List of governors general of Canada

(Redirected from Viceroy of New France)

The following is a list of the governors and governors general of Canada. Though the present-day office of the Governor General of Canada is legislatively covered under the Constitution Act, 1867 and legally constituted by the Letters Patent, 1947, the institution is, along with the institution of the Crown it represents, the oldest continuous and uniquely Canadian institution in Canada, having existed in an unbroken line since the appointment of Samuel de Champlain in 1627.[1]

Lieutenant General/Viceroy of New France, 1541–1627 edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
Reign
Ref.
Took office Left office Duration
1   Jean-François Roberval
(c. 1495–1560)
1541 1543 1–2 years Francis I
(1515–1547)
[2][3]
2   Troilus de Mesqouez
(1536–1606)
1578 unknown unknown Henry III
(1574–1589)
[2][4]
Henry IV
(1589–1610)
3   Aymar Chaste
(1514–1603)
1602 1603 0–1 years [citation needed]
4   Henri II, Prince of Condé
(1588–1646)
1614 1619 4–5 years Louis XIII
(1610–1643)
[5]
5   Henri II, Duke of Montmorency
(1595–1632)
1619 1625 5–6 years [6]
6   Henri de Lévis de Ventadour, Duke of Ventadour
(1596–1651)
1625 1627 1–2 years [7]

Governors of New France, 1627–1663 edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
Reign
Took office Left office Duration
1   Samuel de Champlain
(1574–1635)
1627 1635 7–8 years Louis XIII
(1610–1643)
2   Charles de Montmagny
(c. 1599–1654)
1635 1648 12–13 years
Louis XIV
(1643–1715)
3   Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge
(c. 1612–1660)
1648 1651 2–3 years
4   Jean de Lauson
(1584–1666)
1651 1657 5–6 years
5   Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson, Vicomte de Mouzay
(c. 1599–1654)
1658 1661 2–3 years
6   Pierre Dubois Davaugour
(1625–1709)
1661 1663 1–2 years

Governors general of New France, 1663–1760 edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
Reign
Took office Left office Duration
1   Augustin de Saffray de Mésy
(1598–1665)
1663 1665 1–2 years Louis XIV
(1643–1715)
2   Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle
(1626–1698)
1665 1672 6–7 years
3   Louis de Buade, Count of Frontenac
(1622–1698)
1672 1682 9–10 years
4   Joseph-Antoine le Fèbvre, Sieur of La Barre
(1622–1688)
1682 1685 2–3 years
5   Jacques-René de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville
(1637–1710)
1685 1689 3–4 years
(3)   Louis de Buade, Count of Frontenac
(1622–1698)
1689 1698 8–9 years
6   Louis-Hector de Callière
(1648–1703)
1698 1703 4–5 years
7   Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil
(1622–1698)
1703 1725 21–22 years
Louis XV
(1715–1774)
8   Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois
(1671–1749)
1725 1747 21–22 years
9   Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière
(1693–1756)
1747 1749 1–2 years
10   Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière
(1685–1752)
1749 1752 2–3 years
11   Michel-Ange Duquesne de Menneville, Marquess Duquesne
(c. 1700–1778)
1752 1755 2–3 years
12   Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial
(1698–1778)
1755 1760 4–5 years

Governors of the Province of Quebec, 1760–1786 edit

Following the Seven Years' War, control passed from France to Great Britain in the terms of the Treaty of Paris, creating the British Province of Quebec. Governors subsequently served under the British monarchy.

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
Reign
Took office Left office Duration
1   Jeffery Amherst
(1717–1797)
1760 1763 2–3 years George III
(1760–1820)
2   James Murray
(1721–1794)
1764 1768 3–4 years
3   Guy Carleton
KB
(1724–1808)
1768 1778 9–10 years
4   Sir Frederick Haldimand
KB
(1724–1808)
1778 1786 7–8 years

