Vildagliptin (previously LAF237, trade names Galvus, Zomelis) is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent (anti-diabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. Vildagliptin inhibits the inactivation of GLP-1 and GIP by DPP-4, allowing GLP-1 and GIP to potentiate the secretion of insulin in the beta cells and suppress glucagon release by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|Metabolism||Mainly hydrolysis to inactive metabolite; CYP450 not appreciably involved|
|Elimination half-life||2 to 3 hours|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||303.399 g/mol g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Solubility in water||Freely Soluble in water mg/mL (20 °C)|
|(what is this?)|
Combination with metforminEdit
Adverse effects observed in clinical trials include nausea, hypoglycemia, tremor, headache and dizziness. Rare cases of hepatoxicity have been reported.
There have been case reports of pancreatitis associated with DPP-4 inhibitors. A group at UCLA reported increased pre-cancerous pancreatic changes in rats and in human organ donors who had been treated with DPP-4 inhibitors. In response to these reports, the United States FDA and the European Medicines Agency each undertook independent reviews of all clinical and preclinical data related to the possible association of DPP-4 inhibitors with pancreatic cancer. In a joint letter to the New England Journal of Medicines, the agencies stated that "Both agencies agree that assertions concerning a causal association between incretin-based drugs and pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer, as expressed recently in the scientific literature and in the media, are inconsistent with the current data. The FDA and the EMA have not reached a final conclusion at this time regarding such a causal relationship. Although the totality of the data that have been reviewed provides reassurance, pancreatitis will continue to be considered a risk associated with these drugs until more data are available; both agencies continue to investigate this safety signal."
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- "EU approves Novartis's Eucreas diabetes drug". Reuters. February 25, 2008.
- "Galvus" (PDF). www.ema.europa.eu. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
- Matveyenko AV, Dry S, Cox HI, et al. (July 2009). "Beneficial endocrine but adverse exocrine effects of sitagliptin in the human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic rat model of type 2 diabetes: interactions with metformin". Diabetes. 58 (7): 1604–15. doi:10.2337/db09-0058. PMC 2699878. PMID 19403868.
- Butler AE, Campbell-Thompson M, Gurlo T, Dawson DW, Atkinson M, Butler PC (July 2013). "Marked expansion of exocrine and endocrine pancreas with incretin therapy in humans with increased exocrine pancreas dysplasia and the potential for glucagon-producing neuroendocrine tumors". Diabetes. 62 (7): 2595–604. doi:10.2337/db12-1686. PMC 3712065. PMID 23524641.
- Egan, Amy G.; Blind, Eberhard; Dunder, Kristina; De Graeff, Pieter A.; Hummer, B. Timothy; Bourcier, Todd; Rosebraugh, Curtis (2014). "Pancreatic Safety of Incretin-Based Drugs — FDA and EMA Assessment — NEJM". New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (9): 794–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1314078. PMID 24571751.