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The Varman dynasty (350-650) was the first historical dynasty of the Kamarupa kingdom. It was established by Pushyavarman, a contemporary of Samudragupta.[1] The earlier Varmans were subordinates of the Gupta Empire, but as the power of the Guptas waned, Mahendravarman (470-494) performed two horse sacrifices[2] and status of Kamarupa as Independent state remained umimpaired .[3][4] According to Allahabad Prasasti of Samudragupta, the ruler of Kamarupa was mentioned as a frontier ruler (Pratyanta-nrpatis) of the great Gupta emperor.[5][6] As per Apsad Inscription of Adityasen, Susthivarman was defeated by Mahasengupta on the bank of Lauhitya.[7]

Kamarupa Kingdom

Varman dynasty
350 CE–655 CE
Varmans (in eastern India) with their contemporaries, c. 550 CE
Varmans (in eastern India) with their contemporaries, c. 550 CE
CapitalPragjyotishpura
Official languagesSanskrit, Kamarupi Prakrit
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Maharajadhiraja 
• c. 350 - c. 374
Pushyavarman
• c. 518 – c. 542
Bhutivarman
• c. 600 – c. 650
Bhaskaravarman
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
350 CE
• Disestablished
655 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bhauma dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty

The first of the three Kamarupa dynasties, the Varmans were followed by the Mlechchha and then the Pala dynasties.

Contents

CapitalEdit

The capital was moved at least once, the last time by Sthitavarman (566-590) with the older city not named but presumed to be Pragjyotishpura,[8] located at the south-eastern slope of the Narakasur hill near Dispur. The new capital was possibly some location in Guwahati.[9]

OriginsEdit

The first king in this dynasty was Pushyavarman, possibly a contemporary of Samudragupta (c. 335/350-375 CE). The kingdom which he established with much effort, grew in the periphery of the Gupta Empire, adopted the north Indian political model, and its kings took on names and titles of the Gupta kings and queens.[10] Nothing much is known directly about the initial kings till the sixth king, Mahendravarman, who established a rock temple and assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja (king-of-kings) in the last quarter of the fifth century.[11] The last king Bhaskaravarman claimed he was a descendant of Narakasur, Bhagadatta and Vajradatta,[12][13] though it is a considered to be a fabrication.[14] The dynastic line from Pushyavarman first appear in the 7th century, in Dubi and Nidhanpur copperplate inscriptions issued by Bhaskaravarman and in the Harshacharita,[15] though the descriptions are panegyric, repetitive and devoid of dates.[16]

Foreign records are conflicting, with Xuanzang claiming him to be a Brahmin[17] and She-Kia-Fang-Che claiming him to be a kshatriya whose ancestors came from China.[18]

Some modern scholars have opined that the Varman dynasty is probably of Indo-Aryan descent.[19][20]

Suniti Kumar Chatterjee calls Bhaskaravarman a Hinduised Mlechcha king of Tibeto-Burman origin.[21] Hugh B. Urban (2011) too infers that the Varmans descended from non-Aryan tribes.[22]

Politics and diplomacyEdit

 
Pragjyotishpura, Varmana capital

The most illustrious of this dynasty was the last, Bhaskaravarman, He accompanied King Harshavardhana to religious processions from Pataliputra to Kannauj.

The Varman's modeled themselves after the Gupta's and named themselves after the Gupta kings and queens.[23]

The alliance between king Harsha of Thanesar and Bhaskaravarman lead to spread of political influence of later to entire eastern India. Varman kings had diplomatic relations with China.[18]

Cultural environmentEdit

People were simple and honest with small stature and dark yellow complexion who speak a language that was a little different from Mid-India. Their nature was very impetuous and wild with retentive memories. People were sincere in study who adore and sacrificed to the Devas, and they didn't worship Buddha and no monument related to Buddha was built. Some Buddha disciples said their prayers secretly. There was hundreds of deva temples, and different sects. Bhaskaravarman, role model for the people, was fond of learning. Intellectuals from distant places visited his country. Bhaskaravarman wasn't a Buddhist but he respected sramaņas of learning.[24]

The dynastyEdit

The dynastic line, as given in the Dubi and Nidhanpur copperplate inscriptions:

