^ "Sydney to host Australia World Rugby Sevens Series event from 2015–16". World Rugby. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  25. ^ "HSBC Sydney 7s heads to Bankwest Stadium" (Press release). Rugby Australia. 2 June 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  26. ^ "DOWN MEMORY LANE – 2004: FIRST USA SEVENS TOURNAMENT", Rugby Today, 3 January 2018.
  27. ^ "Vancouver welcomes the world for the inaugural Canada Sevens", CTV Vancouver News, 8 March 2016.
  28. ^ "‘Sauna’ sevens as Singapore returns as host of latest leg in World Series", South China Morning Post, 15 April 2016.
  29. ^ "In brief: Fiji wins Paris Sevens". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. 13 October 1996. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  30. ^ "Teams announced for Gold Coast kickoff" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 8 September 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  31. ^ "Who will join the Sevens elite?" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  32. ^ "Tears of joy for World Series qualifiers" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 25 March 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  33. ^ "New Challenger Series to boost rugby sevens' expansion". World Rugby. 17 December 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  34. ^ "Sport: Tonga grateful for new global Sevens series". Radio New Zealand. 23 December 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  35. ^ "2000 World Rugby Sevens Standings". Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  36. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2001. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  37. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2002. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  38. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2003. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  39. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2004. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  40. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2005.
  41. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2006. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  42. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  43. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2008. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  44. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2009. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  45. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  46. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2011. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  47. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2012. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  48. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2013. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  49. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  50. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  51. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2016. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019.
  52. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2017. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019.
  53. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2018. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019.
  54. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2019. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019.
  55. ^ "2020 Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2020.
  56. ^ "Sevens series standings". Sevens.Rugby. 2020. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020.
  57. ^ "SARS fear hits sports". The Indianapolis Star. Indianapolis. 24 April 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  58. ^ "2 teams skip event over fears of mystery disease". The Indianapolis Star. Indianapolis. 22 March 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  59. ^ a b c "Pools confirmed for Hong Kong Sevens" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  60. ^ a b "2006–07 IRB Sevens World Series Media Guide" (PDF). International Rugby Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  61. ^ a b "New Points System for HSBC Sevens World Series". South African Rugby Union. 25 November 2011. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  62. ^ "Overhaul for Sevens World Series point system" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 5 November 2009. Archived from the original on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  63. ^ "All 24 teams announced for Hong Kong Sevens" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  64. ^ "IRB announces record TV figures". 25 July 2006. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012.
  65. ^ "Record numbers tune in to Sevens rugby" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  66. ^ "Sevens enjoys more record broadcast figures" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  67. ^ "More TV records for HSBC Sevens World Series" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  68. ^ [1]
  69. ^ "Salaries of Men’s Sevens players to remain below minimum wage", Irish Times, Gerry Thornley, 24 May 2019.
  70. ^ "Pesamino back on top of the Sevens charts" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 30 May 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.

External linksEdit