Governors general of the Canadas/British North America, 1786–1841 edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
Reign
Took office Left office Duration
1   The Lord Dorchester
KB
(1724–1808)
1786 1796 9–10 years George III
(1760–1820)
2   Robert Prescott
(c. 1726–1815)
1796 1799 2–3 years
3   Sir Robert Milnes, Baronet
(1754–1837)
1799 1805 5–6 years
4   Thomas Dunn
(1729–1818)
1805 1807 1–2 years
5   Sir James Henry Craig
KB
(1748–1812)
1807 1811 3–4 years
6   Sir George Prévost, Baronet
(1767–1816)
1811 1815 3–4 years
7   Sir Gordon Drummond
(1772–1854)
1815 1816 0–1 years
8   Sir John Coape Sherbrooke
(1764–1830)
1816 1818 1–2 years
9   The Duke of Richmond
KG, PC
(1764–1819)
1818 1819 0–1 years
10   The Earl of Dalhousie
GCB
(1770–1838)
1820 1828 7–8 years George IV
(1820–1830)
11   Sir James Kempt
GCB
(c. 1765–1854)
1828 1830 1–2 years
12   The Lord Aylmer
(1775–1850)
1830 1835 4–5 years William IV
(1830–1837)
13   The Earl of Gosford
GCB
(1776–1849)
1835 1837 1–2 years
14   Sir John Colborne
(1778–1863)
1837 1838 0–1 years Victoria
(1837–1901)
15   The Earl of Durham
(1792–1840)
1838 1839 0–1 years
16   The Lord Sydenham
PC
(1799–1841)
1839 1841 1–2 years

Governors general of the Province of Canada, 1841–1867 edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
Reign
Took office Left office Duration
1   The Lord Sydenham
PC
(1799–1841)
5 February
1841
19 September
1841
226 days Victoria
(1837–1901)
2   Sir Charles Bagot
(1781–1843)
12 January
1842
19 May
1843
1 year, 127 days
3   The Lord Metcalfe
Bt, PC
(1785–1846)
30 May
1843
26 November
1845
2 years, 180 days
4   The Earl Cathcart
GCB
(1783–1859)
26 November
1845
30 January
1847
1 year, 65 days
5   The Earl of Elgin
PC, GCB
(1811–1863)
30 January
1847
19 December
1854
7 years, 323 days
6   Sir Edmund Walker Head, Baronet
KCB
(1805–1868)
19 December
1854
25 October
1861
6 years, 310 days
7   The Viscount Monck
PC, GCMG
(1819–1894)
25 October
1861
1 July
1867
5 years, 249 days