Reign Name succession Queen
1 350-374 Pushyavarman (unknown)
2 374-398 Samudravarman son of Pushyavarman Dattadevi
3 398-422 Balavarman son of Samudravarman Ratnavati
4 422-446 Kalyanavarman son of Balavarman Gandharavati
5 446-470 Ganapativarman son of Kalyanavarman Yajnavati
6 470-494 Mahendravarman son of Ganapativarman Suvrata
7 494-518 Narayanavarman son of Mahendravarman Devavati
8 518-542 Bhutivarman son of Narayanavarman Vijnayavati
9 542-566 Chandramukhavarman son of Bhutivarman Bhogavati
10 566-590 Sthitavarman son of Chandramukhavarman Nayanadevi
11 590-595 Susthitavarman son of Sthitavarman Syamadevi
12 595-600 Supratisthitavarman son of Susthitavarman (Bachelor)
13 600-650 Bhaskaravarman brother of Supratisthitavarman (Bachelor)
14 650-655 Unknown[25] (unknown) (unknown)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Three thousand years after these mythical ancestors (Naraka, Bhagadatta and Vajradatta) there occurred Pushyavarman as the first historical king, after whom we have an uninterrupted line of rulers up to Bhaskarvarman." (Sharma 1978, p. xxix)
  2. ^ "According to him (D C Sircar) Narayanavarma, the father of Bhutivarman, was the first Kamarupa king to perform horse-sacrifices and thus for the first time since the days of Pusyavarman freedom from the Gupta political supremacy was declared by Narayanavarma. But a careful study or even a casual perusal of the seal attached to the Dubi C.P. and of the nalanda seals should show that it is Sri Mahendra, the father of Narayanavarma himself, who is described as the performer of two horse-sacrifices." (Sharma 1978, p. 8)
  3. ^ "There is no conclusive proof that the Guptas conquered Kāmarupa." (Ray & The Asiatic Society 1931:238)
  4. ^ The status of Kamarupa remained unimpaired as the grandson of Bhutivarman also performed two Asvamedha sacrifices. (Sen 1999:303)
  5. ^ "In the Allahabad prasasti of Harişeņa the ruler of Kāmarūpa is included in the list of tributary Pratyanta-nrpatis of the great Gupta emperor." (Ray & The Asiatic Society 1931:238)
  6. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1986). Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 142. ISBN 9788120800267.
  7. ^ Again the Apsad Inscription of Adityasen refer to his grandfather Mahasengupta's defeat of Susthivarmand on the bank of Lauhitya. Susthivarman was the King of Kamarupa (Maity & Mukherji 1967:7)
  8. ^ "The older city is not given by name...(it) might have been Pragjyotisha." (Sharma 1978:30-31)
  9. ^ "This verse refers to the act of abandoning the old capital city and building of a new metropolis on the bank of the holy river. The holy river seems to be none other than the Brahmaputra and the site of the city must have been located in the present Gauhati region." (Sharma 1978:30)
  10. ^ "But the fact that the early kings of Kamariipa freely implemented the political model of north India, particularly following that of the Guptas, rather suggests their relative autonomy in the periphery." (Shin 2018:30)
  11. ^ "Surendravarman was called the king of kings (maharajadhiraja) in the Umachal rock inscription of the last quarter of the fifth century." (Shin 2018:30)
  12. ^ "The mythical ancestors of (the Varman) line of rulers were Naraka, Bhagadatta and Vajradatta." (Sharma 1978:0.29)
  13. ^ (Sircar 1990:95)
  14. ^ "Since the Epico-Pauranic myths associated Pragjyotisha with Naraka and his descendants, it was quite natural for the kings of ancient Assam to fabricate the story of descent from Naraka's family" (Sircar 1990:96)
  15. ^ "This genealogy seems to have been claimed at least from the seventh century AD (Sircar 1990b: 95), since it is noticed for the first time in the Dubi and the Nidhanpur C. P of Bhaskaravarman, and in the Harshacarita" (Shin 2010:176)
  16. ^ (Lahiri 1991:67)
  17. ^ "The present king belongs to the old line (tso yari) of Narayana-deva. He is of the Brahman caste. His name is Bhaskaravarman, and his title Kumara (Keu-mo-lo)." (Beal 1884, p. 196)
  18. ^ a b "But the She-Kia-Fang-Che records that Bhaskarvarman was a Kshatriya (and not a Brahmin) and his ancestors hailed from China (=Han) itself having nothing to do with Narayana Deva" (Sharma 1978, p. xiv)
  19. ^ Kāmarūpa Anusandhāna Samiti, Readings in the history & culture of Assam - Page 179, 1984 "The Varman dynasty, which was probably the first Indo-Aryan dynasty in Assam was overthrown by Salastambha, a man of Mleccha or non-Aryan (Mongolian) origin."
  20. ^ Niśipada Caudhurī, Historical archaeology of central Assam - Page 83, 1985 "K.N. Dutta seems to be right in concluding that the Varman dynasty, which was probably the first Indo-Aryan dynasty in Assam, was overthrown by Salastambha, (Mongoloid) origin, who then made himself the king of Kamarupa."
  21. ^ "Hiuen Ts’ang by mistake described Bhaskara-varman as a Brahman, but he was just a neo-Kshatriya, a member of a Hinduised mleccha or non-Hindu Indo-Mongoloid family which had been accepted within the fold of Hindu orthodoxy." (Chatterji 1851:90-91)
  22. ^ "Virtually all of Assam’s kings, from the fourth-century Varmans down to the eighteenth-century Ahoms, came from non-Aryan tribes that were only gradually Sanskritised." (Urban 2011, p. 234)
  23. ^ "the early kings of Kamariipa freely implemented the political model of north India, particularly following that of the Guptas, rather suggests their relative autonomy in the periphery. They adopted the imperial title of the Gupta, and the name of a Gupra king and queen, and performed a horse sacrifice...The resemblance between the names of Pushyavarman's son, Samudravarman, and daughter-in-law, DattadevI, on the one hand and those of Gupta emperor Samudragupta and his queen Dattadevl on the other may not be accidental. It was probably a conscious adoption." (Shin 2018:30)
  24. ^ Hsüan-tsang, ca 596-664; Beal, Samuel. Si-yu-ki, Buddhist records of the Western world. Robarts - University of Toronto. London: London : Trübner. pp. 195, 196. The manners of the people simple and honest. The men are of small stature, and their complexion a dark yellow. Their language differs a little from that of Mid-India. Their nature is very impetuous and wild; their memories are retentive, and they are earnest in study. They adore and sacrifice to the Dêvas, and have no faith in Buddha; hence from the time when Buddha appeared in the world even down to the present time there never as yet has been built one sanghårdma as a place for the priests to assemble. Such disciples as there are, are of a pure faith, say their prayers (repeat the name of Buddha) secretly, and that is all. There are as many as 100 Dêva temples, and different sectaries to the number of several myriads. The king is fond of learning, and the people are so likewise in imitation of him. Men of high talent from distant regions aspiring after office visit his dominions as strangers. Though he has no faith in Buddha, yet he much respects Sramaņas of learning.
  25. ^ Though there exists no direct evidence, there are indirect evidence of a king who ruled for a short period after Bhaskaravarman, but was ousted by Salasthamba (Sharma 1978, pp. xxxi-xxxii).

BibliographyEdit

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  • Beal, Samuel (1884). Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist Records of the Western World. II. Ludgate Hill: Trubner & Co. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  • Ji, Bian (1996). The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions (Translated by Li Rongxi). 51. BDK America. p. 248. ISBN 1-886439-02-8. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  • Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1951). Kirata-jana-krti. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.
  • Chattopadhyaya, S (1990), "Social Life", in Barpujari, H K (ed.), The Comprehensive History of Assam, I, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 195–232
  • Choudhury, P. C. (1966). The History of the Civilisation of the People of Assam to the Twelfth Century AD. Gauhati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies of Assam.
  • Lahiri, Nayanjot (1991), Pre-Ahom Assam: Studies in the Inscriptions of Assam between the Fifth and the Thirteenth Centuries AD, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd
  • Sharma, Mukunda Madhava (1978). Inscriptions of Ancient Assam. Gauhati University, Assam.
  • Sircar, D C (1990), "Political History", in Barpujari, H K (ed.), The Comprehensive History of Assam, I, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 94–171
  • Shin, Jae-Eun (2018), "Region Formed and Imagined: Reconsidering temporal, spatial and social context of Kamarupa", in Dzüvichü, Lipokmar; Baruah, Manjeet (eds.), Modern Practices in North East India: History, Culture, Representation, London & New York: Routledge, pp. 23–55
  • Shin, Jae-Eun (2010). "Changlng Dynasties, Enduring Genealogy: A Critical Study on the Political Legitimation in Early Medieval Kamarupa". Journal of Ancient Indian History. XXVII.
  • Shin, Jae-Eun (2018), "Region Formed and Imagined: Reconsidering temporal, spatial and social context of Kamarupa", in Dzüvichü, Lipokmar; Baruah, Manjeet (eds.), Modern Practices in North East India: History, Culture, Representation, London & New York: Routledge, pp. 23–55
  • Sylvain, Lévi (1929). Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian in India. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  • Urban, Hugh B. (2011). "The Womb of Tantra: Goddesses, Tribals, and Kings in Assam". The Journal of Hindu Studies. 4: 231–247. doi:10.1093/jhs/hir034.
  • Mukherji, Ramaranjan; Maity, Sachindra Kumar (1967). Corpus Of Bengal Inscriptions Bearing On History And Civilization Of Bengal. Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.
  • Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International.