Governors general of Canada, 1867–present edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Profession Term of office Monarch
Reign
Prime Minister
Term of office
Ref.
Took office Left office Duration
1   The Viscount Monck
(1819–1894)
Politician 1 July
1867
14 November
1868
1 year, 136 days Victoria
(1837–1901)
Sir John A. Macdonald
(1867–1873)
[8]
2   The Lord Lisgar
(1807–1876)
Politician 14 November
1868
25 June
1872
3 years, 144 days [9]
3   The Earl of Dufferin
(1826–1902)
Diplomat 25 June
1872
25 November
1878
6 years, 153 days [10]
Alexander Mackenzie
(1873–1878)
Sir John A. Macdonald
(1878–1891)
4   John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne
(1845–1914)
Author,
Politician
25 November
1878
23 October
1883
4 years, 332 days [11]
5   The Marquess of Lansdowne
(1845–1927)
Politician 23 October
1883
11 June
1888
4 years, 232 days [12]
6   The Lord Stanley of Preston
(1841–1908)
Politician 11 June
1888
18 September
1893
5 years, 99 days [13]
Sir John Abbott
(1891–1892)
Sir John Sparrow David Thompson
(1892–1894)
7   The Earl of Aberdeen
(1847–1934)
Politician 18 September
1893
12 November
1898
5 years, 55 days [14]
Sir Mackenzie Bowell
(1894–1896)
Sir Charles Tupper
(1896)
Sir Wilfrid Laurier
(1896–1911)
8   The Earl of Minto
(1845–1914)
Military officer 12 November
1898
10 December
1904
6 years, 28 days [15]
Edward VII
(1901–1910)
9   The Earl Grey
(1851–1917)
Politician 10 December
1904
13 October
1911
6 years, 307 days [16]
George V
(1910–1936)
Sir Robert Borden
(1911–1920)
10   Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
(1850–1942)
Military officer 13 October
1911
11 November
1916
5 years, 29 days [17]
11   The Duke of Devonshire
(1868–1938)
Politician 11 November
1916
11 August
1921
4 years, 273 days [18]
Arthur Meighen
(1920–1921)
12   The Viscount Byng of Vimy
(1862–1935)
Military officer 11 August
1921
2 October
1926
5 years, 52 days [19]
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1921–1926)
Arthur Meighen
(1926)
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1926–1930)
13   The Marquess of Willingdon
(1866–1941)
Politician 2 October
1926
4 April
1931
4 years, 184 days [20]
R.B. Bennett
(1930–1935)
14   The Earl of Bessborough
(1880–1956)
Businessman 4 April
1931
2 November
1935
4 years, 212 days [21]
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1935–1948)
15   The Lord Tweedsmuir
(1875–1940)
Author, Politician 2 November
1935
11 February
1940
4 years, 101 days [22]
Edward VIII
(1936)
George VI
(1936–1952)
16   The Earl of Athlone
(1874–1957)
Military officer 21 June
1940
12 April
1946
5 years, 295 days [23]
17   The Viscount Alexander of Tunis
(1891–1969)
Military officer 12 April
1946
28 January
1952
5 years, 300 days [24]
Louis St. Laurent
(1948–1957)
18   Vincent Massey
(1887–1967)
Diplomat 28 February
1952
15 September
1959
7 years, 199 days Elizabeth II
(1952–2022)
[25]
John Diefenbaker
(1957–1963)
19   Georges Vanier
(1888–1967)
Military officer,
Diplomat
15 September
1959
5 March
1967
7 years, 171 days [26]
Lester B. Pearson
(1963–1968)
20   Roland Michener
(1900–1991)
Politician 17 April
1967
14 January
1974
6 years, 272 days [27]
Pierre Trudeau
(1968–1979)
21 Jules Léger
(1913–1980)
Diplomat 14 January
1974
22 January
1979
5 years, 8 days [28]
22   Edward Schreyer
(born 1935)
Politician 22 January
1979
14 May
1984
5 years, 113 days [29]
Joe Clark
(1979–1980)
Pierre Trudeau
(1980–1984)
23   Jeanne Sauvé
(1922–1993)
Journalist,
Politician
14 May
1984
29 January
1990
5 years, 260 days [30]
John Turner
(1984)
Brian Mulroney
(1984–1993)
24 Ray Hnatyshyn
(1934–2002)
Politician 29 January
1990
8 February
1995
5 years, 10 days [31]
Kim Campbell
(1993)
Jean Chrétien
(1993–2003)
25 Roméo LeBlanc
(1927–2009)
Journalist,
Politician
8 February
1995
7 October
1999
4 years, 242 days [32]
26   Adrienne Clarkson
(born 1939)
Journalist 7 October
1999
27 September
2005
5 years, 355 days [33]
Paul Martin
(2003–2006)
27   Michaëlle Jean
(born 1957)
Journalist 27 September
2005
1 October
2010
5 years, 4 days [34]
Stephen Harper
(2006–2015)
28   David Johnston
(born 1941)
Law professor,
University administrator
1 October
2010
2 October
2017
7 years, 1 day [35]
[36]
Justin Trudeau
(since 2015)
29   Julie Payette
(born 1963)
Astronaut,
Engineer
2 October
2017
22 January
2021
3 years, 112 days [37]
[38]
[39]
30   Mary Simon
(born 1947)
Broadcaster,
Diplomat
26 July
2021
Incumbent 2 years, 219 days
Charles III
(since 2022)

Administrators edit

 
Chief Justice Lyman Duff was administrator of Canada in 1940.

The following is a list of Administrators of the Government, Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada who were acting governors appointed as the result of the death, resignation, prolonged absence of the sitting viceroy, or for any other reason:

  1. Chief Justice Lyman Duff between the death of Lord Tweedsmuir and the arrival of Lord Athlone (February 11 to June 21, 1940);[40]
  2. Senior Puisne Justice Patrick Kerwin during the absence of Governor General Lord Alexander and Chief Justice Thibaudeau Rinfret (June 11 to August 2, 1951).[41]
  3. Chief Justice Thibaudeau Rinfret once the commission was ended on the departure of the Lord Alexander and the installation of Vincent Massey (January 28 to February 28, 1952);
  4. Chief Justice Robert Taschereau following the death of Georges Vanier to the installation of Roland Michener (March 5 to April 17, 1967);[42]
  5. Chief Justice Bora Laskin while Governor General Jules Léger was recovering from a stroke (July 2 to December 9, 1974);[43]
  6. Chief Justice Richard Wagner, from the resignation of Julie Payette to the installation of Mary Simon (January 22, 2021 to July 26, 2021).[44]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage (2015). A Crown of Maples: Constitutional Monarchy in Canada (PDF). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-100-20079-8.
  2. ^ a b Senate of Canada. "Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  3. ^ La Roque de Roquebrune, R. (1979) [1966]. "La Rocque de Roberval, Jean-François de". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  4. ^ Government of Canada. "The Kings and Queens of Canada: The Crown in Canadian History > Henri III (1551–1589)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  5. ^ Wrong, George M. (2009), Langton, H. H. (ed.), The Chronicles of Canada, vol. II: The Rise of New France, Fireship Press, pp. 33–35, ISBN 978-1-934757-45-1, retrieved 18 September 2015
  6. ^ Wrong 2009, p. 35
  7. ^ Wrong 2009, p. 51
  8. ^ "The Viscount Monck". The Governor General of Canada. Office of the Secretary to the Governor General.
  9. ^ "Sir John Young, Baron Lisgar". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  10. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Lord Dufferin". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  11. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquess of Lorne". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  12. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "The Marquess of Landsdowne, Governor General of Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  13. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Lord Stanley". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  14. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  15. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Gibert John Murray Kynynmound Elliot, 4th Earl of Minto". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  16. ^ "Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  17. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  18. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  19. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Viscount Byng of Vimy". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  20. ^ "The Marquess of Willingdon". Governor General of Canada. Office of the Governor General. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  21. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Vere Barbazon Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  22. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  23. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Alexander Cambridge, Earl of Athlone". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  24. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
  25. ^ Granatstein, J.L. "Vincent Massey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  26. ^ Monet, Jacques. "Georges Vanier". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  27. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Roland Michener". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  28. ^ Monet, Jacques. "Jules Leger". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  29. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Ed Schreyer". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  30. ^ Tremblay, Jean-Noel. "Jeanne Sauvé". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  31. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Ray Hnatyshyn". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  32. ^ "Roméo LeBlanc". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  33. ^ "Adrienne Clarkson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  34. ^ "Michaëlle Jean". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  35. ^ Azzi, Stephen. "David Lloyd Johnston". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  36. ^ "Incoming Governor General Julie Payette drops attempt to seal U.S. court records". ctvnews.ca. 21 August 2017.
  37. ^ Raymond, Katrine. "Julie Payette". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  38. ^ "Incoming Governor General Julie Payette drops attempt to seal U.S. court records". ctvnews.ca. 21 August 2017.
  39. ^ General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor (September 22, 2017). "Former Governors General". The Governor General of Canada. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  40. ^ Gosse, Richard (1 September 1975). "The Four Courts of Sir Lyman Duff". The Canadian Bar Review. 53 (3): 511–512.
  41. ^ McKenna, Stephen (2020). Grace and Wisdom: Patrick G. Kerwin, Chief Justice of Canada. Petra Books. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-927032-68-8.
  42. ^ Gallant, Jacques. "Gov. Gen. Julie Payette has resigned. What happens now?". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  43. ^ Girard, Philip (2015). Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life. University of Toronto Press. p. 423. ISBN 978-1-4426-1688-2.
  44. ^ Slaughter, Graham. "Canada's top judge is now acting Governor General, but expert urges speedy replacement". CTV News. Retrieved 18 February 2021.

External links edit